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Jurnal Pendidikan Khas


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Jurnal Pendidikan Khas

  1. 1. 1) A CROSS- CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF FAMILY VOICE IN SPECIAL EDUCATION SUMMARY In this cross-case analysis issue of a research study conceptualized and implemented simultaneously in South Africa and the United States (Engelbrecht, Oswald,Swart, Kitching, & Eloff, 2005: Hess, Molina &Kozleski, 2006). This issues began with a shared interest in understanding the context and culture influence which family’s access and their experience educational when their have children with disabilities. Vygotsky and other Russian researchers examine how context and adult played a role in mediating the development of metacognitive skills in young children. As (Cole, 1996: Rogoff, 2003: Wertsch, 1995), the interplay between internal psychology characteristics and external mediators was extended to include functional system of artifacts and participants structures. The work of researches such as Ferguson went on to persuade family with children disabilities and without disabilities that share more features which remarked more about families and children with disabilities focused on disability as the fulcrum around which family dynamic are shaped.( Hary, 1992; Hary & Klinger, 2006) the narratives of families that are not part of dominant culture are examined to understand the impact of institutional practices on families and their capacity to negotiate, educational services for their children. In Nelson, 2004 was discussed the govern relationship between family and professionals in special education which particular focus on early childhood that helps them manages or meets goal. In this article include examined how implicit rules for professionals-family relationships
  2. 2. seemed to play out in decision to place children in particular settings. ( Harry & Klinger, 2006; Kozol, 2005 ), the context includes segregation within schools and school systems, differences in access educational resources and increasing concern with the disproportionate representation of student from different cultural and linguistically backgrounds in special education. In United States ( individual With Disabilities Education Improvement Act, 2004 ) reminds citizens that for more 30 years, the U.S federal government had a law in effect that requires local public schools to offer free appropriate public education to student with disabilities. Then, by South Africa Department of Education, 2001, p.23, the policy concluded that schools, practitioners and families must work together to ensure that local schools provide the settings, materials and expertise to engage learners with disabilities and help them become educated and prepared for productive adult lives. The school districts and states are given oversight responsibility to ensure that these processes carried out accurately. They diagnosed disabilities through medical system and use the medical categorization system. The intersection of race, class and disability are complicated to understand within a single formal structure. This can examine by ways in which single system may advantage some individuals or disadvantages others in doing. This way hope can improve the intended and unintended consequence of the ways things are. Furthermore, by looking the educational system in two different context hope that will develop a richer understanding of how race, socioeconomics status and disability influenced the relationships between families and school professional and the ways in which they collaborated in educating children with disabilities. In this article use many variety of method which the fact for their framework, the first point state in fact of
  3. 3. participants that were family who recruited in each country. The initial sample included representatives groups of parents of children with disabilities within inclusive educational schools in the Western Cape and Gauteng province in South Africa. They were chosen selected participants who were parents of children with disabilities who were included inclusive school at the time of the focus group. For instance, school team in United States identifies children with disabilities to access special education services. Not only that, only a few provinces in South Africa got database which identify schools and portions of the student bodies that may have disabilities because the system has not installed a special education system that relies on eligibility, labeling, and placement decisions to determine who will receive the special education and services provided. When the interviewed session began, the interviewer predominantly family from low income, minority, and lacked of education. The children ages around 8-16 years old which 12 male and 20 female. They were identified with medical rather than educational labels and offer little information about the educational and intellectual skills and also capacities of the student because there is wide variability among individuals with these diagnoses. In distance, the families will identify from their diverse ethnic background that had children with disabilities that receiving special education. After that, they will send home invitation and followed up with phone calls to families secure permission. As a result, there were 15 Hispanic parents, 10 African American and 2 White parents. The disabilities that been identified such as learning disabilities, pervasive developmental disabilities, emotional disturbance, multiple disabilities, mental retardation, visual and hearing impairment and speech or language impairments. Ellof et al. (2002) discussed how basic activities such as deciding which families would be invited to participate in
  4. 4. our research that uncovered a variety of cultural differences that were unexpected. The U.S research about interviewing families of students with learning, intellectual, and emotional disabilities was critical because those disabilities are subject to social construction. Another method was interview process that included 3 researchers conducted 6 groups, each lasting about an hour and a half. At times, the researcher also asked specific questions about placement process, the adaptation and accommodations that the school had made for the children and also reactions of the children’s peers and siblings. (Glaser & Strauss, 1994) to identify initial categories from their data. Their focused on initial categories of placement process, and concerns that the impact of inclusion on parents and siblings, the role of school including manner in which the child was accommodated and supported in school. Other method of facts was the result that examined these finding using cultural-historical activity theory lens because comparisons between the lived experiences of families in both countries are so deeply affected by the systems they navigate to seek the best outcomes for their children. Whereas the South Africa parents seemed to focus on how they decided to place their student in inclusive schools while U.S parents seemed to focus on the placement or negotiation required to keep their children in learning environment. Moreover, rules also the method of analysis family voice that seemed to be important in both contexts of family behaviors. In some cases, although families knew that their children had challenges, they also expected to enroll their children in their neighborhood schools. The parents had to decide place for their children in general education schools and then had to negotiate to gain admission and also explaining their student’s disabilities and their needs for accommodations. Last but not least, division of labor that
  5. 5. the last method included in this framework. ( Swart et al.2005) the course of the investigation was the importance of parents actively working together on the development of a mutual, supportive, open relationship with the school and teachers. According nelson et al. (2004) suggested relationships between families and school professional need to go beyond common place assumptions that families receive the information and teacher construct. These contribute more positive experiences for family and their children and create strong connections with families in support of student learning. In conclusion, the family seemed to respond more fully to educational planning when they felt welcomed and accepted by teachers and administrator. By examine how the tools of practice in special education mediate outcomes, the better able to offer services and supports for students that capitalize on their assets and capacities. However, this research also help to understand some of challenges in how families are able to access educational system and the difference due in part of nature of the children’s disabilities, education and economic status of their family. Without explicit information about the special education system and assumption about the voice and contributions of families , the families seemed to intend on the side of caution and spending time to listening so that they can process information later after meeting had occurred.
