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La be project how to overcome stereotypes - background research germany

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Lampedusa, Berlin. Travel journal project
Europe for Citizens Program – Strand2: Democratic engagement and civic participation
2.3: Civil Society Project
Project: 577736-CITIZ-1-2016-1-IT-CITIZ-CIV
Partner meeting and conference, 27-29 April 2017, Budapest (Hungary); "How to overcome stereotypes about migrants?"


Contents: Stereotypes that circulate in the "everyday culture" in Germany; Practices for overcoming stereotypes towards migrants

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La be project how to overcome stereotypes - background research germany

  1. 1. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 1 Lampedusa, Berlin. Travel journalEurope for Citizens Program – Strand2: Democratic engagement and civic participation 2.3: Civil Society Project Project: 577736-CITIZ-1-2016-1-IT-CITIZ-CIV Partner meeting and conference 27-29 April 2017, Budapest (Hungary) "How to overcome stereotypes about migrants?" Stereotypes that circulate in the "everyday culture" in Germany Practices for overcoming stereotypes towards migrants Sozial Label e. V .Authors: Herbert Spindler, Tatiana Calari, Claudio Cassetti
  2. 2. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 2 Stereotypes that circulate in the "everyday culture" What are some of the main stereotypes of migrants and refugees that circulate in your country? (Can be shared representations in the "everyday culture", as well as to examples taken from the mass media, web, etc.). Introduction Since the summer of 2015, the refugee crisis in Europe has grown to be one of the biggest topic of discussions throughout Europe and covered by media on a daily basis. Germany in particular has been the focus of migration. Over time, in Germany a shift could be observed, from the initial hospitable Willkommenskultur (welcome culture), to more reserved and skeptical points of view. This was mirrored in the rise of civic movements which were sceptical or hostile to the creation of emergency shelters in their neighbourhoods. Especially right-radicals such as the NPD initiated or exploited numerous protests against the reception of asylum seekers. Protests were also staged in affluent areas, motivated by a fear of a fall in property values. In addition to protests there were also instances of violence against refugee shelters, including many arson attacks and verbal attack against volunteers and the criminalisation of refugees after the events in Köln The current situation is one of strong polarization, the refugee issue has polarized not only political parties but any kind of social institution. Fears rising in the public opinion (strains on resources, security, There are growing concerns about strains on resources and public services such as housing, health and employment programs, and social tensions over internal security have increased in the recent months. Events on New Year’s Eve in Cologne, when hundreds of women celebrating in the central square were surrounded, sexually harassed and robbed by groups of being said Middle Eastern and North African men, has been widely acknowledged as a turning point in public opinion. The public expressed anger at Germany’s police, government and media for not sharing information about the crimes accurately or quickly enough. Analsys on three main newspapers (Suddeutsche Zeitung, Bild, die Welt) Refugee voices appear most in Süddeutsche Zeitung and least in Bild. When refugees do appear as sources it is usually within one of three contexts. The first involves refugees describing what caused them to flee their country of origin or the journey that they took to reach Europe
  3. 3. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 3 The second main context in which refugee voices appear is in relation to statements they make about what their goals and aspirations are now that they have reached Germany. The final context involves discussion of their perceptions or experiences of living in Germany. These are mostly positive but can occasionally be negative as when refugees describe encountering racism, hostility or violence. What labels are used to describe refugees? The German media is unusual in that it overwhelmingly uses the terms ‘refugee’ and ‘asylum seeker’ in its coverage. Whether tabloid or quality newspaper, right-wing or left of centre all newspapers use these labels approximately 90% of the time. More neutral or pejorative labels such as ‘immigrant’ ‘illegal’ or ‘foreigner’ are much more rarely used. The terms Wirtschaftsfl chtlinge (Economic Refugee) or Wirtschaftsmigranten (Economic Migrant) are very occasionally used in relation to people from Africa or the Balkans. Bild ddeutsche Zeitung Die Welt German Average l chtling(e) (Refugee) 77.0%70.0% 70.1% 70.3% Asylsuchende(r)/ Asylbewerber (Asylum Seeker) 15.8%21.2% 19.4% 20.2% Migrant(en) (Migrant) 4.6% 5.3% 3.4% 4.6% Immigrant(en)/ Einwanderer(in)/ Zuwanderer(in) (Immigrant) 2.6% 2.6% 4.1% 3.1% Wirtschaftsfl chtlinge (Economic Refugee) 0% 0.5% 1.1% 0.7% Illegale(r) (Illegal) 0.0% 0.6% 0.7% 0.6% Wirtschaftsmigranten (Economic Migrant) 0% 0% 0.9% 0.3% usl nder (Foreigner) 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.1% Total N 152 1264 705 2121 Table 6.5: Labels by German newspapers (each label as a proportion of total labels in each publication) Labels Connotation Migrant(en) neutral to negative; depending on circumstances/reasons for migration Immigrant(en)/ Einwanderer(in) / Zuwanderer(in) neutral to negative; depending on circumstances/reasons for migration Asylbewerber neutral to negative; depending on circumstances/reasons for asylum Asylsuchende(r) neutral; the emphasis on "seeking" can evoke empathy l chtling(e) positive to neutral; can evoke empathy more easily, especially during crisis usl nder neutral to negative; depending on context Illegale(r)* Negative
