Lower Lea Valley _ Architectural Association 2012


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Investigation project that takes Lower Lea Valley (LLV) -Olympic Site, East London- as a whole to create an 'Industrial Urbanity' that will increase the region's productivity by safeguarding its industrial and housing character, designing both to work as one key element for this area, enabling future projections and expansions for LLV.

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Lower Lea Valley _ Architectural Association 2012

  2. 2. Creating an Industrial Urbanity / Lower Lea Valley Design Workshop Group: Monica Arzoz CanalizoARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Devika DeshmukhGRADUATE SCHOOL PROGRAMME Nathan FoustHousing and Urbanism 2011 - 2012 Supriya GandhiTutors: Jorge Fiori + Alex Warnock-Smith Pia LambethPublished in London on 18 May, 2012 Felipe López Hechem Sidharth Malik Juliana Muniz Sheeba Shetty Sepehr Zhand.
  3. 3. CONTENTSChapter I Prologue 1Chapter II Cross-Sectional Investigations 15 Greenway 16 Railway 24 Roads 32 Summary 42Chapter III Adaptive Evolutions 45 Cultivation of the Context 46 Urban Quarters 62 Industrial Requalification 82Chapter IV Symbiotic Ambitions 103
  4. 4. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity 2
  5. 5. Chapter I | PrologueLandschaftspark, Duisburg-Nord, Germany Industrial District of Zurich West, Switzerland Developing an industrial urbanity is crucial for the industries to survive the pressures of the everchanging context“It’s not the strongest of the species that survive, neither the Thus an argument emerges to transform the Lower Lea Valleysmartest. It is that which better adapts to change.” Charles Darwin into more than just an industrial sector near the center of London, to develop an industrial urbanity that supports andThe Lower Lea Valley has the potential to sustain its industrial encourages the coexistence of various types of industries andquality if an argument is made to integrate it with the urban public integration within the industrial areas that are conducivecharacter of the region. The aim is to investigate the industries, to such expansion. This transformation not only fosters productiveto structure, develop, and re-qualify them such that they become relationships between the various industries themselves, but alsomore productive, not only for their individual gain but also for with the surrounding institutions and neighborhoods. A multi-the surrounding communities. This requires vast amounts of scalar approach to introduce an industrial urbanity would givedetailed investigations, tests and strategic theories to address the Lower Lea Valley the ability to adapt to the ever-changing contextmultitude of layered facets and results in interventions with local and technologies thus giving it a better chance to survive theand regional impact. development pressures in becoming a mono-functional suburb of London. 3
  6. 6. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Inbound Outbound Main Road Secondary Road The productive relationships and physical connectivity of the Lower Lea Valley industries to the center of London The approach of an industry led urbanism for the Lower Lea Valley As you zoom in further and examine the Lower Lea Valley region, is appropriate for multiple reasons but mainly due the fact that a rather unique infrastructure system emerges. The crosshatch lines its existing industries have productive relationships with the city of infrastructure like roads, railways, natural and manmade canals center. Due to its proximity to the city and great infrastructural mostly cut across the valley, creating large urban islands which are connections, it holds a strong position to service London often disconnected from each other. These kinds of infrastructural efficiently. Some of these industries have daily communication lines that are keeping the Lower Lea Valley’s vitality alive with the city, for example the Royal Mail is networking from the regionally are ironically inhibiting it locally through its disjointed valley while Greencore is collecting waste material from the city connectivity. This has led to uneven developments across the valley and transporting it back to Lower Lea Valley. These circumstances and has proved to be economically unproductive for its immediate make it imperative to re-think the intertwining of both urban and context and local communities. industrial environments. 4
  7. 7. Chapter I | PrologueUnique infrastructure system resulting in disjointed local connectivity and uneven development 5
  8. 8. Chapter I | Prologue Current development pressures in the Lower Lea Valley resulting in isolated urban islands In 1964, the Civic Trust aimed to redevelop the 6,000 acre green belt in East London for recreational and public use and reclaim the region from its crude industrial history. The plan was not implemented due to the replacement of the central LLC with the Greater London Council which assigned the planning responsibilities to the Local Boroughs. By doing so, the valley became divided with different development interests making approval processes more complicated. Though much of the Valley became derelict, the remaining industries are now amongst the pressures of event-led redevelopment opportunities. Critics such as Edwin Heathcote1 believe that the event-led strategy and its design has led the Lea Valley’s future as a “covering-up” method and “masks the massive development…” which has not taken into account the industrial history