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La be project how to overcome stereotypes - background research hungary

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Lampedusa, Berlin. Travel journal
Europe for Citizens Program – Strand2: Democratic engagement and civic participation
2.3: Civil Society Project
Project: 577736-CITIZ-1-2016-1-IT-CITIZ-CIV

Partner meeting and conference
27-29 April 2017, Budapest (Hungary)
"How to overcome stereotypes about migrants?"

Background of Hungarian Society about diversity
Xenophobia in Hungary
Good practices to overcome xenofobia

Published in: Education
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La be project how to overcome stereotypes - background research hungary

  1. 1. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 1 Lampedusa, Berlin. Travel journalEurope for Citizens Program – Strand2: Democratic engagement and civic participation 2.3: Civil Society Project Project: 577736-CITIZ-1-2016-1-IT-CITIZ-CIV Partner meeting and conference 27-29 April 2017, Budapest (Hungary) "How to overcome stereotypes about migrants?" Background of Hungarian Society about diversity Xenophobia in Hungary Good practices to overcome xenofobia Oltalom Charity Society, Budapest. Authors: Andras Szalay, Judit Zatyko, Balogi Anna
  2. 2. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 2 Before the second event of the project Lampedusa Berlin, each national work group carried on some researches to describe some key issues, at national level, in relation to the theme of the event: "How to overcome stereotypes about migrants?". Here the results of the Hungarian group. Diversity of Hungarian Society In Hungary 13 minorities are recorded as historically and traditionally co-existent: Bulgarian, Gypsy, Greek, Croatian, Polish, German, Armenian, Rumanian, Rusin, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian and Ukrainian. Their rights are declared by the CLXXIXth statute of 2011 on the rights of national minorities. This law states, among others, that religious and cultural traditions must be respected and all Hungarian citizens belonging to any minority have the right to the free confession and keeping of their identity. Besides these historically co- existent minorities, migrants also enrich Hungary’s1 culture.Immigrants started to appear in greater numbers in the country at the end of the 1980’s. Before this, during the Communist era, opportunities for immigration were limited and people mainly came from other Communist (“friendly”) countries, the majority of them with aim to study. The number of immigrants grew to a certain extent in 2004 when Hungary joined the European Union. Nearly half of the migrants are made up by those who arrive from the neighboring countries – the majority of them being Hungarian nationals. The greatest numbers of foreign citizens staying in Hungary in 2014 are: Rumanian 30 924 (~0,3% of the population), German 18 669 (~0,2% of the population), Chinese 12 716 (~0,13% of the population) and Ukrainian 8317 (~0,08% of the population). Altogether 140 536 foreign citizens were registered in that year.2 Due to its location, Hungary is a transit country: the majority of migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers intend to move on to Western Europe from here. The number of residence applications in 2013 was 18 900 (6471 European and 12 429 non-European) while in 2014 this number was 17 955 (21 865 European and 21 865 non-European). In 2014, 50,15% of non-European asylum-applicants were of Kosovo, 20,56% of Afghan and 16,03% of Syrian origin.3 Analyses say that one reason for the greater number of applications lies in the fact that in crisis belts safety circumstances have deteriorated considerably and the other reason is that lots of people set off in hope of improving their economic circumstances. The above cited data show that Hungary’s society is not homogenous, however, foreign citizens still add up only to 2% of Hungarian society and the greatest part of them are trans-border Hungarian nationals. People belonging to visible and invisible minorities live and work together with people belonging to the majority and also their children go to school with children belonging to the majority of society. 1 According to the last census, in 2011, the population of Hungary is 9 849 thousand people. Source: Central Statistical Office 2 Source: Central Statistical Office 3 Source: Office of Immigration and Citizenship
  3. 3. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 3 Political background In the past two-three years the climate in the Hungarian society - especially since the refugee wave the country experienced during the summer of 2015- doesn’t help to mop up xenophobic and racist attitudes. Various populist parties operate in the Hungarian parliament who, building on people’s fears, convey messages which simplify reality and offer simple, plain and easily understandable solutions to problems. Between 2008 and 2009, some men with far-right views carried out attacks on Roma people. The armed assaults in nine settlements of Eastern Hungary cost the lives of six people while many other were severely wounded. Three of the perpetrators were sentenced to life imprisonment and one to thirteen years of penal servitude.4 Xenophobia appears in the governmental