Daniel’s Prophecies - the 70 weeks Laindon Bible Class 27 th  August 2008, SJIF
The Cyrus Cylinder <ul><li>Discovered in 1879 in southern Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Now located in the British Museum, London...
The timing of chapter 9 <ul><li>Babylon now overthrown, Darius being the first Medo-Persian ruler (as ch. 5 v 31) </li></u...
The content of chapter 9 <ul><li>Four key sections: </li></ul>Daniel receives vision of 70 weeks (about “Messiah the Princ...
Understanding gained <ul><li>End of prior chapter (last dealings with Gabriel): </li></ul><ul><li>This  vision to be plain...
A mixed message for Daniel <ul><li>Having “understood” the soon end of the 70 year captivity (v. 1-2), Daniel was also now...
A chapter full of Bible types & echoes  <ul><li>“Seventy weeks” prophecy is about appearance and cutting off of “Messiah” ...
The prophecy itself “ Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, an...
Key theme: “Messiah the Prince” <ul><li>Messiah  = Heb.  mashiyach (anointed, consecrated person) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On...
Interpreting the “Seventy weeks” <ul><li>“Weeks” from Heb.  shabuwa  or  shabua </li></ul><ul><li>Literally means “seven” ...
Deciphering the time periods, introduction <ul><li>Overall note: dating of Persian kings somewhat uncertain and heavily re...
Deciphering the time periods, suggestion 26 AD  29½ AD 33 AD  Approx. Four important dates: <ul><li>536/5 BC Decree of Cyr...
The final week of years, two alternatives Alternative 1 The ministries of John Baptist and Jesus Christ 26 AD ---- 29½ AD ...
The ‘air of expectation’ in Jesus’ day “ Now after that John was put in prison, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gos...
Six matters to be fulfilled <ul><li>Can be sub-divided into two pairs of three </li></ul><ul><li>First three deal with ‘ne...
Relating these six matters to Christ Covering for iniquity provided “ reconciliation” = Heb.  kaphar  = to cover (as Noah’...
Relating these six matters to Christ Anointing with Holy Spirit & receipt of Spirit nature “ The Spirit of the Lord is upo...
Two phrases to be interpreted (v. 27) <ul><li>What does this phrase mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly not that the Messiah d...
Gabriel’s reappearance > 530 years later <ul><li>Incense offered twice daily, morning and evening with sacrifice. This the...
Conclusions from our study <ul><li>A remarkable prophecy </li></ul><ul><li>Not possible to be dogmatic about some aspects ...
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Daniels Prophecies The 70 Weeks (Final 1)

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Daniel 70 week prophecy Bible Laindon

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  • Daniels Prophecies The 70 Weeks (Final 1)

    1. 1. Daniel’s Prophecies - the 70 weeks Laindon Bible Class 27 th August 2008, SJIF
    2. 2. The Cyrus Cylinder <ul><li>Discovered in 1879 in southern Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Now located in the British Museum, London </li></ul><ul><li>Dates back to 539-530 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Contains a declaration of reform, sometimes known as the ‘first charter of human rights’ </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrus set off a chain of events, which appears to be referenced in the cylinder: </li></ul>[speaking of deportees] “…I gathered all their inhabitants and returned to them their dwellings…”
    3. 3. The timing of chapter 9 <ul><li>Babylon now overthrown, Darius being the first Medo-Persian ruler (as ch. 5 v 31) </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 537 BC, Daniel around 85 years (assuming c. 17 years old in 605 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>2 years before ‘Decree of Cyrus’, which ended the 70 year captivity (cp. ch. 1 v 21, 10 v 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, Daniel referred to Jeremiah (chs. 25, 29) </li></ul>“ In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans ; In the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem.” Daniel 9 v 1-2
    4. 4. The content of chapter 9 <ul><li>Four key sections: </li></ul>Daniel receives vision of 70 weeks (about “Messiah the Prince”) v. 24 – 27 Daniel’s prayer answered by angelic visitation (Gabriel) v. 20 – 23 Daniel offers prayer for the fulfilment of these things v. 3 – 19 Daniel understands limit of 70 year captivity “by books” v. 1 – 2
    5. 5. Understanding gained <ul><li>End of prior chapter (last dealings with Gabriel): </li></ul><ul><li>This vision to be plainly understood: </li></ul>“… and I was astonished at the vision, but none understood it .” Daniel 8 v 27 “ And he informed me, and talked with me, and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee skill and understanding . At the beginning of thy supplications the commandment came forth, and I am come to shew thee ; for thou art greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision .” Daniel 9 v 22-23 “ Surely the Lord GOD will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto his servants the prophets.” Amos 3 v 7
    6. 6. A mixed message for Daniel <ul><li>Having “understood” the soon end of the 70 year captivity (v. 1-2), Daniel was also now told that this was not to be a final restoration (v. 26) </li></ul><ul><li>Outside of this chapter, a number of hints that Daniel physically affected by visions and his exertions (e.g. ch. 7 v 28, 10 v 8,16) </li></ul><ul><li>Seen also in this chapter, with an alternative translation of v. 21? </li></ul>“ and while I was setting my prayer in order, then the man, Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, touched me in my severe exhaustion, about the time of the evening sacrifice.” Daniel 9 v 21 Interlinear Bible
