First WordsAge 1;0: first words appearAge 1;0 to 1;6: child slowly acquires 50 words or soAge 1;6: first word combinationsSome Characteristics of the Childs First Words mama Words have simple syllables, e.gSounds are limited: m, n, b, d, w, y, f, s
SummaryChildren acquire phonology over several years First year: babblingSecond year: first wordsSubsequent years: learn to pronounce anextensive vocabularySounds and syllables increase in number andcomplexity Phonological processes captureerror patterns
Phonetics deals with the physicalaspects and characteristics of allhuman sounds whereas phonology isrestricted to the functional aspects ofsounds in a particular language
it is the process whereby childrenacquire the target language‟sphonology, including its functionalaspects like the language‟s specificsound contrasts
However, in the whole acquisitionprocess not only a set of phonologicalrules is chronologically acquired butalso a set of morphological, syntacticaland semantic rules
Furthermore, these processes arelargely independent of intelligencealthough the degree of competenceacquired may vary amongindividuals
children continue to commit “errors” in their speech.However, these can be to a certain degreepredictable and follow logic structures. Therefore,they can be described by typical phonologicalprocesses
The first studies of child languagetook the form of parental diaries.The goal of these works was mostlydescriptive and often had a largerfocus than just language, becauselittle was known about childrenbehaviour acquisition .
in general ,I will be primarilyconcerned with issues regardingthe „acquisition of phonology ratherthan „child phonology‟ The latterterm is often used to describephonological phenomena found inchild language, withoutconsideration of theoreticallinguistic issues of
All children acquire language in the sameway, regardless of what language they use orthe number of languages they use. Acquiringa language is like learning to play a game.
Children must learn the rules of thelanguage game, for example how toarticulate words and how to put themtogether in ways that are acceptable tothe people around them. In order tounderstand child language acquisition,we need to keep two very importantthings in mind
Speech sounds are of two major types –vowels and consonants:1 -Vowels are sounds produced with noobstruction to the airflow coming from lungs.
2 - Consonants are speech sounds thatinvolve a momentary interruption orobstruction of the airflow. Consonantscan be described and differentiatedfrom each other by using three mainclassifications, voice, place ofarticulation, and manner of articulation
Stages of pre-speech vocal developmentEven though children do not produce theirfirst words until they are approximately 12months old, the ability to produce speechsounds starts to develop at a much youngerage. Stark (1980) distinguishes five stages ofearly speech development:[15
weeks: Reflexive vocalizations 0-6These earliest vocalizations include crying andvegetative sounds such as breathing, sucking orsneezing. For these vegetative sounds, infants‟ vocalcords vibrate and air passes through their vocalapparatus, thus familiarizing infants with processesinvolved in later speech production
weeks: Cooing and laughter 6-16Infants produce cooing sounds whenthey are content. Cooing is oftentriggered by social interaction withcaregivers and resembles theproduction of vowels .
weeks: Vocal play 16-30Infants produce a variety of vowel- and consonant-like soundsthat they combine into increasingly longer sequences. Theproduction of vowel sounds (already in the first 2 months)precedes the production ofconsonants, with the first backconsonants (e.g., [g], [k]) being produced around 2–3 months,and front consonants (e.g., [m], [n], [p]) starting to appear around 6 months of age
months: Reduplicated babbling (or canonical babbling[17 -Reduplicated babbling contains consonant-vowel (CV) syllables thatare repeated in reduplicated series of the same consonant and vowel(e.g., [bababa]). At this stage, infants‟ productions resemble speechmuch more closely in timing and vocal behaviors than at earlierstages. Starting around 6 months babies also show an influence of theambient language in their babbling, i.e., babies‟ babbling sounds different depending on which languages they hear
months: Nonreduplicated babbling (or variegated - babbling[17Infants now combine different vowels and consonants intosyllable strings. At this stage, infants also produce variousstressand intonation patterns. During this transitional periodfrom babbling to the first word children also produce“protowords”, i.e., invented