rhetoric as well. In 2010, one of the far- right parties was arguing for the existence of gypsy delinquency in its campaign TV spot. The spot was broadcast on TV for weeks.5 In 2015 Hungary’s Prime Minister said at an EU summit in Strasbourg that Hungary is homogenous in its culture and way of thinking, which he considered a great asset. Further on he stated that Hungary had never been a multicultural society and that it has no experience with abundant flows of immigrants while other countries, which used to have colonies, are better prepared for the arrival of greater groups of people.6 In May, 2015, the government sent a letter to each and every Hungarian citizen.7 In the introduction of it, Viktor Orbán cites the example of the terrorist attacks on the French caricaturists with the conclusion that Europe cannot tackle the issue of immigration properly. The letter says Hungary must look after itself and has to protect itself against economic immigrants who cross the borders in the hope of getting social benefits. The questionnaire in the letter contains suggesting questions. Among others, it claims that immigration has grown twenty-fold in Hungary recently. One of the questions asks whether the respondent is afraid of Hungary becoming the target of a terrorist attack. The letter enquires whether the citizen feels Brussels is tackling the issue of immigration improperly, which is connected to the spreading of terrorism. The letter also asks whether the citizen agrees that the government should handle the issue of immigration in a stricter way than the EU does. According to data gathered in June, 2015, some 200 000 questionnaires were sent back by respondents. The consultancy questionnaires are also be available online, which is intended to enhance readiness for participation. 4 Source: http://hvg.hu/itthon/20150508_Romagyilkossagok_masodfokon_is_orokre_bor [20.06.2017.] 5 Source:https://internetfigyelo.wordpress.com/2010/09/25/allami-cenzura-a-ciganybunozes-es-a- multikvedelmeben-vona-gabor-sajtotajekoztatoja/ 6 Source: http://index.hu/kulfold/eurologus/2015/05/19/orban_sosem_voltunk_multikulturalis_tarsadalom/ [20.06.2017.] 7 The questionnaire is available here in digital format: http://www.kormany.hu/download/7/e2/50000/nemzeti_konzultacio_bevandorlas_2015.pdf [20.06.2017.]
  4. 4. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 4 In June, 2015 several posters 8 leaked out on which the government expresses its views on immigrants. The posters display sentences such as: „If you come to Hungary you mustn’t take away Hungarians’ jobs.” or „If you come to Hungary you must respect our culture.” Civil organizations expressed their anger over the posters and asked their supporters to damage them. Public posters became memes on the internet within a few days and various transcripts were also made of them.9 In the case of Hungary, we can speak about not only mental, but also physical barriers. On the 17th of June 2015, the government of Hungary decided to build up a fence alongside the Hungarian-Serbian border in order to close the frontier. The Parliament accepted the modification of the Law 2015 CXXVII which disposed about the closing of the border.The fence is one hundred-seventy five km long and four meters high. The hurdle was ready in record time with the participation of the Hungarian Army and public workers from the nearby area. All together 22,2 milliard HUF was spent on the construction. Two days before the appointed deadline, on the 29th of August, 2015, the fence was set. The barrier on the Hungarian-Serbian border was a first in the line of many future border closings. By 2017, Hungary closed its borders with Romania and Croatia as well. In October, 2016 a national census was ordered with the suggestive question: Do you want to allow the European Union to mandate the resettlement of non-Hungarian citizens to Hungary without the approval of the National Assembly?”. Even though the census was invalid, since 98,36 % of the voters answered with a no to the question, the government communicated a successful result. 8 Source:http://index.hu/belfold/2015/06/02/teljes_fordulatszamra_kapcsolt_a_kormany_menekultellen es_kampanya/?utm_source=mandiner&utm_medium=link&utm_campaign=mandiner_201506 [06.20.2017] 9 Source: http://hvg.hu/itthon/20150608_Galeria_Sorra_rongaljak_meg_a_kormany_bev [06.20.2017]
  5. 5. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 5 However, besides the tokens from the government, the civil sector also tried to solve the imminent refugee crisis. Grassroot organizations, such as Migration Aid, Migrant Solidarity Group for Hungary, Oltalom Charity Society, Menedék Hungarian Association for Migrants, jointly with citizens started their own ‘campaign’ in order to provide psychological first aid and assistance for those who had to leave their country of origin. Xenophobia in Hungary A 2012 research of Political Capital suggests that, after Latvia, Hungary is the second least tolerant country in the EU. Xenophobia in the country – just like in other European countries – does not appear as an economic and sociological problem but has a symbolic nature. As statistical data show, fewer migrants arrive in Hungary than in the other European countries. This fact has a two-sided impact on Hungarians’ xenophobia, which is not targeted at particular groups but to immigrants in general who are uniformly perceived as aliens. The category of refugees for the average people is broader than that of the legal classification. Since Hungarians lack sufficient personal experience and information, many of the population experience difficulties to define who is a refugee. People prone to merge everyone, who is living or working, here has low socioeconomic status and without a western origin, into the category of refugees. In addition, their image of migrants is mainly shaped by political and media discourses.