Paper for iccp 2012 laily

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Paper for iccp 2012 laily

  1. 1. ICT-assisted Oral English Instruction in Grade VII Students of SMPN 5 Panggang, Guningkidul Laily Amin Fajariyah SMPN 5 Panggang, Gunungkidul (e-mail: lailyaminf@yahoo.co.id ; HP: 081328880549) Key Word: Oral English instruction, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), video, animation, website Abstract In this globalization era, technology is becoming increasingly important for human lives. Almost the aspects of lives, both personal and professional lives, make use of technology. One of the uses of technology in the language teaching is called Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). As the access of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) spreads widely, so CALL has moved beyond the use of computer programmes to embrace the internet (Dudeney and Hockly, 2007: 57). The teaching of English as a foreign language in Indonesia covers four skills, those are listening and speaking which are categorized into oral language and reading and writing as the written one. The oral language is different from the written one (Richard, 2008: 3). The ICT can assist both the instruction of them. In this research, the focus is on the use of ICT in the oral English instruction. The ICT was used in the instruction to present the media that were designed by inserting some pictures, recordings, animations and videos downloaded from the internet. The goal of this research is designing a simple ICT-assisted oral English instruction for Grade VII of SMPN 5 Panggang, Gunungkidul. The method of the research is Research and Development method. The instruction involves the ICT-assisted media which were designed based on the students’ need. The english teachers reviewed its design before it was implemented in the class and evaluated by the students. The result of the second questionnaire shows that the average of all aspect of the instruction is 3.93. It means that students are positive about the implementation of the ICT-assisted oral English instructions. ICT-assisisted Oral English Instruction by Ms.Laily@ICCP 2012
  2. 2. Introduction: Oral language is defined as short, fragmentally utterances by Brown and Yule (1983) in Nunan (1989: 26). Unlike written language, it is usually unplanned and often reflects the process of construction, such as hesitations, reduced forms, fillers, and repeats (Richard, 2008: 3). In the Oral English instructions, the teacher should be able to provide the natural language that is different from the written one. The native speakers’ talk will be beneficial to provide students good examples of the oral English. With the development of the ICT, a teacher can access the internet to download the recordings or video which are produced by the native speakers. There are some websites from which teachers can explore many materials they need. Besides the examples from native speakers, teacher can also produce their own materials by still considering the natural language and making use of ICT. There are some programmes can be used in recording the teachers’ voice to be inserted in the materials. The oral English instruction covers two major skills, those are teaching listening and speaking. Listening can be perceived in two ways: listening as comprehension and listening as acquisition. Listening as comprehension assumes that listening in second language learning is to facilitate the understanding of the oral discourse. Two different processes can be used in understanding spoken discourse: bottom-up processing and top-down processing. The typical lesson in the developed instruction combined the two processing types in three phases of listening: prelistening, whiles-listening, and post listening. The pre-listening involves students in activating the prior knowledge, making prediction, and reviewing the key vocabulary. The while-listening focuses on comprehension to require selective listening, sequencing, etc. The post-listening requires students to give opinion about the topic (Richards, 2008: 3-10). Together with the listening skill, speaking skill is also one important skill that builds up the oral communication competence. In the communicative approach, ICT-assisisted Oral English Instruction by Ms.Laily@ICCP 2012