  4. 4. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 4 Table 6.5a: Valence of German labels *Cannot stand alone, would always be followed by one of the labels above owever, even here the usage of such terms is itself sometimes challenged within the article. o for instance, in an article in ddeutsche eitung (22 December 2014) a writer comments that ‘Only someone who has no clue about the situation would talk about ‘economic refugees.’’ Themes in Coverage In many respects the range of themes visible in the German press closely correspond to what we might expect, bearing in mind the split between left and right leaning newspapers. For instance, the right leaning newspapers - and particularly Die Welt - concentrate more heavily on refugee numbers. The focus on numbers is frequently linked to arguments that the scale of refugee flows is a problem which needs to be solved. Numbers are also tied to arguments that Germany is taking in a disproportionate quantity of refugees in comparison with other European nations. The prominence of this perspective is likely attributable to the editorial line of the newspapers, while at the same time reflecting the fact that some members of the CDU/CSU, who are the key political sources in the right-wing press, have questioned whether Germany is taking too many refugees. The right of centre titles are also considerably more likely to use threat frames than left of centre publications. . Most security threat themes were based on the argument that IS fighters could be hiding amongst refugees trying to get into Europe as in the following examples in Die Welt: Abuse of the terrorists: How IS fighters want to mix with refugees so as to make their way to Europe (Headline, Die Welt, 24 February 2015) The Islamic S (Frontex). Die Welt, 13 March 2015) Economic threats were also approximately twice as prevalent in Bild and Die Welt as they were in ddeutsche eitung. Although there were some articles which argued that refugees were coming to Germany to access welfare services, the dominant themes here were the idea that the influx of refugees was putting a strain on public services or the idea that refugees sometimes received preferential treatment in comparison to German nationals: Hartz IV and similar social services are more and more the main income of many pensioners in Germany...Amongst them: Long term unemployed, pensioners, asylum seekers. (Bild, 2 December 2014) But the deciding factor was the question, particularly amongst people with low income: Why do people – ‘ – have accommodation, doctors, cable TV on the tax budget - regardless of how much reason they have to seek asylum- whilst we are paying rent, medical insurance and GEZ [radio and TV license] fees? (Die Welt, 24 March 2015)
  5. 5. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 5 The issue of cultural threat again was a theme more likely to be highlighted in the right- wing press. This combined concerns about Islam, social cohesion and how the influx of refugees from Africa and the Middle East would either struggle to assimilate into German culture or would change it. n contrast ddeutsche eitung was less likely to see refugees as economic, cultural or security threat and more likely to feature positive stories about refugee success stories. The paper was also far more likely to feature humanitarian themes which focused on the suffering and hardship that refugees were either fleeing from, or had experienced on their journey to Europe: Bild ddeutsche Zeitung Die Welt German Average Immigration Figures / Levels 58.1%52.7% 82.4% 64.4% Search and Rescue / Aid Supplies 32.6%51.5% 35.1% 39.7% Political Response / Policy 23.3%27.3% 55.4% 35.3% Humanitarian (Elements) 20.9%33.3% 23.0% 25.7% Mortality Figures 18.6%7.9% 24.3% 16.9% Post-arrival Integration 4.7% 33.9% 5.4% 14.7% Mafia / Traffic 7.0% 9.1% 25.7% 13.9% Welfare / Benefits / Resources 11.6%6.1% 13.5% 10.4% Humanitarian (Key Theme) 2.3% 13.3% 6.8% 7.5% Receiving / Rejecting 2.3% 14.5% 4.1% 7.0% Threat to Communities / Cultural Threat 9.3% 3.0% 8.1% 6.8% Threat to National Security 7.0% 1.2% 10.8% 6.3% Human Rights 4.7% 4.2% 9.5% 6.1% Journey 9.3% 3.6% 4.1% 5.7% Health Risk for Country of Destination 4.7% 3.6% 2.7% 3.7% Migrant/Refugees/Asylum Seekers Success Stories 0.0% 3.0% 0.0% 1.0% Total N 95 474 246 815 Table 6.6: Themes by German newspapers (proportion of articles featuring each theme) The argument that those who claim to be refugees are actually economic migrants does appear in the German press but relatively rarely in comparison to some of the other countries in our sample. This argument tended to be made in relation to refugees from the Balkans, perhaps not surprisingly, as there is an apparent consensus amongst all papers that migrants from ‘safe’ countries in the Balkans should be deported. Thus, like the other countries in our sample, the German press - although in many ways very positive about migration and asylum issues - contains relatively little information on what could be done to mitigate the push factors driving refugee flows.
