Industrial Training BHEL


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Industrial Training at Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL)

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Industrial Training BHEL

  1. 1. BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED Presentation By:- Lalit Kumar 08711503010 ICE 4th Year Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College Of Engineering Thermal Power Plant Industrial Training
  2. 2. Overview of BHEL  BHEL was established in 1964.  BHEL is one of the only 7 Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) of India clubbed under the esteemed 'Maharatna' status. On 1st February 2013, the Government of India granted Maharatna status to BHEL.  BHEL has a share of 59% in India’s total installed generating capacity contributing 69% (approx.) to the total power generated from utility sets (excluding non-conventional capacity) as of March 31, 2012.  BHEL is engaged in the design, engineering, manufacture, construction, testing, commissioning and servicing of a wide range of products and services for the core sectors of the economy, viz. Power, Transmission, Industry, Transportation (Railway), Renewable Energy, Oil & Gas and defence.  BHEL has 15 manufacturing divisions, two repair units, four regional offices, eight service centers and 15 regional centers and currently operate at more than 150 project sites across India and abroad.
  3. 3. BHEL has  Installed equipment for over 90000MW of power generation-for utilities, captive and industrial users.  Supplied over 225000MW a transformer capacity and other equipment operating in transmission and distribution network up to 400Kv (AC& DC)  Supplied over 25000 motors with drive control system to power projects, petro chemicals, refineries, steel, aluminium, fertilizers, cement plants etc.  Supplied traction electrics and AC/DC locos to power over 12000kms railway network.  Supplied over one million valves to power plants and other industries.
  4. 4. Main Manufacturing Facilities  Heavy Electrical Plant, Bhopal  Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant, Haridwar (Uttarakhand)  Heavy Power Equipment Plant, Ramachandrapuram, Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh)  Transformer Plant, BHEL Jhansi (Uttar Pradesh)  High Pressure Boiler Plant and Seamless Steel Tube Plant, Trichy(Tamil Nadu)  Boiler Auxiliaries Plant, Ranipet, Vellore (Tamil Nadu)  Electronics Division and Electro Porcelain Division, Bangalore (Karnataka)  Centralised Stamping Unit & Fabrication Plant(Uttar Pradesh)  Power plant piping unit, Thirumayam (Tamil Nadu)  Power plant fabrication unit, Gondia (under construction)  Insulator Plant Jagdishpur (Uttar Pradesh)  Component Fabrication Plant Rudrapur (Uttrakhand)  Industrial Valves Plant, Goindwal (Punjab)  Bharat Heavy Plates and Vessels Limited (Vizag)  BHEL Electrical Machines Ltd., Kasaragod (Kerala)
  5. 5. Major electrical components of Power Plant:
  6. 6. Generator:  Operating Principle: The rotor is mounted on a shaft driven by mechanical prime mover.  A field winding (rotating ) carries a DC current to produce a constant magnetic field. An AC voltage is induced in the 3- phase stator winding (stationary) to produce electrical Power.  The electrical frequency of the 3-phase output depends upon the mechanical speed and the number of poles.  3-phases output is directly connected to load.
  7. 7. Steam Turbine  A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.  The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency from the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam, which results in a closer approach to the ideal reversible expansion process.
  8. 8. Pulverizer  The coal is put in the boiler after pulverization. For this pulverizer is used.  A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in a power plant.  Types of Pulverizers: i)Ball and Tube Mill ii) Ring and Ball
  9. 9. Boiler  Boiler is an enclosed vessel in which water is heated and circulated until the water is turned in to steam at the required pressure.  Coal is burned inside the combustion chamber of boiler. The products of combustion are nothing but gases. These gases which are at high temperature vaporize the water inside the boiler to steam.  Boilers are classified as: 1. Fire tube boilers 2. Water tube boilers 3. Superheater 4. Reheater
  10. 10. Condenser  Steam after rotating steam turbine comes to condenser. Condenser refers here to the shell and tube heat exchanger (or surface condenser) installed at the outlet of every steam turbine in Thermal power stations of utility companies.  The purpose is to condense the outlet (or exhaust) steam from steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to get the condensed steam in the form of pure water, otherwise known as condensate, back to steam generator or (boiler) as boiler feed water.  Condensers are classified as: i)Jet condensers or contact condensers, ii)Surface condensers.