[Gimes et al., 2008]. TÁRKI (Social Research Institute) has been carrying out surveys for 20 years among the Hungarian adult population to gain information on attitudes regarding immigrants and migrants. In a survey in April 2015, about whether all asylum-seekers should be admitted to the country, 46% of respondents plainly refused the option, 45% would consider the possibility on the basis of nationality/ethnicity and only 9% think all asylum-seekers should be admitted. Those, who would consider upon ethnicity, would refuse immigrants of Arab origin with an overwhelming majority (94%). In 2013 xenophobia was somewhat milder: 39% of respondents were xenophobic, 51% would have consider and 10% was pro-alien.10 A „Tolerance” questionnaire made by György Ligeti and the Kurt Lewin Foundation examined the prejudices of school aged children [Ligeti, 2006]. In one part of the survey children were shown pictures and asked what they think of the person in the picture, what his/her job might be and what characteristics he/she might have. A little later, students had to answer the same questions based on the names of the people shown in the pictures. The pictures showed people of Gypsy and Jewish origin but their image did not unambiguously indicate their origin while their names did have reference on it. For example, seeing the picture of a Gypsy girl engendered positive descriptions while on hearing her name, children gave negative characterizations. Besides these, schoolchildren’s tolerance and acceptance towards the Austrian, Slovakian and the Rumanian were measured by the Bogardus-scale. Nearly 40% of students would be happy with an Austrian, 32% with a Slovakian and 20% of them with a Rumanian deskmate. The scope of questions was widened to several minorities in Hungary (e.g.:Gypsies and Jews). 44% of the students would be disturbed by a Gypsy and 18% of them would be 10 Source: Omnibusz research by TÁRKI (1998-2012)
  6. 6. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 6 disturbed by a Jewish desk-mate. Weighting the different average values, Ligeti and his colleagues found that approximately one-third of the children would not refuse any minority group at all when talking about desk-mates and only 11,5% would refuse more than 5 groups in such a situation. In the course of the survey, students were presented stereotypical statements about Jews and Gypsies (e.g.: „Gypsies like to steal.”). Results derived from the survey showed that stereotypes connected to Gypsy people indeed exist (59% of students think they like to steal), however, empathy is also present among students (42% think that Roma people don’t work because they can’t get jobs). According to a survey made among minorities in Hungary in 2009, the Chinese and the Vietnamese were struck by the highest degree of discrimination. More than half of the respondents gave account of having been discriminated on the basis of their origin. Of trans- border Hungarian nationals, one-third had experienced discrimination and it was Turkish nationals in Hungary who experienced the least amount of discrimination, only one-tenth of them were affected by some kind of it. The fields of life where minorities experience discrimination also show some diversity. People of Ukrainian origin are mostly discriminated in public offices, the Vietnamese are discriminated at the police while the Chinese experience it in all fields of life. Legal regulation of discrimination in Hungary The 269th §14 of the Hungarian Criminal Code penalizes open and public instigation to hatred under the name of „incitement against communities” and paragraph C of § 269 penalizes the denial of the Holocaust. The Civil Code defines the offence against human dignity as a breach of personality rights thus hate-speech can be prosecuted in a civil legal process, as well. However, such enforcement of rights is greatly hindered by the fact that breach of rights can only be declared if the object of hate-speech is a clearly identifiable person, so hate-speech targeted at groups cannot be prosecuted in the framework of this law.11 Other decrees and statutes in the topic are the following: • Signing the Geneva Refugee Convention in 1989. • The Dublin Treaty of 1990 and its successor The Dublin Decree in 2003. • Hungary also ratified the European Convention of Human Rights in 1992. • The CXXVth Act of 2003 (Ebktv.) on equal treatment and promotion of equal Opportunities. Good practices  Oltalom Sport Association: Welcome To The Pitch-Fair Play Football (http://www.oltalom.hu/rovat.php?id=112&lang=en&mid=999https://www.fac ebook.com/Oltalom-Sportegyes%C3%BClet-262757147107057/) Throughout a national tournament, local amateur teams in various cities/villages play against Oltalom Football Team in 2*10 minutes ‘mini-games’. There is no referee during the matches. The two teams with the help of a mediator set up their own rules regarding their match (i.e. how to celebrate the goals; how many points each goal takes, etc.). The game is recorded which helps the teams to evaluate their game together with their mediator. Residents of the specific location of the tournament have the chance to meet migrants and 11 Source: http://mediajogfigyelo.hu/index.php?do=a&id=3045 [20.06.2017]