  6. 6. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 6 Most frequent stereotypes Group stereotypes : Refugees are criminals (Refugees are violent- Rape refugees) Refugees pereceived as potential criminals, fear of a rise of criminal aggressions, migrants are violent After the new eve days in Koeln in 2015/2016 we have a new word appearing « raperefugees » These arguments » have been used by PEGDIA- Demonstrationen and AFD. The most frequent fear about refugees in the public opinion is connected with the rise of the crime rate in Germany. People feel like their security is under threat due to the many foreigners arriving en masse. What the far-right regards as an absolute truth while federal statistics show migrants playing a minimum role in crime Refugees and cultural differences Refugees and cultural differences, it is difficult to integrate, values tereotypes that are paternalistic and “light” formulated will gain more support than open stereotypes Muslims need particular support in order to interiorise that men and women in Germany have the same rights Religious stereotypes: Stereotypes about Islam and Muslim people Islam and muslim people directly identified with violence, terror attacks. Muslim people are oft portrayed as a danger for the whole community, in particular connected with terror attacks with oppression of the women Religion has an impact on the acceptance of men refugees while for christian refugees does not play a big role Stereotype through the use of the use of the language in the media Mass of people coming ans presented as « natural desaster » General speaking we noticed that the arrival of thousands people were more often described using words referring to natural phenomena often connected to a catastrophe
  7. 7. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 7 The most frequently words used referring to the arrival of thousands refugees are « refugees chaos », « asylchaos », « refugees tusnami » and they contribute to create the idea that the state does not know how to deal with it like for natural desaster, something we can not control which generated fear and stress « Fake refugees »- Doubts about the reasons of the aslylum In the public debate the question is often posed as to why asylum seekers look for protection in Germany, they want to misused the social walfare system, they don t want to work, they are leaving because of economical reasons and not political ones, they just want to come here and get social benefits Refugees and migrants and impact on the welfare system Fear of an increase of the unemployment, unequal treatment local and new comers. Fear for the economical situation, that could get worst with the arrival of the refugees Personal perception and national perception within the public opinion There is a clear difference concerning the feeling for refugees and the social situation of the people, the personal percepion is that my life is not affected by this huge mass of people coming but when we speak in terms of Germany then you notice a difference, and people saying that the arrival of refugees will have an impact of the standard of German people and they represent a danger for the security of the country According to the FES Study, there is a clear connection between the political orientation of the local people and their attitude towards refugees, transversal among rich and poor people or well educated and people with less eudcation Fazit media analysis Media analysts say many journalists have been trying to learn from Cologne, where a full picture of what happened that night has still not emerged. The media broadly have recognized their failures to second-guess police or hesitate from questioning whether the night’s tragedy had anything to do with the arrival of migrants. In July, Germany was rattled by four violent attacks within one week, three of which were committed by recently arrived refugees. While the far-right blamed Ms. Merkel's policies, most media outlets tried to look at each case individually. Merkel called for the same restraint after the Freiburg murder. Terrorist attack in Dezember German authorities detained a Pakistani refugee in connection with the Berlin attack without any evidence. Criticism towards some media organizations for prematurely assuming that a Muslim refugee could be involved in the attack.