and the surrounding communities. The Lower Lea Valley is at a critical threshold with large developments such as the Olympic Park and the Olympic Legacy Project bringing major development pressures to the region. For example, the High Street has already seen sudden growth of mono-functional high-rises and the recent entrance of major private developers such as IKEA and Tesco are creating introverted and disconnected properties. By recognizing that this type of development that poses a great threat to the small and medium sized industries, a stronger argument for an industrial urbanity emerges. The Lower Lea Valley needs an overall strategic plan for the larger region rather than the current piece-meal island developments. Similar to the Fun Palace Charitable Trust (1964) proposed by Cedric Price, the Civic Trust, and Abercrombie’s recommendation to carry out an alternative redevelopment strategy through the collaborations of the existing industries to improve the productivity of the Lower Lea Valley, the proposed strategy to implement in this area integrates similar ideas nearly 50 years later. Urban development pressures in the Lower Lea Valley. Olympic Legacy Program (1) It’s a Cover-up, by Edwin Heathcote, from the Financial Times [http://www.ft.com/(Top),Private Developments on High Street (Middle) and Ikea Mixed Use Project (Bottom) cms/s/2/c84abca4-8f9b-11e1-9ab1-00144feab49a.html 7
  9. 9. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Conceptual methodology: institutions, infrastructure and industries as drivers for change To enable the Lower Lea Valley to be successful at the regional scale and productive for its local context, smaller interventions within the valley will not be adequately effective without a strong argument and regional strategy. Institutions, Infrastructure and Industries were found to be the predominantly relevant elements. A proposed productive combination of these three elements could work as a conceptual methodology having the potential to develop into drivers for change and development in the Lower Lea Valley. 8
  10. 10. Chapter I | Prologue Schematic representation of the spatial methodology: points, lines and territoriesFurthermore the use of a spatial methodology consisting of points,lines, and territories helped to investigate and structure the site.The Lower Lea Valley has many points of interests that have variedfunctionalities and unique characteristics. These are sometimesinstitutions, industries, parks or iconic developments.In addition, the valley has many strong lines which are ofteninfrastructural, manmade, or natural. The combination of thesepoints and lines produces some interesting territories within whichexists a great potential to develop meaningful synergies betweeninsitutions, infrastructure and industries, which are establishedunder an umbrella of a conceptual approach. 9
  11. 11. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity A further inspection of the Lower Lea Valley reveals many disjointed pockets of natural and manmade green areas. These highlight the potential to use landscape as a navigator to alternatively connect and appropriately divide the varied territories of the Lower Lea Valley. These large territories have several functions and characteristics, therefore the landscape becomes an important methodological tool to develop a secondary infrastructure system. This is more than just a physical connection or a recreational space for the community, but a way to engage the context and cultivate specific conditions to address the many facets of the complex fabric it sits within. This system also enables new productive relationships while synthesizing the whole region of Lower Lea Valley. Gas Works (Top), FatWalk (Middle), and the Lower Lea River Park Project (Bottom) 10
  12. 12. Chapter I | PrologueMethodological tool: the potential to use landscape as a navigator 11
  13. 13. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity To structure the investigation of Lower Lea Valley, the established concepts and methodologies were used to study the qualities, complexities, and potentials of the existing territories and to understand, question, and test the relationship between the local and regional fabric. The analysis of the Lower Lea Valley was carried out along three particular lines of infrastructure – the greenway, the railway line, and the roads. The lines were specifically chosen as tools of investigation, as they are completely different from one another in terms of the speed of movement along them, their porosity and their physical characteristics. Each of these lines reveal complexities as they traverse different conditions and circumstances along their length, thus these lines of infrastructure became interesting tools to investigate and analyze the Lower Lea Valley and gain an understanding of the whole region. 12
  14. 14. Chapter I | PrologueBorough of Tower Hamlets Borough of Newham Greenway Railway Main Roads Lower Lea Valley Region Thames River 13
  15. 15. The  GreenwayThe Greenway is a 6km pedestrian path that encloses a majorsewer system which cuts through the urban fabric of east Londonfrom Victoria Park to the Beckton sewage treatment plant. It runsthrough a diverse range of land use such as housing, industry,residual space and institutions that is fractured by major roadand railway infrastructural systems. The Greenway is unique as itsimpact on its surrounding context can be investigated at a regional,local and architectural scale especially as it passes through LowerLea Valley.