    7. 7. A chapter full of Bible types & echoes <ul><li>“Seventy weeks” prophecy is about appearance and cutting off of “Messiah” (v. 25-26) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel’s prayer for others (v. 3-19) cp. tone with Jesus’ prayer in John 17 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel “greatly beloved” (v. 37) cp. God’s acknowledgment of Jesus (Matthew 3 v 17) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel receives vision at “time of the evening oblation” i.e. 3 p.m. (v. 21) cp. time of Jesus’ death (Matthew 27 v 46-50) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabriel makes known the vision (v. 21) cp. Zecharias’ & Mary’s visitations (Luke 1 v 19,26) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The prophecy itself “ Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy. Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.” Daniel 9 v 24-27 “ Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression , and to make an end of sins , and to make reconciliation for iniquity , and to bring in everlasting righteousness , and to seal up the vision and prophecy , and to anoint the most Holy . Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks : the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off , but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary ; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease , and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate , even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.” Daniel 9 v 24-27
    9. 9. Key theme: “Messiah the Prince” <ul><li>Messiah = Heb. mashiyach (anointed, consecrated person) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 39 appearances in OT; 2 x “Messiah” (here), 37 x “anointed” (“Christ” is equivalent, 522 times in NT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone that confessed Jesus as the Christ recognised him as the fulfilment of prophecies such as Daniel 9! (e.g. Peter’s confession in Matthew 16 v 16) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prince = Heb. nagiyd or nagid (leader, ruler, captain) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used of royal and priestly families (44 appearances) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used many times to describe King David (e.g. 1 Samuel 13 v 14) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Interpreting the “Seventy weeks” <ul><li>“Weeks” from Heb. shabuwa or shabua </li></ul><ul><li>Literally means “seven” (BDB) or “sevened” (Str) </li></ul><ul><li>Heb. word only appears 20 times in scripture, 6 of which are in this chapter! </li></ul><ul><li>Even concordances allow for “a heptad, seven (of years)” (BDB) “of years” (Str). Cp. Bro. Thomas </li></ul><ul><li>Fits with accepted Bible interpretation (day for year: Gen. 29 v 27, Num. 14 v 34, Ezek. 4 v 5-6) </li></ul><ul><li>70 weeks x 7 days = 490 years (Note: 70 split in prophecy into 7, 62 and then 1) </li></ul>Is it literal weeks, does this fit with the fulfilment?
    11. 11. Deciphering the time periods, introduction <ul><li>Overall note: dating of Persian kings somewhat uncertain and heavily reliant upon, scholar, Ptolemy’s canon (around 700 years later) </li></ul><ul><li>Some fixed points: </li></ul>“… he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week…” Daniel 9 v 27 “… in the midst of the week…” Daniel 9 v 27 70 1 week “… from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.” Daniel 9 v 25 0 69 7 + 62 weeks
    12. 12. Deciphering the time periods, suggestion 26 AD 29½ AD 33 AD Approx. Four important dates: <ul><li>536/5 BC Decree of Cyrus. </li></ul><ul><li>Return, build temple. Ezra 5 v 13 </li></ul><ul><li>520 BC Decree of Darius. </li></ul><ul><li>Help for builders. Ezra 6 v 8 </li></ul><ul><li>458 BC Decree of Artaxerxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish worship & nation. Ezra 7 v 13 </li></ul><ul><li>444 BC Further words of Artaxerxes. </li></ul><ul><li>About Jerusalem. Nehemiah 2 v 18 </li></ul>solar years (365 days) lunar years (354 days) “… he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week…” Daniel 9 v 27 “… from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.” Daniel 9 v 25 “… in the midst of the week…” Daniel 9 v 27 0 69 70 7 + 62 weeks 1 week
    13. 13. The final week of years, two alternatives Alternative 1 The ministries of John Baptist and Jesus Christ 26 AD ---- 29½ AD ---- 33 AD Alternative 2 The ministry of Jesus Christ and early acts of the Apostles 26 AD ---- 29½ AD ---- 33 AD Problems : phraseology of v. 27, length of John’s ministry uncertain, timing of crucifixion Problem : unclear significance of 3½ years of work of the Apostles Crucifixion Crucifixion Ministry John Baptist Ministry Jesus Christ Ministry Jesus Christ Work of the Apostles
    14. 14. The ‘air of expectation’ in Jesus’ day “ Now after that John was put in prison, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God, And saying, The time is fulfilled , and the kingdom of God is at hand: repent ye, and believe the gospel.” Mark 1 v 14-15 “ And as the people were in expectation , and all men mused in their hearts of John, whether he were the Christ, or not ;” Luke 3 v 15 “ Then came the Jews round about him, and said unto him, How long dost thou make us to doubt? If thou be the Christ, tell us plainly .” John 10 v 24 “ And he confessed, and denied not; but confessed, I am not the Christ … And they asked him, and said unto him, Why baptizest thou then, if thou be not that Christ , nor Elias, neither that prophet?” John 1 v 20,25 They knew the signs but were still not ready , are we?
