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Laila Ashraf
14112454-030
Topic: CNS
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM:
 It is the system of the body
that receives and processes
all information from all parts
of the body. It consists of the
brain, and spinal cord. It is
arguably the most important
system of the body.
PARTS OF CNS:
There are two main parts of CNS
 Brain
 Spinal cord
 Brain:
• Play a central role
• Most powerful organ
• Weighs only about three pounds
• Length15 centimeters long
CONT.….
• First three years of life are critical to your baby's brain
development.
• Baby's brain weighs approximately 350 to 400 grams, or three-
quarters of a pound.
• Men tend to have bigger brains than women
ACTIVITY OF THE CNS:
 There are three activity of the CNS
 Gathering sensory information from external stimuli
 Synthesizing that information
 Responding to those stimuli
Iqra Ahmad
14112454-029
Topic: Cerebrum
CEREBRUM
 The cerebrum, also known as
the telencephalon,
 The biggest part of the brain
 Makes up 85% of the brain's weight
 The outer portion (1.5mm to 5mm)
of the cerebrum is covered by a thin
layer of gray tissue called the
cerebral cortex.
CONT.….
• Controls voluntary muscles
• The cerebral cortex is made
of gray matter with billions
of neurons forming trillions
of synapses that produce
many of the brain’s
functions, including
planning, creativity, and
memory.
LOCATION:
Directionally, the cerebrum and the cortex that covers it is the
uppermost part of the brain. It is the anterior portion of the forebrain
and is superior to other brain structures such as the pons, cerebellum
and medulla oblongata.
HEMISPHERE:
 The cerebrum has two halves.
 Right
 Left
Right:
 Control the all action of left side.
 Scientists think that the right half
helps you think about abstract
things like music, colors, and
shapes.
CONT…..
Left:
 Controls all action of right side.
 The left half is said to be more analytical, helping you with math,
logic, and speech.
CONT…..
 hemispheres that are connected
by the corpus callosum
 Corpus callosum wide, flat
bundle of neural fibers about
10 cm long beneath
the cortex in
the eutherian brain at
the longitudinal fissure.
FUNCTION:
 Determining Intelligence
 Determining Personality
 Thinking
 Perceiving
 Producing and Understanding Language
 Interpretation of Sensory Impulses
CONT….
 Motor Function
 Planning and Organization
 Touch Sensation
Zara Asghar
14112454-020
Topic: Cortex
CEREBRAL CORTEX:
 The cerebral cortex is the part
of the brain that is visible
from the outside. The cerebral
cortex is the outermost layer
of the brain and consists of a
collection of nerve cell bodies
made up of gray matter.
CONT….
 The axons of these neurons extend in toward the center of the
brain and into the white matter.
FUNCTION:
 Knowledge
 Experience
 Intelligence
STRUCTURE OF THE CORTEX:
 Each brain hemisphere is
divided into four lobes that
are separated by prominent
fissures. These lobes are:
 Frontal lobe (forehead),
Parietal lobe (top to rear
head),
CONT….
 Occipital lobe (back head)
 Temporal lobe (side of head).
FRONTAL LOBE:
 The frontal lobe is in the front
part of the brain. The frontal
lobe is important for planning
movements and also contains
the primary motor cortex,
responsible for control of
certain movements, such as
moving one finger at a time.
CONT….
 The frontal lobe helps with certain kinds of decision making that
may have to do with control of behaviors in certain situations.
PARIETAL LOBE:
 The parietal lobe is located
right above the occipital
lobe of the brain. The
parietal lobe has to do with
touch sensations and other
body sensations including
location of the body in
space.
TEMPORAL LOBE:
 The temporal lobe is on
each side of your brain (in
the areas near your
temples). The temporal
lobe of the left side of the
brain is important for
understanding spoken
language for most people.
OCCIPITAL LOBE:
 The occipital lobe is at the
very back of the brain. It is
most important for seeing,
and contains an area called
the primary visual cortex.
CONT….
 People can become blind because of damage to the occipital lobe
of the brain, even if there is nothing wrong with their eyes.
 While the four lobes of the brain all have different jobs to do,
they also all have to work together. For example, if you bite
into an apple, you see it’s color, its shape, experience how it
smells, and know whether it tastes sweet or tart. How all
areas of the brain provide this information is called the
binding problem. There is no location in the brain where all
of the various lobes send their information so they can be
combined.