  16. 16. Greenway has the ability to perform at regional, local and architectural scales
  17. 17. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity The development of the Olympic Park and the Legacy Project in the northwest part of the valley has made the Greenway the first line around which the development pressures have intensified. This has attracted many private developers resulting in numerous high rise developments along the high street. Higher than its surroundings, the structure of the Greenway encloses sewer lines that support a gradually sloping pathway giving it physical charecteristics that remain fairly consistant along its length, maintaining an even surface for pedestrians and cyclists. However, due to its low accesibility it does not engage or interact with its immediate surroundings thus making it an underused mobility path by the locals. 6 5 3 1 2 4 Recent and future urban developments near the Greenway 18
  18. 18. Chapter II | Cross-Sectional Investigations Greenway Extension Vulnerable Areas to Development Pressure1 Mercedes Benz GW Children’s Playground Housing2 Small Industry GW Pumping Station3 Hight Street Commerce GW High Street Commerce and Housing4 Raneleigh School GW Housing5 Olympic Stadium GW Future Housing6 Local Industry GW Fatwalk The Greenway has very low accessibility and does not engage its context 19
  19. 19. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial UrbanityThe physical characteristics of the Greenway remainfairly consistant along its length. It maintains an even,elevated surface for pedestrians and cyclists. 20
  20. 20. Chapter II | Cross-Sectional Investigations The Greenway works as a regional connector but it is locally disconnected and often impermeable for long stretches21
  21. 21. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial UrbanityThe Greenway is fractured by major infrastructural lines The varied land use around the Greenway Although the Greenway has good regional connectivity, it is locally disconnected and often impermeable for long stretches. However the analysis indicated that it has the potential to create synergies by providing programmatic or physical links between the various existing functions. For example institutions to industries and residential neighborhoods to schools as well as the ability to act alternatively as a connector and a barrier enables it to cultivate a differentiated context along its length. 22
  22. 22. Chapter II | Cross-Sectional Investigations Underutilized spaces of the industries along the Greenway Territories vulnerable to development pressuresThe various parks and landscaped areas along the Greenway can beconnected such that it can be used not only for recreation but alsoas an alternative pedestrian mobility system. At the regional levelthe Greenway becomes the first line of defence to the developmentpressures from the north of the Lower Lea Valley and at the locallevel it synthesizes the territories that are currently isolated. Thusthe imapct of the line of the Greenway expands to affect a muchlarger territory. 23
  23. 23. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial UrbanityThe  RailwayThe Hammersmith and City and District railway lines cut acrossLower Lea Valley between Bromley By Bow and West Hamstations. As they do so, it seperates the territories on either side ofthe line resulting in large areas of inaccesible residual space.Though the two stations are key transport nodes, they aredisconnected from the surrounding fabric. 24
  24. 24. Chapter II | Cross-Sectional Investigations Experiential quality along the railway line25
  25. 25. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Three Mills Film Studio Canal Railway Line Industrial ParkSection through the railway line, Three Mills Studio and an Industrial Park The space along the railway has very low accessibility thus making it residual in terms of functionality that often results in neglected patches of empty fields and abandoned properties. Even the new developments do not respond to the railway line or the space along it. The line of the railway expands into a territory that encompasses the residual space. This territory behaves as a barrier which not only affects local connectivity but also hinders the economic productivity of the area. Canal Residual Spaces Railways Line Residual Spaces Gas WorksSection through the railway line and the residual space along it 26
  26. 26. Chapter II | Cross-Sectional Investigations1 School 4 Bromley by Bow Station 7 Performing Arts Center 10 West Ham Station2 Community Center 5 Tesco 8 Three Mills 11 Open Grounds3 Housing 6 Media Training Center 9 Industrial Park 12 Greenway 12 6 7 2 5 8 1 10 4 3 9 11 Immediate context along the railway line and its residual spaces Derelict buildings and poor pedestrian accesses along the railway and at the stations 27
  27. 27. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Bromley by Bow Station Railway LinesIn Lower Lea Valley, the railway line has two important points Though the West Ham station is a new development it suffers fromwhich are Bromley by Bow and West Ham stations. Though the extreme underutilization and does not engage with the suburb ofback end of the station is oriented towards the neighborhood, the West Ham. This station regionally connects West Ham throughBromley by Bow station has poor circulation and does not integrate three tube lines to the center of London but it fails to provide anywell into the surrounding residential fabric which makes it difficult sort of physical links to the adjacent territories of Lower Lea Valley.to navigate to and from the station. It has poor street presence The station’s large infrastructure has the potential to integratealong A12 which is high-speed road flanked by some underused multi-use functions that could support the local community andand derelict buildings causing a significant resistance to pedestrians. make links into the residual spaces along the railway line. Towards Bow Road Bromley by Bow Station RoadBromley by Bow Station 28
  28. 28. Chapter II | Cross-Sectional Investigations West Ham DLR Station Road West Ham Central Line Station HousingWest Ham Station 29
  29. 29. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Bromley by Bow Station Area West Ham Station Area 30
  30. 30. Chapter II | Cross-Sectional Investigations The two railway stations perform poorly at both the architectural and urban scale. The railway line and its adjacent residual space behave as an impervious barrier. The line of the railway and the points of the stations expand into two propositional territories, the territory of Bromley by Bow and the territory of West Ham station. The locations of these territories are key in synthesizing the north and south of Lower Lea Valley.31