  8. 8. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 8 At the same time, media organizations, that are challenging stereotypes, responded very positively to the incident. For instance, ZEIT online published an article about Naveed B that put emphasis on resisting right-wing populism and Islamophobia in Europa. Afterwards, the term "refugee" was deliberately avoided in connection with the perpetrators of the Berlin attack. For instance, some journalists present at a discussion on the Brandenburg television on Tuesday were quite upset with Chancellor Angela Merkel for saying that she hoped the assault was not committed by someone who came to seek refuge in Germany. It was considered unnecessary to even tap into that theme. It was the first time I saw journalists being so careful about the issues of racism and stereotypes. a) Practices for overcoming stereotypes towards migrants Do you know good practices that contribute to overcoming stereotypes plowing migrants? Can be educational practices, spontaneous experiences, examples coming , … Successful example to overcome stereotypes within the migrant community are offered by a group of artists working in all Germany and performing in theatres, public spaces, and carrying out youtube campaign. They are also part of a educational programme run UFUQ against radicalisation of young people(far- right groups as well as Salafist groups) Main aims is to show that: Migrants are able to make fun of themselves There are no tabou Most common stereotypes have no fundament J A ş https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5jb6VLzRJ4&t=226s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rayxjOD1Dos Female Berlin actress, originally from Turkey, she has developed a character which mirrors all the stereotypes the far right tries to reproduce in the public opinion: migrants are people that speak very loud, proll, taking benefit of the social security system and not able to speak a proper German after being living for ages in Germany or been born in the country Die Datteltäter http://datteltäter.de t’s a Berlin group of young people including local German and migrants of the second and first generation, women and men, aged 25-30, Muslim and not Muslim that wants to create a “German Muslim Satire-Kalifat” on you tube. The idea is to work on clichees on Muslim people, a kind of learning »shihad » aimed to face the salafist presence on youtube The one is with English subtitles https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kmiNBqTAAmg
  9. 9. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 9 Rebelcomedy www.rebelcomedy.com 5 artists make fun of stereotypes, racist slogans, they are all born or have been living in German for years They address during the show those topics which are coming out in the discussion about tolerance and migrants and refugees c)Existing integration policies Do Exist in your country policies for political integration? What do they consist? How do these policies seek to contribute to overcoming stereotypes towards migrants? Policy and legal framework Easier access to work and to training The right to enter the labour market depends on the migrant’s actual legal status (refugee, subsidiary protection status, asylum seeker, tolerated refugee). For many years, asylum seekers and tolerated refugees were banned from employment. This political strategy of excluding asylum seekers from the labour market has gradually been abandoned in the past few years. Since 2014, the employment ban on asylum seekers has been reduced to three months after having formally applied for asylum or having been registered after border crossing. Once this period of time is up, asylum seekers are entitled to engage in gainful employment on condition that there are no nationals or EU citizens who can do the job instead – the so-called priority review. Persons who have been granted either refugee or subsidiary protection status obtain a residence permit (Aufenthaltserlaubnis) and are entitled to gainful employment without any restrictions. On 3 February 2016 the federal government announced that asylum seekers who start an apprenticeship will obtain a guaranteed residence permit limited to the duration of the apprenticeship plus two additional years for gaining job experience. This also means more reliable planning for the company offering the apprenticeship compared to the situation before. Though a number of restrictive regulations concerning labour market access have been scaled back recently, in practice asylum seekers and tolerated refugees still encounter many bureaucratic obstacles. Local foreigners’ registration departments often work very slowly when granting an employment permit. In the German federal system, labour market policies exist at the federal, state (Bundesl nder) and local levels. Employment policy in general does not differentiate between nationals and foreigners with legal access to the labour market. The same instruments are provided for both. However, migrants have a much weaker position in the labour market. The federal government and the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs in particular currently focus on opening access to general and vocational language courses, on the recognition of formal qualifications acquired abroad, while including this target group in all regular measures of labour market policy. Therefore, all political and economic programmes that are relevant for labour market integration are mainstreamed with regard to the needs of