Rabia Khurshid
14112454-004
Topic: Hypothalamus
HYPOTHALAMUS:
• The portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei
with a variety of functions.
• The control center of all autonomic regulatory activities of the
body.
LOCATION AND STRUCTURE:
• It is located in the middle of
the base of the brain and
encapsulates the ventral
portion of the third ventricle.
• A small cone-shaped
structure it projects
downward ending in the
pituitary stalk tubular
connection to the pituitary
gland
FUNCTION:
• The most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the
nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.
• Synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones and in turn
stimulate or inhibit the secretion of the pituitary hormones.
Nosheen Asif
14112454-13
Topic: Mid Brain
MID BRAIN :
• A short stem which serves the function of being a path
between the fore brain and the hind brain is mid brain. Its
upper portion forms corpora quadrigemina and its remainder
forms the peduncles of brain. The overall cavity of mid brain
is displayed by fine canal, aqueduct of sylvius or the iter and
goes further up to the fourth ventricle and opens in the heart’s
third ventricle.
FUNCTIONS OF MID BRAIN :
• The various functions which involve brainstem mechanism are
controlling the respiratory muscles.
• controlling the vocal cords enabling a person to phonate.
• controlling pharyngeal.
• oral as well as nasal passages that are known to cause resonance
effect and controlling the palate.
• Controls posture and walking
• Handles reflexes of eye movements
Rida Imitiyaz
14112454-021
Topic: Hindbrain
THE HINDBRAIN:
 All of these lower brain
functions occur without any
conscious effort.
PARTS OF HIND BRAIN:
 Cerebellum
 Pons
 Medulla
CEREBELLUM:
 Means “little brain”.
 Control muscles movement.
 Co-ordination between reflex
action.
 Relationship between
different parts of mind.
PONS:
 The pons is a portion of the brain
stem, located above the medulla
oblongata and below the
midbrain.
 Although it is small, at
approximately 2.5 centimeters
long.
CONT…..
 It is a bridge between cerebellum and cerebrum, which are both
parts of the brain.
FUNCTIONS OF PONS :
 Pons are involved in eyes movement and facial expression.
 Pons are responsible for biting , chewing and swallowing.
MEDULLA:
 The medulla is a structure of
the brain located in the brain
stem. The brain stem begins
just above the spinal cord and
continues to the center of the
brain. The brain stem is void
of any cerebral functioning
but instead controls lower
level functioning.
FUNCTIONS OF MEDULLA:
 Medulla controls breathing , heart rate and blood pressure.
Tanzilla
14112454-003
Topic: Spinal card
SPINAL CARD:
 Large group of nerves which
runs through the center of
the spine and carries
messages between the brain
and the rest of the body
A CROSS SECTION:
 The central core contains grey matter (the bodies and dendrites of
the neurons in the bundle) and is surrounded by white matter (the
neuron axons).
FUNCTION:
 The spinal cord works a bit like a telephone switchboard operator,
helping the brain communicate with different parts of the body
and vice versa.
 Its three major roles are:
 To relay messages from the brain to different parts of the body
(usually a muscle) in order to incur an action
CONT….
 To pass along messages from sensory receptors found all over the
body to the brain
 -To coordinate reflexes (quick responses to outside stimuli that
don't go through the brain, they are managed by the spinal cord
alone)
ANATOMY:
The cord is organized into 5 major regions consisting of a total
of 33 segments (2 of these segments are fused, so it is usually
described as having 31 segments). Each segment contains
nerves connected to different parts of the body:
REGIONS OF SPINAL CORD:
 Cervical region: head, neck,
upper body, arms and hands
 Thoracic region: hands,
fingers, chest and abdominal
muscles
 Lumbar region: hips, knee,
ankles and toe muscles
CONT….
 Sacral region: legs, toes, bladder and anal muscles
 Coccygeal region: skin around the coccyx
Farwa Azhar
14112454-011
Topic: Factors affected nervous
system
FACTORS AFFECTED NERVOUS
SYSTEM:
• Biological
• physical
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTOR:
 Stress:
Effects of stress
1. Stress creates free radicals that kill brain cells.
2. Stress makes you forgetful and emotional.
3. Stress creates a vicious cycle of fear and anxiety.
4. Stress depletes critical brain chemicals causing depression
5. Stress puts you at greater risk for mental illnesses of all kinds.
6. Stress makes you stupid.
7. Stress shrinks your brain.
DEPRESSION:
Definition
CNS depression, or central nervous system depression, is defined as
decreased neurological activity in the central nervous system, which
is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
Causes
CNS depression is typically caused by taking drugs known as CNS
depressants. Examples of these compounds, the National Institute on
Drug Abuse explains, include barbiturates, alcohol and
benzodiazepines.