  31. 31. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial UrbanityThe        RoadsThe A12 and the A11 are major high speed infrastructural roadsconnecting the Lower Lea Valley and its industries to the centeron London. These roads run along a vast range of programs whichfunction at different scales making the experiential quality variesalong their length. 32
  32. 32. Poor accesibility to the A11 high speed road and new developments on A12
  33. 33. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity 1 A11 / High Street 2 Commercial Housing Institutional Offices Industries3 The A12 and A11 high street have three distinct characteristics as they progress from north to south. The high street contains clusters of various configurations that range from large-scale malls to small-scale formal and informal commercial activities. Towards the intersection of the high street with the A12 there are new developments of mono-functional high rises that have emerged A12 / Blackwall Tunnel due to the proximity and pressures of the Olympics Park and Northern Approach Legacy Project. Further south, the high speed barrier of the A12 is flanked by industry to the east and social housing to the west with an extremely weak integration of these two prominent existing typologies. 34
  34. 34. Chapter II | Cross-Sectional Investigations1 Mixed use activities on northern A11 Commercial Housing Institutional Offices Industries2 Predominance of housing and new developments on southern A113 Social housing and industrial character on A12 Different characters of the main distribution roads of the Lower Lea Valley 35
  35. 35. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity 36
  36. 36. Chapter II | Cross-Sectional Investigations The A12 and the A11 high street are major high speed infrastructural roads connecting the Lower Lea Valley and its industries to the center of London. The A12, particularly, acts as a major barrier both physically and psychologically, effectively defining a boundary between the Lower Lea Valley and Central London.37
  37. 37. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial UrbanityThe industries are dependant on the road network 38
  38. 38. Chapter II | Cross-Sectional InvestigationsThe line of the road led to the industrial territory of Lower LeaValley. The A12 highway and the industries share a symbioticrelationship as the industries depend on the road network fordaily transportation to the center of London. An inspection ofthe industrial sector reveals that there are four separate industrialparks, namely Prologis, North Crescent, South Crescent andElectra that have either public or private ownerships. Each of these Industrial Diversityparks contain a variety of industries ranging from large to small-scale which house different programmatic focus. They often havesimilar manifestations in the four industrial parks proving that theparks work individually rather than collaboratively. Recycling Office Space Distribution Vacant Plot Industrial Parks Construction & Interior Small Scale Service Industry Food Industry Chemical Land Ownership Industrial Core 39
  39. 39. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial UrbanityThe analysis led to approaches that were specific towards the These approaches included introducing urban integration intoindustrial core of Lower Lea Valley. These formed the basis to specifically chosen industrial areas, the use of voids as driversdevelop a strategy for the requalification and restructuring of the for requalification to maximize the efficient use of space whileindustries, not only to introduce an industrial urbanity but also to increasing the productivity, and developing synergies at both thegive the industries a better chance at surviving the development local and regional scales. Lastly a concept to use landscape as apressures that endanger them. connecting tool by taking advantage of existing assets will enhance the integration of the Lower Lea Valley as a whole. A study of the land ownership patterns in the four industrial parks of Lower Lea Valley 40
  40. 40. Chapter II | Cross-Sectional Investigations Cody road as an urban integratorUsing brown voids to densify and intensify industries Using landscape as a connector 41
  41. 41. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Summary of the Analysis The Greenway works as a regional connector but is locally ineffective and disconnected from its immediate context. The Railway is an impenetrable barrier with residual space along it, and the two stations of Bromley by Bow and West Ham do not perform effectively. The A11 and A12 high speed Roads have three distinct characters and they are crucial for the industries of the Lower Lea Valley. 42
  42. 42. Chapter II | Cross-Sectional InvestigationsIdentifying the PotentialsThe Greenway has the ability to behave as a porousline of defense from the development pressures of thenorth, alternatively connecting or separating the variousinstitutions, housing and industries that are situatedalong its length.The Greenway can use landscape to expand into anetwork of secondary infrastructure to synthesize thevarious territories existing in the Lower Lea Valley.The Bromley by Bow station may behave as a hub ofdispersal and can create a network to navigate from theneighborhood through a new urban quarter into theLower Lea Valley.The West Ham station has the ability to develop intoa new town center which links the north and southterritories of the valley across the railway line.There is a potential to requalify the industrial territory tospark synergies between the various industries and alsowith the local context by developing new typologies ofindustries that relate to the roads and canalsDeveloping an industrial urbanity with layers ofaccessibilities to integrate the industrial and urbanenvironments to create a productive ecology for theentire region of Lower Lea Valley 43
  43. 43. Cultivating  a  Context The potential of developing the Greenway line into a territory As part of the proposal for Lower Lea Valley, we exploited the Greenway’s potential to articulate the surrounding territories by providing physical links and setting up barriers where they are desirable. Thus cultivating a context to transform the line into a territory which is effective at both the local and regional scale.