  6. 6. 2) RURAL GIFTED CHILDREN EDUCATION: A COMPREHENSIVE LITERATURE REVIEW SUMMARY This literature review ( 1990-2003) to test assumption about educational gifted rural children and to build a body of knowledge about this important subject. These studies create foundation blocks for more experimental, longitudinal and replication studies in other rural places. The issues underlying the education of gifted children in rural places are problematic and complex. To understand them, we should consider not only rural strengths of family and community cohesiveness but also rural biases. Embedded in rural culture may be confusion between democratic principles and elitism, negative attitudes of gifted children and for implementation was easiest but not necessarily most effective ways to educate gifted rural children. Reason of this research is each child deserves the right to opportunities that challenges his or her abilities and maximize on his or her potential. Another reason that communities cannot afford to lose the contributions gifted students can make to rural community, culture and economy. Many gifted students from rural places want to stay in their communities instead of leaving to find what they are told is suitable work. In methodology section that includes the facts provide the useful information concerning between the scope and applicability of the details and generalities presented. They identified using quantitative and qualitative methodology and often triangulation with both. T he important fact in these issues was rural values and culture that was important to
  7. 7. recognize the differences among rural places because gifted students their individual attributes offer different opportunities. Gjetlen’s (1982) gifted students in stable farming communities face different challenges than those living on the edge of suburban encroachment. According to C.Howley (1998) contended that rural schooling often seems to promote goals that destabilize rural communities such as encouraging students to seek high status jobs require breaking the bonds. The important suggest reason why rural communities may need to nurture gifted students. These students understand the value of rural life and may find new and creative ways to sustain what is valuable in rural places. In this study, the rural culture and community seemed to be more supportive than is sometimes the case and the strengths of rural culture helped gifted students do well. Another method are types of gifted children such as born in any rural community, families that rich or poor, racial, ethnic or religious and cultural group. The process of nurturing giftedness into a talent is molded the realities which the child born, health, wealth, gender, place in family and others that related. All gifted children face biases coming from the assumption that they differ from other students not only in terms of intellectual abilities but also the terms of ‘super power’ that make them easy to navigate through school to engaging careers and fulfilling lives. Schuler (1999) and Abell and Lennex (1999) gifted children have heightened sense of intellectual curiosity, strong need to excel and preference to lead or control. Emotional vulnerability was important fact among rural gifted students that more to sensitivity and emotional intensity in the psychomotor, sensual, intellectual, imaginational and emotional domain. Dabrowski, both
  8. 8. emotional and intellectual potential are most important but emotional potential ultimately controls intellectual capacity. Whereas perfectionism can help such children create high quality of work, it also can become intrusive that it constrains achievement and creativity. A healthy perfectionist accepts their mistakes, recognizing their value and appreciates high parental expectation for their success but in contrast unhealthy perfectionist does it in different ways. From research in this review showing that gifted children are vulnerable to disengaging from the school and need more support than they receive presently (Battle & Grant 1995). Identifying gifted rural students also the method that relate with the main issues because emphasis on speeded performance which identification some children are abstract thinkers but not as highly able in speed of their visual and motor ability. Abell and Lennex (1999) recommended the actual work and performances rather than scores on standardized test be used as indicators of the abilities. As a result, many of those who are identified as gifted children are actually bright average children from educationally enriched backgrounds and they actually not true gifted and students who do not meet this stereotype are often overlooked. After concluded to identify rural gifted students from underrepresented groups might be improved by using information from parents, teachers and community members as part of assessment process. A finding suggesting that many parent of young gifted children are aware of their children’s abilities and therefore can be reliable sources of information about their children’s needs. Project ARTS, Clark and Zimmerman (2001) offered another model to identify gifted children are offered one approach to increasing
  9. 9. identification of and programming for rural students with artistic talents. They suggest that teaching them through music, art, drama and dance may be more critical to their development than many rural educators acknowledge. Another point is options for educating rural gifted children includes in method for rural gifted education. Extracurricular opportunities and special programs help keeps students actively engaged in academic work and providing challenging programs to gifted students might be one way to support high level work. Not only that, based on Magnet School by Plucker et al. (1996) examined model for supporting the needs of rural students with special talent. Creating a magnet school in science and math for capable student perhaps they become part of the plan to revitalize the area and use the facilities abandoned by the Air Force. Lastly, teaching teachers to teach gifted rural children also the most important fact that teacher play a critical role in helping this gifted children to understand and appreciate their gifts. According to many who advocates for rural gifted children, rural teachers needs to be learnt how to differentiated instruction to students across a wide range of abilities, skills, and interest. Davalos and Griffin (1999) also described about other model that was Mustard Seed Project that offered many ideas for teaching gifted and talented rural children in sites of ethnically diverse and economically. They also explore the impact of the rural environment on gifted children and their teachers that included strength of school, supportive from families, good teacher coordination, and extracurricular activities, peer and family. The conclusion in this review teach a lot about gifted rural children and the importance of identifying them from the early age, educating well, and
  10. 10. creating opportunities for them to lives and work near the communities. This review also shows the challenges that that they should accepted as gifted children among the communities. The effect on gifted students of rural school consolidation and only few studies touch on the impact of widespread policy changes offering support for distance learning, early college, and home study.