  3. 3. where the discourse level is used, speaking emphasizes the use of language above the sentence level (Johnson and Morrow, 1981: 70). In fact, teaching speaking in EFL countries cannot be conducted directly above the sentence level. So, the teaching of speaking in the classroom must consider the students’ competence and not force them to be directly able to speak fluently. The ICT-assisted instruction can be realized by using supporting technologies used in the teaching and learning process. There are some uses of ICT that may be beneficial to the learning process (Muijs and Reynolds (2005) in Laily Amin Fajariyah (2009: 36-38)). Those are: 1. presenting information ICT can present information for students in the instruction. 2. Quick and automatic completion of routine tasks 3. The computer can help learners to do and complete their daily tasks. 4. Accessing and handling information The learners can learn through using the World Wide Web to access information. 5. Modelling and control Learning English can be done by using ICT as a modelling and control, for example in doing a simulation. 6. Interactivity It can be done with the help of ICT, such as through e-mail, chat, and others to give students chance in learning English. The above benefits can be achieved based on the level of access to computers and technology that will influence the variation of the activities in the classroom (Dudeney and Hockly, 2007: 11). Goal of the Research The goal of this research are, firstly to design the ICT-assisted oral English media and then to analyze the implementation of the media in the oral English instruction. ICT-assisisted Oral English Instruction by Ms.Laily@ICCP 2012
  4. 4. Participants and Method The respondents of this research are the studens of Grade VII of SMPN 5 Panggang, Gunungkidul. There are 28 students in this class. They are the subject of the implementation of the ICT-assisted oral English instructions. Besides, the members of the English teachers Association (MGMP) Gunungkidul regency became the reviewers of the media in the evaluation stage. The research method is the Research and Development (R&D) method. The research was started by analyzing the students’ need toward the media, and then followed by analyzing the standard of competence (SK) and basic competencies (KD) of Grade VII Semester 2 Curriculum 2006. Then, the researcher designed the ICTassisted media to be applied in the oral English instruction and then followed by the teachers’ evaluation. After being evaluated, the media were implemented in the instructions. Right after the implementation, the students were given a set of questionnaire to evaluate the media. The results of the questionnaire were used to revise the media and to get the information about the students’ opinion toward the implementation of the ICT-assisted oral English instruction. Results and Discussion The results of the research are the results of the need analysis, design, evaluation and implementation. A. The Need Analysis There are 28 students in Grade VII of SMPN 5 Panggang in the academic year 2011/ 2012. There are 11 female (39.29%) and 16 male (60.71 %) students. Their age ranges from 12 to 15 years old. There were 25% students are 12 years old, 13 years old (57.14%) and 14 years old (17.86%). According to Brown (2001: 91), students in those ages are classified into adolescents or teenagers who have specific characteristics. Those characteristics further were also considered in the instructional development. ICT-assisisted Oral English Instruction by Ms.Laily@ICCP 2012
  5. 5. Regarding to the use of ICT in the instruction, the need analysis has gathered the following information: Table 1. The Results of the Need Analysis 1 No of students Percentage (%) 24 25 12 3 85.71 89.29 42.86 10.71 25 89.29 c. slides d. movie or video recordings e. songs or music 2 7 23 26 7.14 25.00 82.14 92.86 The tasks in the ICT-assisted oral English instruction: a. in big-groups b. in small groups c. in pairs d. individual No 4 19 17 8 14.29 67.86 60.71 28.57 Statements The ICT tools used in the class: a. Internet b. Computer c. Video recording d. Tape recording The input texts given in the oral English instruction: a. images (photographs, cartoon, animation) 2 3 b. post cards, brochures, and pamphlets Based on the result in Table 1, the researcher then designed the instruction by making use of the internet and computer as the two technologies chosen by the students. Regarding the input texts used in the oral English instruction, images, movie or video recordings and songs and music are used. In the instruction, the students like working in pairs or in small groups. After the need analysis, the researcher then analyzed the standard of competence and basic competencies for Grade VII Semester 2. There are two standards of competence explored in this research, those are SK 8 and 10. The ICT-assisisted Oral English Instruction by Ms.Laily@ICCP 2012