  44. 44. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Investigation of the local context along the Greenway Proposed accessibilities and the connection to the Olympic circuit on the north and to the Fatwalk in the south 48
  45. 45. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions Because of its location and length, the Greenway has the potential to mark the ground around itsetting a direction for future developments by selectively opening up where necessary Proposed articulation by the Greenway to respond to the context 49
  46. 46. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial UrbanityThe unique quality of the Greenway is its ability to perform both The proposal for the Greenway has been illustrated as a layeredas a barrier to development pressures as well as become both series of strategies that together have the ability to transform thepermeable and impervious as desired, thus providing a richer urban line of the Greenway into a productive and well connected territory.experience along its length. The analysis of the Greenway revealed These three strategies are the articulation of the context throughthat it worked as a connector at the regional scale but had low landscape, an industrial requalification and a new institutionalaccessibility at the local scale making it passive and underutilized. cluster.A further inspection of the immediate context of the Greenway asit cuts across the Lower Lea Valley indicated that there were manyinstitutions, housing neighborhoods and industries that could beconnected via the Greenway to enhance their performance andto enrich the quality of life for the surrounding residents. Thusthe proposal for the Greenway entailed the identification of thesealong its path and proposing various physical and programmaticlinks that could spark synergies between them. Industry Requalification Institutional Cluster Intervention Collateral Requalification Existing Greenway Landscape Industry Requalification 50
  47. 47. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions Articulation of the Context Industry Requalification Institutional Cluster Proposed layered strategies for the Greenway51
  48. 48. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity 6 5 3 1 2 4 Strategy one: Articulation of the contextThe first strategy aims to articulate the relationship of the Greenway big functions like small-scale commercial activities, temporaryto its surrounding context through landscape as it expands and structures, seating, gathering spaces, pedestrian and cycling paths,penetrates into different territories to create a new public realm. By cycle stands, stepped infrastructure, and plazas, this strategy aimsincreasing the accessibility to the Greenway, adapting its physical to enhance the experiential quality of the Greenway as well asmorphology and with the addition of a multitude of small and sustain a constant flow of pedestrian movement. 52
  49. 49. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions1 Institutional Cluster GW Children’s Playground Housing2 Small Industry GW Pumping Station3 Hight Street Commerce GW High Street Commerce and Housing4 Raneleigh School Public Esplanade GW Housing5 Olympic Stadium Olympic Park GW Future Housing6 Local Industry GW Fatwalk Adapting the physical morphology of the Greenway to its local context The Greenways new elastic and malleable nature does much more development but also fosters synergistic relationships between the than create a new public realm: it starts to engage the various existing programs. This nature of the Greenway allows it to be institutions, housing settlements and industries that are located used to not only create physical links but also to act as a separator along it and cultivates a context that not only directs future of the changing context that it is situated in. 53
  50. 50. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial UrbanityThe Greenway has the potential to cultivate a contextLocal level: Greenway expanding and blending an educational institution with surrounding residential areasRegional level: Connecting the Greenway to the territories in the south of the valley via the Fatwalk 54
  51. 51. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions Physical Links Programmatic LinksDeveloping a territory by making physical and programmatic linksThe performance of the Greenway at the regional scale is enhancedby connecting it to the Olympic circuit on the north and to theFatwalk in the south. This becomes a key piece of pedestrianinfrastructure that along with the parks and landscaped areascreates a secondary mobility network that assimilates the LowerLea Valley. 55
  52. 52. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Strategy two: Industrial requalificationThe second strategy for the Greenway consisted of analyzing the A strategy to develop a conceptual mix of functions rangingvarious industries within its territory and identifying within them from small-scale industries, housing, commercial and recreationalthe possibility of urban integration. The industries in this area activities could generate a new urban industrial typology. Thisare segregated from the other urban functions but a potential for entails developing a hierarchy of movement patterns wherein thethem to coexist was recognized. For the industries along the A12 distribution of manufactured goods is carried out by road and railroad, a typology that responds to the road and encourages public and pedestrian activities from the greenway and along the canalinteraction was suggested. Furthermore, one industrial territory begin to characterize a different mobility pattern on the industrialwas identified for further research and development as it had site. The stacking of commercial and small scale industries withunique charecteristics. It is isolated from the other territories by affordable housing can create new synergies and opportunitiesa railway line a canal and its only points of connection with the for the development of a more economically vital area as well assurrounding territories were a service road and the Greenway. propose a new typology for an urban industrial quarter. 56
  53. 53. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions Industrial Area along the Greenway Accesible Pedestrian Path Primary Vehicular Route Distribution Spaces Shared Ammenities Commercial Space Commercial Areas Small Scale Industry Light Industries Office Space Medium Industry HousingA new typology for an urban industrial quarter 57
  54. 54. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Sport Facilities / Gym / Indoor Courts Kids’ Playground Bridge to Greenway Level Auditorium Cafeteria / Restaruant Adaptable Space Student Housing Programmatic Bleeding Strategy three: Institutional cluster with support infrastructure for the institutions and communities 58
  55. 55. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions The third strategy for the Greenway explored the possibility of making physical as well as programmatic links across the territories of the Greenway. Along the length of the Greenway there are many educational institutions such as a cluster of primary schools in the south east area of the Greenway and a series of colleges like a carpentry school, an architecture school, a technical university as well as the London East University.Greenway penetrating into the cluster at different levels 59
