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Reducing deforestation and implementing sustainable land-use are major challenges in the Peruvian Amazon, where the socio-economic development of smallholder migrant farmers and the attraction of private investment forlarge-scale agriculture, oil extraction and mining, together with the construction of roads, are part of government strategy to integrate the region in the growing national economy. This study considers the potential of intervening in the configuration and structure of the agricultural mosaic, combining avoided deforestation, reforestation and tree enrichment in the landholdings of smallholder cacao farmers of the Ucayali region. Due to favorable international prices and public and private investments, the last 10 years has seen a rapid proliferation of producers’ associations that have become important players in local development. Besides connecting farmers to the market and providing agricultural services, associations are important in the process of land allocation and titling, in lobbying for infrastructure and services for settlers, and ultimately in determining land-use trajectories, including deforestation and forest degradation. Cacao producers’ associations have also played an important role in promoting the certification process and, more recently, access to the voluntary carbon market. For all these reasons, such associations are a suitable entry-point for interventions affecting land-use at the landscape-level.