1348942812.3077 the+silent+way.ppt from book

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1348942812.3077 the+silent+way.ppt from book

  1. 1. THE SILENT WAY
  2. 2. Basic Principles of theSilent Way : Teaching should be subordinated to learning Learning is a process which we initiate by ourselves by mobilizing our inner resources (our perception, awareness, cognition, imagination, intuition, creativity, etc.) Creating new utterances*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992.
  3. 3. Principles : The teacher should start with something the students already know and build from that to the unknown. Language learners are intelligent and bring with them the experience of already learning a language. The teacher should give only what help is necessary.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992.
  4. 4.  Language is not learned by repeating after a model. Students need to develop their own ’’inner criteria‘‘ for correctness- to trust and to be responsible for their own production in the target language.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992.
  5. 5.  Students’ actions can tell the teacher whether or not they have learned. Students should learn to rely on each other and themselves. The teacher works with the students while the students work on the language.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992.
  6. 6.  Silence is a tool. It helps to foster autonomy , or the exercise of initiative. It also removes the teacher from the center of attention. So he can listen to and work with the students. The teacher speaks, but only when necessary. Otherwise, the teacher gets out of the way so that it is the students who receive the practice in using the language.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  7. 7.  Meaning is made clear by focusing students’ perceptions, not through translation. Students can learn from one another. The teacher’s silence encourages group cooperation.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  8. 8.  If the teacher praises (or criticizes) the students, they will be less self-reliant. The teacher’s actions can interfere with students’ developing their own criteria. Errors are important and necessary to learning. They show the teacher where things are unclear.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  9. 9.  If students are simply given answers, rather than being allowed to self- correct, they will not retain them. Students need to learn to listen to themselves.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  10. 10.  At the beginning, the teacher needs to look for progress, not perfection. Learning takes place in time. Students learn at different rates. A teacher’s silence frees the teacher to closely observe the students’ behaviour.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  11. 11.  Students learn they must give the teacher their attention in order not to miss what he says. Student attention is a key to learning. Students should engage in a great deal of meaningful practice without repetition.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  12. 12.  The teacher can gain valuable information from student feedback; for example, he can learn what to work on next. Students learn how to accept responsibility for their own learning.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  13. 13.  Some learning takes place naturally as we sleep. Students will naturally work on the day’s lesson then. The skills of speaking, reading, and writing reinforce one another.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  14. 14.  What are the goals of teachers who use the silent way?*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  15. 15.  To make students express themselves. To make them develop independence from the teacher.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  16. 16.  What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  17. 17. Teacher Students  Technician or  To use what they engineer: assists know when necessary,  To free themselves focuses the any obstacles students’  To engage in perceptions, force exploring the their awareness language. and provide exercises.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in LanguageTeaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  18. 18. Candidate Teachers!!! BEING SILENT You are not active, you are a guider, controller, facilitator, helper.
  19. 19.  What are some characterisctics of the teaching/ learning process?*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  20. 20.  Students begin their study of the language through its basic building blocks, its sounds. The teacher sets up situations that focus student attention on the structures of the language. The students receive a great deal of practice with a given target language structure without repitition for its own sake.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  21. 21.  What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  22. 22. S-T S-S Teacher is silent, but  Student-student verbal active. interaction. She forces awareness  Encourage She listens attentively  Teacher is silent. to students’ speech She use nonverbal gestures and the tools. She gives clues. *Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  23. 23.  How are the feelings of the students dealt with?*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  24. 24.  Through observation Through feedback sessions Through providing secure atmosphere.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  25. 25.  How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  26. 26.  Each language has its own unique reality or spirit, since it is the expression of a particular group of people. Their culture, as reflected in their own unique world view, is inseparable from their language.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  27. 27.  What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  28. 28.  Pronounciation Stuctures of language Vocabulary (restricted at first) All four skills*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  29. 29.  What is the role of the students’ native language?*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  30. 30. It is used: To give instructions when necessary To help a student improve her pronounciation During feedback sessions To introduce new sounds in the target language.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  31. 31.  How is evaluation accomplished?*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  32. 32.  No formal test Through observation No praise, no criticism*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  33. 33.  How does the teacher respond to student errors?*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  34. 34.  The teacher doesn’t criticize errors, she uses them as a basis for deciding where further work is necessary. The teacher works with the students in getting them self-correct.*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  35. 35. Techniques andmaterials Sound-color chart Teacher’s silence Peer correction Rods Self-correction gestures Word chart Fidel charts Structured feedback*Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Tecniques and Principles in Language Teaching. London : Oxford University Press,1992
  36. 36. Word chart
  37. 37. Fidel chart
  38. 38. Sound color chart
  39. 39. Cuisenaire rods
  40. 40. Today’s Motto :” Tell me and I forget Teach me and I remember Involve me and I learn.“ Benjamin Franklin

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