  56. 56. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Proposed programmatic links between the institutional cluster and the other educational institutions 60
  57. 57. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions Using the newly proposed malleable nature of the Greenway, it begins to physically link these institutions through pedestrian pathways, staircases, ramps and landscape and programmatically to not only each other but also with relevant industries and residential neighborhoods. The proposed site for an architectural intervention along the Greenway was chosen due to its strategic location - it sits along the greenway and is flanked by the A11 High Street along which lie many of the institutions. It is also easily accessible from the Pudding Mill tube station. The proposition for this site was to create a support infrastructure as an extension for the existing and proposed educational institutions and to introduce a new student community to Lower Lea Valley by providing student housing. The program includes permanent infrastructure such as auditoriums, gyms and sports facilities; open plazas along with commercial activity towards high street and adaptable temporary infrastructure for markets, exhibitions and public events. Through this multiple programmatic intervention this site can serve as a place where the newly introduced student community interacts with the surrounding communities.61
  58. 58. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Greenway: Cultivating a Context By increasing the accessibility and adapting its physical morphology, the Greenway creates a richer experience at the local scale, cultivating a context and providing physical as well as programmatic links that spark synergies between the various industries, institutions and residential neighbourhoods. The Greenway behaves as a porous line of defence towards the development pressures and can set a direction for future development. The Greenway, Olympic circuit and Fatwalk along with the parks and the landscape around it create a pedestrian infrastructure which becomes a new mobility system that synthesizes the territories of the Lower Lea Valley. 62
  59. 59. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions63
  60. 60. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Urban  Quarters Territories around the Railway line The proposal for the railway line attempts to dilute the strength of the barrier not only by providing physical links between the north and south but also by creating territories and new nodal urban quarters whose impact crosses over the physical limitations to engage with the various institutions and industries in the valley. 64
  61. 61. Chapter III | Adaptive EvolutionsBromley by Bow station West Ham station West Ham Town Center Bromley by Bow Urban Quarter 65
  62. 62. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial UrbanityBromley by Bow Station as a hub of dispersal The proposal for Bromley by Bow station stems from the idea of rethinking the layered concepts of communication through mobility and redistribution. Its poor functionality lent itself towards the requalification and development of a new urban quarter. The railway line, the residual space that flanks it and the station itself created an opportunity to enhance the new urban quarter by creating a dynamic relationship with the neighborhood. 66
  63. 63. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions A B C D E FSmall scale interventions forming a network for dispersal G (A), start up companies (B) and existing housing (c), can coincide with built interventions within existing parks (D), commercial insertions (E), community gardens (F) and the highway (G) to enhance the pedestrian movement of the existing fabric Creating a support network to navigate from the station to the surrounding neighborhood 67
  64. 64. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity 7 8 7 6 4 3 2 1 Bromley by Bow Station 2 Abandoned Building 5 3 Open Air Theatre 4 Indoor Theatre 5 Housing 6 Library 7 Informal Market 8 Tesco Bromley by Bow Urban Quarter 1 The strategy emphasizes on integrating and maximizing the full potential of the existing socially productive fabric that surrounds the station. With the idea of creating a clear definition of allure towards the existing housing fabric and civic interventions, rethinking the sequence of spaces from the station as a hub of dispersal to the destinations of choice was extremely important. Simple interventions such as extending the canopy of the station to the street, a more transparent façade with a dominating roofline that acts as a ribbon of direction to follow, integrating exits at platform level to the neighborhood go a long way in changing the experiential quality of the station and its surroundings. 68
  65. 65. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions New Housing Typology Family Housing Collective Space Studio Apparments Commercial Spaces Mixed use typological insertsThe network of navigation from the station through theneighborhood uses the strategy of small interventions that createthe potential for a more experiential way home. For instance, apath defined by a differentiated ground plane inserted as a guideto new or existing destinations begins to produce synergies on asmall scale within the local community, potentially heightening thequality of the surrounding fabric.The path of intervention leads to the existing community center, tostart-up companies south of the river, to parks and new communitygardens, and to amenities inserted into the existing housing. Oneextension of the nodal path leads you to the derelict space acrossthe A12 road where the new urban quarter has been proposed. Studio Appartments Mixed Use Activities Open Art Market Road Reused Abandoned Block Open Air Theatre Indoor Theater 69
  66. 66. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity East Street Market (left) and Borough Market (right) The test, based under the umbrella of a layered concept of communication, developed a set of sequential spaces by taking advantage of this residual space. While spatializing potential interactions within a new built environment, it called for the rethinking of the integration of big-box amenities such as Tesco, civic interventions like a library and theatres, informal markets, housing, and the re-use of existing structures. Utilizing the position of the station and a nodal path to lead into the existing fabric and into the new urban quarter was an appropriate approach for an intervention with a deep reaching impact. New civic elements Library Informal markets 70
  67. 67. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions Bromley by Bow Urban Quarter71