  6. 6. Standard of competence 8 includes two basic competencies i.e KD 8.1 and 8.2 for the listening. The standard of competence 10 covers KD 10.1 and 10.2 for the speaking. It can be described as follows: Table 2. The Standard of Competence and Basic Competencies No 1 2 Standard of Competence (SK) Basic Competence (KD) 8. Memahami makna dalam teks 8.1 Merespon makna yang terdapat lisan fungsional dan monolog dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek pendek sangat sederhana yang sangat sederhana secara akurat, berbentuk descriptive dan lancar dan berterima untuk procedure untuk berinteraksi berinteraksi dengan lingkungan dengan lingkungan terdekat terdekat 8.2 Merespon makna yang terdapat dalam monolog sangat sederhana secara akurat, lancar dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat dalam teks berbentuk descriptive dan procedure 10. Mengungkapkan makna dalam 10.1 Mengungkapkan makna yang teks lisan fungsional dan monolog terdapat dalam teks lisan pendek sangat sederhana fungsional pendek sangat berbentuk descriptive dan sederhana secara akurat, lancar dan procedure untuk berinteraksi berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat dengan lingkungan terdekat 10.2 Mengungkapkan makna yang terdapat dalam monolog sangat sederhana secara akurat, lancar dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat dalam teks berbentuk descriptive dan procedure In Table 2, it is shown that the monologue texts taught in Grade VII Semester 2 are descriptive and procedure. Further, the researcher analyzed the short functional texts taught as letter, invitation and shopping list. ICT-assisisted Oral English Instruction by Ms.Laily@ICCP 2012
  7. 7. B. The Design of the Instruction The design of the instruction was the design of the media used in the classroom. The media are adapted some authentic media from the internet for example the procedure of making a British tea and creating facebook account. They were downloaded from www.youtube.com using youtube downloader. The other media are the mp3, songs, pictures/ images and animations downloaded from the various resources. Those materials then were inserted in the slides of Power point presentation that were specially designed for the media of the oral English instruction. The other sources needed in designing the appropriate media for the oral English instruction are the recordings. The researcher then recorded the voice and editted it using Adobe Audition 1.5 programme. The recordings were also inserted in the media to get the input of the oral language. After the materials gathered and some recordings were inserted in the slides, the media (power point slides) were produced based on the students’ needs. The slides were designed in attractive way, such as using attractive background colour. C. The Evaluation of the Media The media developed needed to be evaluated. The evaluations of the media were done in the MGMP(English teachers association) forum on 1 and 8 March 2012. The media were presented in this forum then some English teachers gave comments of them. In the evaluation stage, the following suggestions were gathered: 1. Some complicated tasks need to be simplified. 2. The media should provide feedback or answer keys for the students 3. The video or mp3 inserted in the media must be clear Those above suggestions then were used to revise the media. The complicated tasks were simplified by reducing the numbers of the questions and presenting each question into one slide. The answer keys were also provided in the slide to ICT-assisisted Oral English Instruction by Ms.Laily@ICCP 2012
  8. 8. give feedback for the students. Then, using Adobe Auditon 1.5 the quality of the sound was improved. After revision, the media were ready to be implemented. D. The Implementation of the Media The revised media then were implemented in Grade VII SMPN 5 Panggang. The students got the input of the instructions from the media in the listening process and then they produced the target language in the speaking process. In speaking, besides using the media designed, the students were suggested to make use of the ICT. For example, in descriptive, students explored some images of their idol and then presented in the class by using LCD projector. In this technique, students learnt how to find images in www.google.com/images and then downloaded the pictures. This activity will help students increase their ICT ability. On March 14, in the end of the implementation of the media, the students were asked to fill in the questionnaire (Questionnaire 2). The questionnaire is about their opinion towards the implementation of the ICT-assisted oral