  7. 7. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 7 refugees in a ‘non-forced’ situation. They have the possibility to meet and socialize in the field of sport where it does not matter where people come from or what is their religion, only that they share the passion for the game.  Menedék- Hungarian Association for Migrants: Inclusive kindergartens and schools (http://menedek.hu/en https://www.facebook.com/menedekegyesulet/) The activity takes place in the involved kindergartens and schools from different cities throughout the country. with the participation of the kindergartners and teachers working there together with social workers and various volunteers from different places. The age- range of the participating children is from three until fourteen (kindergarten and primary school). Community development and sensitizing sessions in the participating kindergartens and schools. After-school programs for Hungarian and migrant children together. Providing teacher forums in the partner institutions to share experiences and offering experts’ lectures on educating migrant children.  Menedék- Hungarian Association for Migrants - Workmanship and competency The NGO offers Training for policemen and armed security guards and other professionals working in closed facilities. The implementation of the project is in co-operation with the National Police Headquarter.  Odeon Publisher and Loaner Ltd - ColourSchool (http://colourschool.hu/english.html https://www.facebook.com/Colourschool/)
  8. 8. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 8 Colour school is a complex sensitizing program for high-school students. The aim of the project is to broaden the knowledge of students regarding migration, to foster social sensibility, and to raise awareness and openness towards migration. The implementation of the project is by teachers, migrant and film experts. During the program, experts met three times with the participating classes for a preparatory discussion. In addition, as part of the provision, students saw movies dealing with the topic of migration. Discussion followed the screening during which student were able to process their experiences regarding the movies. Besides involving emotionally the students, aim of the discourse was also to simulate life situations that can happen to someone in his/her migrant life. Furthermore students acquired knowledge about how to use ’movie-language’ in practice. It is essential, that students have first hand experiences with migrants, thus in the course of the program, students also met migrant people living in Hungary at the time. In between the meetings, the classes had homework, such as to create something based on an experience with a migrant (it could be a movie, a drawing, an interview, a novel, etc.). Based on the gained experiences, they had to compile a questionnaire and made their friends, family etc. to fill in. Besides obtaining the knowledge about how to produce a survey, students became experts on migration-integration and share their knowledge with their narrower and broader ambience.  Our New Neighbours - Ferencváros Community Foundation (FCF) (http://ferencvarosi.kozossegialapitvany.hu/) The aim of the project on one hand is to integrate “our new neighbours” (people of migrant and different ethnic background, connected to our district, i.e. living and/or working here) into the activities and opportunities of the Foundation. On the other hand, to make migrants visible to the community to influence public opinion and brand the district as a "District of Colour and Diversity”. With this we would like to show the strengths inherent in diversity. During the implementation, a map the migration landscape of Ferencváros is made. Based on the map, migrants will be found and interviews will be conducted with 25-30 people. From the interviews, 3-4 video-interviews will be done with people of migrant/different ethnic background living in the district. Part of the project is also an event together with the interviewees and to organise an awareness raising campaign using the visual portraits.  Foreigners in my backyard; Foreigners in my backyard- Manual - Palantir Movie Foundations (http://idegenekakertemben.hu/idegenek-a-kertemben-bemutatkozas/) The project aims to collect documentaries that focus on the phenomenon of migration. The movies depict the lifestyle, the difficulties, the successes and the coping mechanisms of migrants living in Europe through individual and also ‘group’ eyes.Through lifelike characters the movies try to strengthen tolerance in the hosting society and decrease prejudices. The Manual is the continuation of the migration documentary collection, as a toolkit for teachers and educators, how to organize workshops in which the movies can be used.

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