  68. 68. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity The proposal for the West Ham station encapsulates the transport hub and the residual space along the railway line to create a new town center. Currently, the station behaves as a shell of mono- functional activity. In order to change this, an intensification with programmatic insertions that service the surrounding residential neighborhoods were introduced. These include important civic amenities and commercial activities within the station as well as in the proposed town square adjacent to it. These activities support the development of the proposed institutional center which is to be located in the residual space along the railway line. The West Ham station is located at the intersection of two railway lines, isolating and disconnecting the station and the West Ham neighborhoods from Lower Lea Valley regardless of its close proximity to the industrial area. As part of the proposal for West Ham station, a bridge crosses over the north-south railway line to bring pedestrians from the station to the proposed institutional center through which they have access not only to the institutions along the greenway in the north but also to the industrial area of Lower Lea Valley in the south.Intensification of West Ham Station 72
  69. 69. Chapter III | Adaptive EvolutionsThe proposed site for the intervention is located at a key positionwithin the Lower Lea Valley; it has the Greenway to the northand the industrial core to the south. However, it is cut by therailway line and is isolated with limited accessibility thus making itresidual in terms of function. This space required restructuring forit to perform well as part of the new town center of West Ham.New infrastructure was introduced to physically connect the site by Fractured urban fabric and local disconnection in the residual space along the Railway Linepenetrating under the structure of the elevated railway to create alink across the railway line to the surrounding territories.The institutional center is a vocational school that forms the coreof the West Ham town center. It plays the role of an importantinstitutional link that develops long term synergies with theexisting educational institutions and support infrastructure alongthe Greenway through its public realm and also with the industriesby making appropriate vocational training available for the localcommunities in an attempt to create relationships at the local scale. Physical Links from Greenway across the new town center to the industrial heart of the LLV 73
  70. 70. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity The new town center and vocational school physically connect to the Greenway and through it to the other educational institutions that lie along it, sparking synergies between them Housing Workshops Greenway Training Service Office Conceptual sections through the vocational institute to the Greenway Yard Vocational School Workshops Services 74
  71. 71. Chapter III | Adaptive EvolutionsThe vocational school makes programmatic links with theindustries in the south making collaborative relationshipsthus engaging the local communities Workshop Workshop Industry Yard Training Greenway West Ham Station Vocational SchoolConceptual sections through the vocational institute to the Industries Workshop Yard Office + Housing Greenway 75
  72. 72. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial UrbanityConfigurations of training schools relative to the type of activity using training space, workshops and yard space 76
  73. 73. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions ine ay l Railw p sho Work es pac gS inin Tra d YarAn example of a training space, workshop and yard space unit The vocational school itself consists of training courses for a range of vocations such as shoe repair, plumbing, electrical works, masonry, wood work, courier services, mechanical works, bus driving and heavy machine operating. The school is structured through units that are made of training space, workshops and yards for practical training. These are configured within a flexible framework that fits the requirements for the different vocational training courses that are offered in the school. The infrastructure of the vocational school is shared by the various training courses and it is also made available to the surrounding community. 77
  74. 74. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial UrbanityAs an extension of the vocational school, a recruitment center is set The recruitment center also provides space for exhibitions,up within two of the gas work units within the proposed park. The symposiums and seminars that along with the institutions andvocational school would create a population of skilled professionals support infrastructure around the Greenway introduces a newthat could use the recruitment center to obtain jobs locally community of students to the area. It also provides variedwithin the existing industries and regionally. The newly trained infrastructure for the surrounding communities making theseprofessionals would also be able to set up start-up businesses to industrial territories of the Lower Lea Valley relevant to themenrich the small-scale industrial character of Lower Lea Valley, through institutional links. These propositional synergies betweenwhich is currently under threat of expulsion from development various institutions and industries, across the territories synthesizepressures. the valley, as well as create a sustainable urbanity for the region. 4 3 2 2 5 1 Lecture Rooms 2 Exhibition Halls 3 Auditorium 4 Workshops 5 Recruiting Offices 1 Recruitment Center as an extension of the vocational school Fatwalk Gasworks Park Auditorium Recruiting Center Workshops 78
  75. 75. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions 1 - Greenway 1 2 - Service Workshop 3 - Lea Valley Park 4 - Workshop 5 - Recruiting Center 6 - Yard 7 - Vocational School 8 - Heavy Vehicule Road 9 - West Ham Stration 3 2 9 4 85 6 7 An overview for the strategy for the West Ham town center 79
  76. 76. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions Railway: Urban Quarters The Bromely by Bow station develops a series of nodal pathways to navigate from the neighborhood through the urban quarter into Lower Lea Valley. The intensification of the West Ham station along with the proposed vocational school develops into a new town center. These urban nodes play a key role in physically and synergistically connecting the institutions and industries of the Lower Lea Valley arosss the railway line and to the surrounding communities.80
  77. 77. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions81
  78. 78. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Territories along the Roads In order to secure their position within an urban setting, industries need to adapt typologically as well as programmatically towards public integration as well as synergistically respond to both the local and regional context. 82