Autonomic Effects
One part of the CNS is the autonomic nervous system, which controls
involuntary actions such as breathing and the heart beat. As a result,
one effect of CNS depression, is a slowing of heart rate and breathing.
CONT.….
Other Effects
CNS depression can also affect other functions of the brain, resulting
in problems with thinking and perception, movement and speech,
Organized Wisdom explains.
Symptoms of CNS depression vary according to the extent to which
CNS function is reduced. Symptoms may include:
Feeling sleepy and uncoordinated.
Staggering.
Blurred vision.
Impaired thinking.
Slurred speech.
Impaired perception of time and space.
Slowed reflexes and breathing.
Reduced sensitivity to pain.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
•Hostility
•Anger
•Vital Exhaustion
•Anxiety, Worry, and Hope
BEHAVIORAL SYMPTOMS
•Eating more or less
•Sleeping too much or too little
•Isolating oneself from others
•Procrastinating or neglecting responsibilities
•Using alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs to relax
•Nervous habits (e.g. nail biting, pacing)
REFERENCES:
 http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/brain.html
 http://psychology.about.com/od/biopsychology/f/how-big-is-the-
brain.htm
 http://www.babycenter.com/inside-a-childs-mind-a-visual-guide
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corpus_callosum
 http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/brain.html
 http://www.innerbody.com/image_nerv02/nerv41-new.html
 http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/p/cerebrum.ht
 salem.k12.va.us/staff/ahannah/The%20Hindbrain.ppt
CONT.….
 http://www.innerbody.com/image_nerv02/nerv41-new.html
 http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/p/cerebrum.ht
 salem.k12.va.us/staff/ahannah/The%20Hindbrain.ppt
 salem.k12.va.us/staff/ahannah/The%20Hindbrain.ppt
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindbrain
 www.columbia.edu/cu/psychology/courses/1010/.../structure.html
 www.lbusd.k12.ca.us/millikan/teacher_folder/.../2BrainEnhanced.p
pt
 www.psychology.ccsu.edu/engwall/cortex.ppt
 www.slideshare.net/hanasheque/hypothalamus-14847453
Central nervous system
Central nervous system

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Central nervous system

  • 1.
  • 3.
  • 4. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM:  It is the system of the body that receives and processes all information from all parts of the body. It consists of the brain, and spinal cord. It is arguably the most important system of the body.
  • 5. PARTS OF CNS: There are two main parts of CNS  Brain  Spinal cord  Brain: • Play a central role • Most powerful organ • Weighs only about three pounds • Length15 centimeters long
  • 6. CONT.…. • First three years of life are critical to your baby's brain development. • Baby's brain weighs approximately 350 to 400 grams, or three- quarters of a pound. • Men tend to have bigger brains than women
  • 7. ACTIVITY OF THE CNS:  There are three activity of the CNS  Gathering sensory information from external stimuli  Synthesizing that information  Responding to those stimuli
  • 9. CEREBRUM  The cerebrum, also known as the telencephalon,  The biggest part of the brain  Makes up 85% of the brain's weight  The outer portion (1.5mm to 5mm) of the cerebrum is covered by a thin layer of gray tissue called the cerebral cortex.
  • 10. CONT.…. • Controls voluntary muscles • The cerebral cortex is made of gray matter with billions of neurons forming trillions of synapses that produce many of the brain’s functions, including planning, creativity, and memory.
  • 11. LOCATION: Directionally, the cerebrum and the cortex that covers it is the uppermost part of the brain. It is the anterior portion of the forebrain and is superior to other brain structures such as the pons, cerebellum and medulla oblongata.
  • 12. HEMISPHERE:  The cerebrum has two halves.  Right  Left Right:  Control the all action of left side.  Scientists think that the right half helps you think about abstract things like music, colors, and shapes.
  • 13. CONT….. Left:  Controls all action of right side.  The left half is said to be more analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech.