  11. 11. Cooling Towers  The condensate (water) formed in the condenser after condensation is initially at high temperature. This hot water is passed to cooling towers.  It is a tower- or building-like device in which atmospheric air (the heat receiver) circulates in direct or indirect contact with warmer water (the heat source) and the water is thereby cooled.  Types Of Cooling Tower- 1. Wet cooling tower 2. Dry cooling tower
  12. 12. Economizer  Flue gases coming out of the boiler carry lot of heat. Function of economizer is to recover some of the heat from the heat carried away in the flue gases up the chimney and utilize for heating the feed water to the boiler.  It is placed in the passage of flue gases in between the exit from the boiler and the entry to the chimney.  The use of economizer results in saving in coal consumption, increase in steaming rate and high boiler efficiency but needs extra investment and increase in maintenance costs and floor area required for the plant.
  13. 13. Electrostatic Precipitator  It is a device which removes dust or other finely divided particles from flue gases by charging the particles inductively with an electric field, then attracting them to highly charged collector plates.  Some of the usual applications are:  (1) Removal of dirt from flue gases in steam plants  (2) Cleaning of air to remove fungi and bacteria in establishments producing antibiotics and other drugs, and in operating rooms  (3) Cleaning of air in ventilation and air conditioning systems  (4) Removal of oil mists in machine shops and acid mists in chemical process plants  (5) Cleaning of blast furnace gases  (6) Recovery of valuable materials such as oxides of copper, lead, and tin
  14. 14. Alternator  An alternator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to alternating current electrical energy. Most alternators use a rotating magnetic field. Different geometries - such as a linear alternator for use with sterling engines - are also occasionally used. In principle, any AC generator can be called an alternator, but usually the word refers to small rotating machines driven by automotive and other internal combustion engines.
  15. 15. Transformers  It is a device that transfers electric energy from one alternating-current circuit to one or more other circuits, either increasing (stepping up) or reducing (stepping down) the voltage.  Uses for transformers include reducing the line voltage to operate low-voltage devices (doorbells or toy electric trains) and raising the voltage from electric generators so that electric power can be transmitted over long distances.  Transformers act through electromagnetic induction; current in the primary coil induces current in the secondary coil. The secondary voltage is calculated by multiplying the primary voltage by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary coil to that in the primary.
  16. 16. Stepwise Operation of Thermal Power Plant
  17. 17. Stepwise Operation of Thermal Power Plant 1) First the pulverized coal is burnt into the furnace of boiler. 2) High pressure steam is produced in the boiler. 3) This steam is then passed through the super heater, where it further heated up. 4) This supper heated steam is then entered into a turbine at high speed. 5) In turbine this steam force rotates the turbine blades that means here in the turbine the stored potential energy of the high pressured steam is converted into mechanical energy. 6) After rotating the turbine blades, the steam has lost its high pressure, passes out of turbine blades and enters into a condenser. 7) in the condenser the cold water is circulated with help of pump which condenses the low pressure wet steam. 8) This condensed water is then further supplied to low pressure water heater where the low pressure steam increases the temperature of this feed water; it is then again heated in a high pressure heater where the high pressure of steam is used for heating. 9) The turbine in thermal power station acts as a prime mover of the alternator.
  18. 18. Efficiency of Thermal Power Station or Plant The overall efficiency of a thermal power station or plant varies from 20% to 26% and it depends upon plant capacity.
  19. 19. Advantages of Thermal Power Plant  They can respond to rapidly changing loads without difficulty  A portion of the steam generated can be used as a process steam in different industries  Steam engines and turbines can work under 25 % of overload continuously  Fuel used is cheaper  Cheaper in production cost in comparison with that of diesel power stations Disadvantages of Thermal Power Plant  Maintenance and operating costs are high  Long time required for erection and putting into action  A large quantity of water is required  Great difficulty experienced in coal handling  Presence of troubles due to smoke and heat in the plant  Unavailability of good quality coal  Maximum of heat energy lost  Problem of ash removing