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  80. 80. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Separate Access Routes for Different Users Invest in The urbanization of industrial environments relies on stimulating Hybrid Buildings productive relationships between industries and diverse activities such as, amenities, institutions, commerce, and the communities themselves. As a part of the overall strategy for the future development of the Lower Lea Valley, the proposal directs that the industrial area accept urban integration where possible to create cohesive urban and industrial environments. Make the Most of Existing Assets The industries of Lower Lea Valley have productive relationships with the center of London sustained by an effective infrastructural network. The proposal entails maintaining this productivity at the regional scale while enhancing the performance of the industries such that they synergistically integrate with the surrounding Minimize communities and institutions to create a more productive Disruption environment at the local scale. The creation of this kind of industrial urbanity aims to increase the economic vitality of the historically deprived area of Lower Lea Valley while protecting the industries from development pressures. The challenge to develop a successful industrial urbanity is to Create Critical Mass create a spatially productive engagement of accessible and restricted industries. In order to allow differentiated functionalities to take place in industrial areas, guidelines for spatial organization stated by Uhahn Architects in the book “Industry in the City” (2006) have been considered to generate the desired permeability within the industrial area. Using these guidelines the strategies of Make Active Uses minimizing disruption, separating access routes for different users, of Transitional Zones and Buildings making use of transitional zones between buildings and investing mixed use buildings were implemented. 84
  81. 81. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions Spatial strategy for the redistribution of the industries85
  82. 82. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Primary Vehicular Route Secondary Vehicular Route Distribution Spaces Pedestrian Path Accesible Space 86
  83. 83. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions Hybrid Industries with Public Interaction Recycling Related Industry as Community Support Distribution Industries Construction Industries Non- Accesible Industries Requalification of the industrial area by clustering different types of industriesThe strategy to redevelop the Lower Lea Valley industrial core Thus the proposed spatial strategy for the requalification of therethinks the concept of the industrial park by providing a industries in the core of Lower Lea Valley entails allowing themixed use environment where urban activities may take place. necessary isolation of industries such as chemical, an electricityCreating a spatial hierarchy for the redistribution of roads and the company, bus repair and mail storage, where constant flux, noise,locations of the industries to create a degree of accessibility while and life threatening activities may take place. The centrally locatedmaintaining an efficient organization of vehicular and pedestrian Cody road is given a permeable character to allow for urbanmobility. In doing so, the development lends itself to encourage integration through differential programs. This spatial strategybuildings with street engagement where desired, and privacy and also allows a range of different industries to collaboratively coexistisolation where necessary. This strategy produced three different and to typologically respond to the roads and the canal. Thepublicly accessible environments: Hybrid industries along the road, industrial core also makes programmatic links with the existingconstruction related industries along the canal, and mixed use and proposed institutions as well as responding to the public realmdistribution industries along Cody Road. created by the landscape and the Fatwalk. 87
  84. 84. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Road and canal related industries Recycling Industries and Mixed Use Industries which Relate to Local Context Pedestrian Routes and Accesible facades Urbanizing Industrial Sites Rationalizing vehicular movement through service facades Landscape as a connector to integrate industries with the LLVTypology for road related industries 88
  85. 85. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions Roof RoofThe hybrid industries that are proposed to be relocated along theroad are industrial distribution clients like Mitsubishi and Cross Office Space Office SpaceRail that require to showcase their products. These industries havethe potential for public engagement but are currently located in the Material Research Office Spacecore of the industrial area, isolated from the public. Their shift of Centerlocation aims to explore the potentials of the interaction betweenthese industries and the general public for the testing of newproducts and public acceptance. Spatially, the ground floors will Research Centerbe generous and face the road so the canal can work as a “filter” Office Space Office Spacefrom road activities to industrial environments. In the lowerlevels the showroom spaces are dedicated not only for possible Product Display Distribution Industryclients meetings, but exhibitions of products for interaction, Public Testing Product Displayorganized talks and debates on related matters. This “hybrid” Center Store Public Testin Centerindustry is composed of showroom spaces, stores, research centers, Cafe Restaurant Storeoffices and proper distribution/manufacturing environments. Thenew typology attempts to integrate road and canal, housing andcommercial activities with an industrial core in order to strengthenthis relationship with the local community, Road related industries: Mitsibushi and Crossrail. Hybrid industries with public interaction Section through Mitsubishi Industry Section through Crossrail Industry 89
  86. 86. London Lower Lea Valley : Creating an Industrial Urbanity Craft Rooms Workshop Space Craft Rooms Workshop Space Community Center Craft Rooms Workshop Space The existing community recycling center that is situated on this site focuses on wood and scrap metal collection. Both of these Community Center directly engage the local Poplar community. To build on these Craft Rooms activities a cooperative is proposed that will collect and recycle Store waste material. Furthermore the recycled materials will be made available to the community to craft into useful and art objects. This activity plays a key role in integrating the community into the industrial area and increase the productivity of the region. Community recycling center 90
  87. 87. Chapter III | Adaptive Evolutions Recycling related industries and institutions The Bywaters recycling company is currently located in the Prologis industrial park and is the most economically productive industry in the Lower Lea Valley. It is the main recycling center for paper, wood, glass and metal. Bywaters also recycles construction materials at a different location in the north of the Valley. The proposal brings both the Bywaters recycling industries onto the Prologis site along with an environmental research center. It would serve as a recycling center not only London but also the surrounding industries and neighborhoods. This could result in technical, logistical, and even manufacturing research collaborations.Bywaters Sustainability Bywaters BywatersWood and Paper Research Center Metal Construction Material 91