  • 14. CONT…..  hemispheres that are connected by the corpus callosum  Corpus callosum wide, flat bundle of neural fibers about 10 cm long beneath the cortex in the eutherian brain at the longitudinal fissure.
  • 15. FUNCTION:  Determining Intelligence  Determining Personality  Thinking  Perceiving  Producing and Understanding Language  Interpretation of Sensory Impulses
  • 16. CONT….  Motor Function  Planning and Organization  Touch Sensation
  • 18. CEREBRAL CORTEX:  The cerebral cortex is the part of the brain that is visible from the outside. The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain and consists of a collection of nerve cell bodies made up of gray matter.
  • 19. CONT….  The axons of these neurons extend in toward the center of the brain and into the white matter.
  • 21. STRUCTURE OF THE CORTEX:  Each brain hemisphere is divided into four lobes that are separated by prominent fissures. These lobes are:  Frontal lobe (forehead), Parietal lobe (top to rear head),
  • 22. CONT….  Occipital lobe (back head)  Temporal lobe (side of head).
  • 23. FRONTAL LOBE:  The frontal lobe is in the front part of the brain. The frontal lobe is important for planning movements and also contains the primary motor cortex, responsible for control of certain movements, such as moving one finger at a time.
  • 24. CONT….  The frontal lobe helps with certain kinds of decision making that may have to do with control of behaviors in certain situations.
  • 25. PARIETAL LOBE:  The parietal lobe is located right above the occipital lobe of the brain. The parietal lobe has to do with touch sensations and other body sensations including location of the body in space.
  • 26. TEMPORAL LOBE:  The temporal lobe is on each side of your brain (in the areas near your temples). The temporal lobe of the left side of the brain is important for understanding spoken language for most people.
  • 27. OCCIPITAL LOBE:  The occipital lobe is at the very back of the brain. It is most important for seeing, and contains an area called the primary visual cortex.
  • 28. CONT….  People can become blind because of damage to the occipital lobe of the brain, even if there is nothing wrong with their eyes.
  • 29.  While the four lobes of the brain all have different jobs to do, they also all have to work together. For example, if you bite into an apple, you see it’s color, its shape, experience how it smells, and know whether it tastes sweet or tart. How all areas of the brain provide this information is called the binding problem. There is no location in the brain where all of the various lobes send their information so they can be combined.
  • 31. HYPOTHALAMUS: • The portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. • The control center of all autonomic regulatory activities of the body.
  • 32. LOCATION AND STRUCTURE: • It is located in the middle of the base of the brain and encapsulates the ventral portion of the third ventricle. • A small cone-shaped structure it projects downward ending in the pituitary stalk tubular connection to the pituitary gland
  • 33. FUNCTION: • The most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. • Synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones and in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of the pituitary hormones.
  • 35. MID BRAIN : • A short stem which serves the function of being a path between the fore brain and the hind brain is mid brain. Its upper portion forms corpora quadrigemina and its remainder forms the peduncles of brain. The overall cavity of mid brain is displayed by fine canal, aqueduct of sylvius or the iter and goes further up to the fourth ventricle and opens in the heart’s third ventricle.
  • 36. FUNCTIONS OF MID BRAIN : • The various functions which involve brainstem mechanism are controlling the respiratory muscles. • controlling the vocal cords enabling a person to phonate. • controlling pharyngeal. • oral as well as nasal passages that are known to cause resonance effect and controlling the palate. • Controls posture and walking • Handles reflexes of eye movements
  • 38. THE HINDBRAIN:  All of these lower brain functions occur without any conscious effort.
  • 39. PARTS OF HIND BRAIN:  Cerebellum  Pons  Medulla
  • 40. CEREBELLUM:  Means “little brain”.  Control muscles movement.  Co-ordination between reflex action.  Relationship between different parts of mind.
  • 41. PONS:  The pons is a portion of the brain stem, located above the medulla oblongata and below the midbrain.  Although it is small, at approximately 2.5 centimeters long.
  • 42. CONT…..  It is a bridge between cerebellum and cerebrum, which are both parts of the brain.
  • 43. FUNCTIONS OF PONS :  Pons are involved in eyes movement and facial expression.  Pons are responsible for biting , chewing and swallowing.