English instruction. The results of the questionnaire are presented in Table 4. The data obtained then were consulted to the Table 3 below. Scale 5 4 3 Table 3. The Quantitative Data conversion Interval of mean values Categories Formula Computation Very good X > Xi + (1.8 x S xi ) X > 4.2 Good Xi + (0.6 x S xi )< X Xi + (1.8 x S xi ) 3.4 < X 4.2 Fair Xi - (0.6 x S )< X Xi + (0.6 x S xi ) 2.6 < X 3.4 xi 2 Poor 1 Very poor Xi - (1.8 x S xi ) < X X Xi - (1.8 x S xi ) Xi - (0.6 x S xi ) 1.8 < X X 2.6 1.8 Proposed by Sudijono, 2003: 339 Referring to Table 3, the data in Table 4 shows that students very agree that goal of the ICT-assisted oral English instruction can improve their knowledge of ICT-assisisted Oral English Instruction by Ms.Laily@ICCP 2012
  9. 9. the vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, texts and technology use (4.47). The inputs (4.30), activities and setting (4.26) of the instruction are also very good. . Table 3. The Result of the Second Questionnaire No A 1 2 3 B 4 5 6 C 7 D 8 E 9 F 10 11 G 12 13 14 Statements Goal The ICT assisted oral English instruction can improve students’ knowledege of vocabulary, grammar and the texts The ICT assisted oral English instruction can improve students’ understanding of the English texts The ICT assisted oral English instruction can improve students’ ability in technology. Input The input of the media (video, mp3 and pictures) can improve students’ knowledege of vocabulary, grammar and the texts. The input of the media (video, mp3 and pictures) and the use of ICT is interesting. The inputs of the media (video, mp3 and pictures) support students to comprehend the English texts. Activity The activity in the ICT assisted oral English instruction can improve students’ knowledege of vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation. Setting The individual tasks in the ICT assisted oral English instruction can help students to be independent learners. Teacher Role In the ICT assisted oral English instruction, students do not need teacher’s assistance. Learner Role Students are able to do the tasks individually. Students can actively participate in the ICT assisted oral English instruction Design The developed media are attractive. The layout of the the ICT assisted oral English media is attractive. The design of the video, animation, recordings and picture used in the the ICT assisted oral English instruction are attractive. The students’ opinion toward ICT-assisted oral English instruction Mean 4.47 4.30 4.59 4.52 4.30 4.30 4.63 3.96 4.26 4.26 4.26 4.26 2.44 2.44 3.33 2.74 3.93 3.72 2.48 4.44 4.22 3.93 The lowest mean is in the teacher role (2.44), students disagree that they do not need teachers’ assistance in the instruction, so the teacher is still needed as they are not completely ready to be individual learners (2.74). Besides, the design ICT-assisisted Oral English Instruction by Ms.Laily@ICCP 2012
  10. 10. of the media is good (3.72) but it still needs revision as suggested by some male students who dislike the flower background. Generally the students’ opinions toward the implementation of the ICT-assisted oral English instruction are positive (3.93). Conclusion The results of the research lead to the conclusion that the ICT-assisted oral English media which make use of the internet and computer in its development are good to be implemented in the classroom. The students are positive of the implementation, but the researcher still need to improve and innovate more to get the better result. Bibliography Dudeney,G and Hockly, N. 2007. How to Teach English Using Technology (Series Editor: Jeremy Harmer). Essex: Pearson Education Limited (Longman) Fajariyah, Laily Amin. 2009. Developing ICT-Assisted Oral English Tasks for Grade X Students of SMA N 1 Sewon Year 2008/2009. S1Thesis. English Language Education Department, Languages and Arts Faculty UNY Gromik, Nicholas. Window Movie Maker in the English as a Foreign Language Class. Retrieved from http://www.innovateonline.info on May 12 2011 Johnson, K. and Morrow, K. 1981. Communication in the Classroom: Applications and Methods for a Communicative Approach (4th impression). Hong Kong: Longman. Kavaliauskienė, G and Kaminskienė, L. 2010. Using ICT in English for Specific Purposes Classroom. retrieved from www.esp-world.info on March 9 2012 Nunan, D. 2004. Task-based Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Richards, Jack C. 2008. Teaching Listening and Speaking : from Theory to Practice. Singapore: Cambridge university Press. ICT-assisisted Oral English Instruction by Ms.Laily@ICCP 2012

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