ADVERTISING MEDIA An advertising medium is the vehicle used to carry the advertising message from the sender to the intended receiver. Advertising media Print Broadcast Outdoor or Specialty Mail Sales Media Media Transit Media Media Media Promotion MediaNewspapers Radio Point of purchase of ad Trade showsMagazines Television Samples, coupons, Premium, contents
MEDIA PLANNING Media planning is the series of decisions involved in delivering promotional message to the prospective purchasers and/or users of the product or brand. Media planning is a process in which a number of decisions are made, each may be altered or abandoned as a plan develops. The media plan is the guide for media selection. Three basic concepts that are generally incorporated in the media planning process Reach Frequency continuity
REACH Reach refers to the total number of households that will be exposed to the message through a particular media vehicle over a set period of time or It is the measure of the number of different audience members exposed to at least once to a media vehicle in a given period of time. Reach is usually expressed as a percentage of total number of households in a prescribed area that have been exposed to the advertising message. The purpose of reach is the optimal exposure.
CONT….. New brands or products need a very high level of reach since the objective is to make all potential buyers aware of the new entry. High reach is also desired at later stages of the product cycle. The strategy of greater reach is desirable in following circumstances; When introducing the new use for the product in order to expand its market share. To improve the image of the company When a new product is introduced
DETERMINING EFFECTIVE REACH Effective reach represents the percentage of a vehicle’s audience reached at each effective frequency increment. This concept is based on the assumption that one exposure to an advertisement may not be sufficient to convey the desired message. Reach of television channels is often expressed in the form of "x minute weekly reach" - that is, the number (or percentage) of viewers who watched the channel for at least x minutes in a given week.
EFFECTIVE REACH 20 No exposure Ineffective exposurePercent Reach 15 Threshold of effectiveness Reinforcement of effectiveness 10 5 Excessive exposure Effective exposure Negative exposure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number of Exposures Effective Reach Graph
FREQUENCY Frequency refers to the number of times the receiver is exposed to the media vehicle oro Refers to the number of exposures to the same message that each household supposedly receives. Since frequency may differ for different set of households the average frequency is total exposure for all households Average frequency = Reacho Average frequency means that the average household isexposed to the message …. times
Frequency primarily means the repetition of the samemessage, and the objective of greater frequency is topromote interest and desire for the product on a continuousbasis Typical forgetting curve Percent recall time Typical Forgetting Curve
HIGH FREQUENCY IS REQUIRED,1. When the message is not easy to remember2. When the direct order from people is desired as a result of a given advertisement3. When competitor is using higher frequency to reach the same segment of the market .4. When product or brand differentiation is low from that of competitor5. When a reaction is desired within a limited time period
FACTORS IMPORTANT IN DETERMINING FREQUENCY LEVELS Media factors Marketing factors Message and creativity factors1. Media factors:Attentiveness: the higher the level of attention achieved by the media vehicle, the less frequency is required. Low attention getting media will require more repetitions.Number of media used: the fewer media are used, the lower the level of frequency required.Clutter: the more advertising that appears in the media used, the more frequency is needed to break through the clutter.
CONT…..Repeat exposure: media that allow more repeat exposure require less frequency.eg: monthly magazinesEditorial environment: an ad that is consistent with the editorial environment needs lower levels of frequencyScheduling: continuous scheduling requires less frequency than does fighting or pulsing.2) Marketing factors:Brand loyalty: inverse relation exists between loyalty and frequency.Usage cycle: products used daily will quickly needed to be replaced. Higher level of frequency is desiredBrand history: is the brand new or established? New brands generally require higher frequency levels
CONT…..Target group: the ability of the target group to learn and retain messages has a direct effect on frequency.Brand share: inverse relation exists between brand share and frequency.Competitive share of voice: higher frequency levels are required when a lot of competitive noise exists and when goals is to meet or beat competitors.Purchase cycle: shorter purchasing cycles require higher frequency levels to maintain top of mental awareness3) Message or creative factorsImage versus product sell: creating an image requires higher levels of frequency than does a specific product sell.
CONT…..Message complexity: the simpler the message less is the frequency requiredMessage uniqueness: the more unique is the message lesser is the frequency requiredAdvertising units: Larger units of advertising require less frequency than smaller ones to get the message across.Wear out: Higher frequency may lead to wear out. This effect must be tracked and used to evaluate frequency level.New versus Continuing campaigns: New campaigns require higher level of frequency to register the message.Message variation: A single message requires less frequency. A variety of message require more.
GROSS RATING POINTS (GRP) The media buyer typically uses a numerical indicator (GRP) to know how many potential audience members might be exposed to a series of commercials GRP=(reach)(frequency) GRP is the total audience that might be reached by a media schedule.