  • 44. MEDULLA:  The medulla is a structure of the brain located in the brain stem. The brain stem begins just above the spinal cord and continues to the center of the brain. The brain stem is void of any cerebral functioning but instead controls lower level functioning.
  • 45. FUNCTIONS OF MEDULLA:  Medulla controls breathing , heart rate and blood pressure.
  • 47. SPINAL CARD:  Large group of nerves which runs through the center of the spine and carries messages between the brain and the rest of the body
  • 48. A CROSS SECTION:  The central core contains grey matter (the bodies and dendrites of the neurons in the bundle) and is surrounded by white matter (the neuron axons).
  • 49. FUNCTION:  The spinal cord works a bit like a telephone switchboard operator, helping the brain communicate with different parts of the body and vice versa.  Its three major roles are:  To relay messages from the brain to different parts of the body (usually a muscle) in order to incur an action
  • 50. CONT….  To pass along messages from sensory receptors found all over the body to the brain  -To coordinate reflexes (quick responses to outside stimuli that don't go through the brain, they are managed by the spinal cord alone)
  • 51. ANATOMY: The cord is organized into 5 major regions consisting of a total of 33 segments (2 of these segments are fused, so it is usually described as having 31 segments). Each segment contains nerves connected to different parts of the body:
  • 52. REGIONS OF SPINAL CORD:  Cervical region: head, neck, upper body, arms and hands  Thoracic region: hands, fingers, chest and abdominal muscles  Lumbar region: hips, knee, ankles and toe muscles
  • 53. CONT….  Sacral region: legs, toes, bladder and anal muscles  Coccygeal region: skin around the coccyx
  • 54. Farwa Azhar 14112454-011 Topic: Factors affected nervous system
  • 55. FACTORS AFFECTED NERVOUS SYSTEM: • Biological • physical
  • 56. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTOR:  Stress: Effects of stress 1. Stress creates free radicals that kill brain cells. 2. Stress makes you forgetful and emotional. 3. Stress creates a vicious cycle of fear and anxiety. 4. Stress depletes critical brain chemicals causing depression 5. Stress puts you at greater risk for mental illnesses of all kinds. 6. Stress makes you stupid. 7. Stress shrinks your brain.
  • 57. DEPRESSION: Definition CNS depression, or central nervous system depression, is defined as decreased neurological activity in the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord. Causes CNS depression is typically caused by taking drugs known as CNS depressants. Examples of these compounds, the National Institute on Drug Abuse explains, include barbiturates, alcohol and benzodiazepines. Autonomic Effects One part of the CNS is the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary actions such as breathing and the heart beat. As a result, one effect of CNS depression, is a slowing of heart rate and breathing.
  • 58. CONT.…. Other Effects CNS depression can also affect other functions of the brain, resulting in problems with thinking and perception, movement and speech, Organized Wisdom explains. Symptoms of CNS depression vary according to the extent to which CNS function is reduced. Symptoms may include: Feeling sleepy and uncoordinated. Staggering. Blurred vision. Impaired thinking. Slurred speech. Impaired perception of time and space. Slowed reflexes and breathing. Reduced sensitivity to pain.
  • 60. BEHAVIORAL SYMPTOMS •Eating more or less •Sleeping too much or too little •Isolating oneself from others •Procrastinating or neglecting responsibilities •Using alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs to relax •Nervous habits (e.g. nail biting, pacing)
  • 61. REFERENCES:  http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/brain.html  http://psychology.about.com/od/biopsychology/f/how-big-is-the- brain.htm  http://www.babycenter.com/inside-a-childs-mind-a-visual-guide  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corpus_callosum  http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/brain.html  http://www.innerbody.com/image_nerv02/nerv41-new.html  http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/p/cerebrum.ht  salem.k12.va.us/staff/ahannah/The%20Hindbrain.ppt
  • 62. CONT.….  http://www.innerbody.com/image_nerv02/nerv41-new.html  http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/p/cerebrum.ht  salem.k12.va.us/staff/ahannah/The%20Hindbrain.ppt  salem.k12.va.us/staff/ahannah/The%20Hindbrain.ppt  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindbrain  www.columbia.edu/cu/psychology/courses/1010/.../structure.html  www.lbusd.k12.ca.us/millikan/teacher_folder/.../2BrainEnhanced.p pt  www.psychology.ccsu.edu/engwall/cortex.ppt  www.slideshare.net/hanasheque/hypothalamus-14847453