    15. 15. Six matters to be fulfilled <ul><li>Can be sub-divided into two pairs of three </li></ul><ul><li>First three deal with ‘negatives’ ( end to evil ), second three with ‘positives’ ( beginning of righteousness ) </li></ul><ul><li>First three connect particularly with Jesus’ death, second three connect particularly with Jesus’ life / resurrection </li></ul>“ Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, [ 1 ] to finish the transgression , and [ 2 ] to make an end of sins , and [ 3 ] to make reconciliation for iniquity , and [ 4 ] to bring in everlasting righteousness , and [ 5 ] to seal up the vision and prophecy , and [ 6 ] to anoint the most Holy .” Daniel 9 v 24
    16. 16. Relating these six matters to Christ Covering for iniquity provided “ reconciliation” = Heb. kaphar = to cover (as Noah’s ark) “… reconciled to God by the death of his Son…by whom we have now received the atonement.” Romans 5 v 10-11 “ to make reconciliation for iniquity” End to sin offerings under law “ sins” = also translated “sin offering” “ But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God;” Hebrews 10 v 12 (also Hebrews 9 v 26 ) “ to make an end of sins” Conclusion of Judah’s transgression “ finish” = Heb. kala = to restrict, hold back, prohibit “ Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers.” Matthew 23 v 32 “ to finish the transgression”
    17. 17. Relating these six matters to Christ Anointing with Holy Spirit & receipt of Spirit nature “ The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor…” Luke 4 v 18 (also Acts 2 v 33 ) “ to anoint the most Holy ” Law and prophets fulfilled “ seal up” = Heb. chatham = make an end (parallels 2 nd matter) “ Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” Matthew 5 v 17 “ to seal up the vision and prophecy” God’s righteousness declared, justification available “ Whom God hath set forth… to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past… that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus.” Romans 3 v 25-26 “ to bring in everlasting righteousness”
    18. 18. Two phrases to be interpreted (v. 27) <ul><li>What does this phrase mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly not that the Messiah did not need to be redeemed himself (see Hebrews 5 v 3) </li></ul><ul><li>LXX “and there is no judgment in him” (in sense of crime committed) </li></ul>“ And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself : and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.” Daniel 9 v 26 <ul><li>Who are this people and who is the prince? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Prince” = Jesus Christ (s.w. as “Messiah the Prince”, nagiyd or nagid ) </li></ul><ul><li>“ People” that came to destroy the Romans </li></ul><ul><li>In a sense this a visitation by Christ (as Olivet Pro.) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Gabriel’s reappearance > 530 years later <ul><li>Incense offered twice daily, morning and evening with sacrifice. This the evening offering i.e. 3 p.m.? </li></ul><ul><li>When Gabriel uttered his name to Zecharias, what associations were immediately made by this righteous man? </li></ul>“ And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense . And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense… And the angel answering said unto him, I am Gabriel , that stand in the presence of God; and am sent to speak unto thee, and to shew thee these glad tidings… And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.” Luke 1 v 10-11,19,26-27
    20. 20. Conclusions from our study <ul><li>A remarkable prophecy </li></ul><ul><li>Not possible to be dogmatic about some aspects of dating, but clearly wonderfully precise </li></ul><ul><li>Helped set the expectation for Jesus’ coming (people without excuse) </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfilled in amazing detail, e.g. the six matters </li></ul><ul><li>Helped to explain to Daniel and others the only lasting solution for the Jews </li></ul>We have our own equivalents of the seventy weeks prophecy, ours regarding Jesus’ return , are we expectant and (also) ready to respond ?

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