  10. 10. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 10 these groups. The instruments that are most important for the labour market integration of refugees are the so- called “integration courses”. These comprise 600 hoursnof language tuition and 60 hours instruction on German culture and politics. There are, in addition, the so- called vocational language courses focusing on German in an employment context (ESF- BAMF-Kurse). Finally, the government is fostering the identification and recognition of job qualifications which asylum seekers and refugees have acquired in their home countries The key institution for an active labour market policy in Germany is the ederal Employment gency (Bundesagentur f r rbeit; BA) with its ten regional directorates (Regionaldirektionen), 156 local employment agencies (Arbeitsagenturen) and 303 job centres (Jobcenter). Asylum seekers are entitled to job counselling from the employment agencies as soon as they have applied for asylum. Besides the strategy of opening up existing measures to a number of specific national groups of asylum seekers, the Federal Employment Agency has developed some projects which explicitly focus on asylum seekers. In 2014–2015, the “Early ntervention” pilot project was implemented in nine German cities. n this project, asylum seekers were coached by the respective employment agency. They received special placement assistance, language courses, practical job training and an assessment of their skills and qualifications. Through this project, about 10% of the participants (1,400 persons altogether) could be transferred into an apprenticeship or regular employment. An additional consequence of the project was the fact that the employment agencies’ staff were trained to work more successfully with the target group of asylum seekers: in so doing they acquired new intercultural competencies nother programme by the ederal Employment gency for refugee migrants is “ erspectives for efugees” ( erspektiven f r l chtlinge; PerF), which is also designed to facilitate early labour market access for asylum seekers. Within twelve weeks, participants are involved in practical skills assessment, training in job application and in job intermediation. By the end of 2015, most of the 16 German federal states (Bundesl nder) had launched their own programmes and measures to support the labour market integration of asylum seekers and refugees; or at least these were in preparation. There are different types of programmes and measures: • Language courses •Measures for an early skills and needs assessment •Job coaching for asylum seekers • Mediation of young asylum seekers into apprenticeship • Establishment of task forces in the government to steer the labour market integration of asylum seekers and refugees • Legal information and support of employers who are willing to employ asylum seekers and refugees • Comprehensive programmes for the labour market integration of asylum seekers and refugees • Establishment of service points for asylum seekers and refugees At the communal level, measures for employment promotion are usually initiated when persons have already been granted asylum. This is due to the fact that labour market policy at the local level is essentially the task of the communal Jobcenter. By the end of 2015, a number of cities and administrative districts had already started to establish one-stop facilities for the job-coaching of asylum seekers and refugees. there are still some substantial challenges on the way for the successful labour market integration of hundreds of thousands of refugees. To mention some of the most urgent challenges:
  11. 11. This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 11 Formal vocational formation is still an important precondition of entry into the German labour market. However, the high degree of formality, which also assumes a very good proficiency in German, seems far from appropriate. The challenge is to connect practical work with vocational qualifications. The prevalent strategy of “mainstreaming” refugee migrants into the general support schemes for the job- seeking proportion of the population means that asylum seekers need information and orientation in the German vocational system. Employers willing to employ refugees still face legal obstacles and bureaucratic delays that prevent them from educating or employing asylum seekers, tolerated refugees and even recognised refugees. Women, unqualified persons and handicapped refugees should not be forgotten in labour market integration support measures. They will need specialised support schemes to get a chance to enter the labour market. For many immigrants, self-employment is an important option in becoming independent from state subsidies and in improving their social status. Up to now, the self- employment of refugees has hardly been considered. In conclusion, knowledge of the long-term labour market integration of refugees is currently scarce. s soon as persons are granted asylum, they “disappear” in official labour market statistics, which only differentiate between nationals and foreigners. Concerning asylum seekers, there is still very little experience about good practices of labour market integration. There are some innovative measures which are promising for the future. According to our interview partners, the modular programme er (“ erspectives for efugees”), implemented by the ederal Employment gency, may be a good starting point for new practices in skills assessment. Furthermore, individual job coaching such as was started in some German states (see above) as well as the establishment of regional and local job service points for asylum seekers and refugees (see above) are new concepts in labour market support which seem to be well matched to the needs of this target group https://www.bertelsmann- stiftung.de/fileadmin/files/user_upload/Studie_NW_From_Refugees_to_Workers_Vol1.pdf https://mediendienst-integration.de/desintegration/rassismus.html http://www.fes-gegen- rechtsextremismus.de/pdf_16/Gespaltene%20Mitte_Feindselige%20Zustände.pdf#page=43 https://www.boell.de/sites/default/files/buch_mitte_studie_uni_leipzig_2016.pdf#page=35 https://www.boell.de/de/2015/12/12/fluechtlingspolitik-den-bundeslaendern-wie-schaffen-die das http://www.unhcr.org/56bb369c9.pdf Hemmelmann & Wegner (2016) identifizieren in ihrer Analyse der medialen Berichterstattung ur l chtlingskris Elisabeth Addicks, Alina Beck,Anja Reith, Alina Sauer,Christian Schaft, Christiane Scharf tereotype Berichterstattung ber ethnische Gruppen

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