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Introduction to language and thought


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Introduction to language and thought

  1. 1. Language and Thought<br />Chapter 8<br />
  2. 2. Cognition – The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge<br />— or simple version —<br />Cognition – “Thinking”<br />Definitions<br />
  3. 3. Meta-Cognition – Thinking about thinking<br />Definitions<br />
  4. 4. This chapter can leave students feeling like the little creature in the comic strip.<br />Meta-cognition is not easy for everyone.<br />
  5. 5. ?<br />In fact, the ability to contemplate and structure one’s own thoughts does not develop until close to adolescence.<br />Not all adults develop these cognitive skills.<br />?<br />?<br />?<br />
  6. 6. Some of the stereotypical behaviors of adolescence are the result of young adults applying and expanding their new cognitive skills.<br />The oft-repeated phrases “you have no idea” or “nobody understands me” may reflect their new awareness of complex levels of thought.<br />
  7. 7. However, not all adolescents or adults enjoy thinking. Some of us avoid thinking.<br />Let’s see how you respond to a paradox.<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Intrigued? Do you enjoy the circularity? <br />If the sentence is false, then that means it isn’t false, meaning that the sentence is true, but then it is false, which means it is true…<br />Not amused? Is the following more amusing?<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. More your style of humor?<br />
  12. 12. People differ in the degree to which they enjoy and engage in cognitive activities.<br />Need for Cognition<br />
  13. 13. Some people are high in need for cognition, meaning that they like cognitive puzzles, seek them out, and enjoy working on them.<br />Motto:<br />We’ve got to think this through.<br />Need for Cognition<br />
  14. 14. Other people are low in need for cognition. They do not like cognitive puzzles, and avoid tasks or topics that require careful consideration.<br />Motto:<br />Don’t over think things.<br />Need for Cognition<br />
  15. 15. Think about where you fit on the continuum?<br />Low Need for Cognition<br />High Need for Cognition<br />Moderate Need for Cognition<br />
  16. 16. For this chapter, I recommend everyone approach the topics as if you loved thinking about complex puzzles<br />Low Need for Cognition<br />High Need for Cognition<br />Moderate Need for Cognition<br />If you Aren’t Here Already, <br />Pretend that You Love to Think!<br />
  17. 17. This chapter is about language and thought.<br />We need you to think about thinking!<br />Let’s exercise our meta-cognitive skills.<br />
  18. 18. Language<br />
  19. 19. Imagine being instantly transported onto another planet, into an alien world. Everything is new and unfamiliar.<br />Aliens approach you and make noises.<br />How in the world<br />will you learn to <br />understand them?<br />
  20. 20. Virtually every human baby does this.<br />Not only do they enter an alien world and begin to make sense of it, they do so with amazing speed.<br />They accomplish all of this without special training or instruction.<br />
  21. 21. As you read through this chapter, keep in mind that language is an essential component for many of the topics throughout the rest of your textbook.<br />We are not born with language; we have to learn it.<br />
  22. 22. Watching children master the stages of language development can be amazing and precious.<br />Knowing what to look for can make the process all the more enjoyable.<br />
  23. 23. Through family and friends, most of us will get an opportunity to watch a child master language. Some of the skills are so subtle that if you didn’t know what to look for, you might miss them!<br />
  24. 24. Now that we’ve introduced language,<br />Let’s explore how psychologists can study thought.<br />
  25. 25. Problem Solving&Decision Making<br />
  26. 26. The remainder of your readings for this chapter focus on two topics that seem very similar.<br />
  27. 27. The sections on problem solving focus on how people work toward achieving goals that are not readily attainable.<br />Problem Solving<br />
  28. 28. Repeatedly throughout our lives, we face or set goals that are just out of our reach.<br />Problem Solving<br />
  29. 29. How do we solve these problems?<br />Think about it. <br />How does the human mind come up with new, novel, and previously unknown solutions?<br />
  30. 30. As you read, these are your primary study questions:<br />Problem Solving: Topics<br />
  31. 31. What are several types of problems?<br />What can get in the way of finding solutions?<br />What are several strategies to use to find solutions?<br />What are two cultural differences that affect problem solving?<br />Problem Solving: Topics<br />
  32. 32. Decision Making<br />
  33. 33. Not all of your thoughts are about reaching goals that are not immediately attainable.<br />
  34. 34. Sometimes, your mental effort is about making decisions.<br />
  35. 35. Preferences<br />Some decisions only involve weighing known options, or making choices about preferences.<br />Two Main Types of Decision Making<br />
  36. 36. Risky Decisions<br />Other choices involve choosing between unknowns, or taking chances. <br />Two Main Types of Decision Making<br />
  37. 37. This research can be extremely fun. Early researchers found that people do not always make logical choices. In fact, we can be predictably irrational.<br />
  38. 38. As you read through these sections of your text, try to find examples of each phenomenon.<br />
  39. 39. Look for examples in your own life, family members, friends, colleagues, or even from TV show or movie characters.<br />There are a lot of terms to memorize, so use all of your tools for elaborating and enriching encoding.<br />
  40. 40. The topics from this chapter can help you develop your skills for problem solving and help you increase your chances for making better decisions.<br />(as well as help you pass the next exam)<br />Study Time<br />
  41. 41. Language<br />Problem Solving<br />Decision Making<br />Study Time<br />