Supporting evidence


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Supporting evidence

  2. 2. Where to Gather Evidence  Books  /0/0/49  Journals   Credible online articles/websites  .org, .edu, .gov, .net  Google Scholar
  3. 3. Types of Supporting Evidence  Quotations  A small section directly from the text; maintains the original wording  Paraphrasing  A section of the text in your own words  Summarizing  Putting the main ideas of a text into your own words
  4. 4. Using Direct Quotes  1. Make the quotation a part of your sentence without punctuation between your own words and the words you are quoting.  Lady Gregory “admits buffoonery in [the] depiction of folk culture in Spreading the News,” but there is a deeper motive within her play than to simply entertain theater-goers” (Harrington, xii).  2. Use short quotations--only a few words--as part of your own sentence.  Mrs. Tarpey ignores the magistrate and continues “rising and ducking” as she halfway pays attention to him and tends to her apples (Gregory 37).  3. Use an introductory or explanatory phrase, but not a complete sentence, separated from the quotation with a comma.  Rich states, “We find it difficult to separate race from class from sex oppression because in our lives they are most often experienced simultaneously” (Rich 1099).  4. Introduce the quotation with a complete sentence and a colon.  In "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For," Thoreau states directly his purpose for going into the woods: "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived” (Thoreau 50).
  5. 5. Block Quotes  Only use if more than 3 lines of verse or 4 lines of prose  Indent 1 inch from left margin  Maintain double spacing  Place citation at end of quote  Keep original formatting  In this case, punctuation comes after the quote and before the citation  For example: He is losing those feelings, but does not wish to relieve his childhood to cure his grief; instead he wants to make sure that his child has the opportunity to experience nature: But thou, my babe! shalt wander like a breeze By the lakes and sandy shores, beneath the crags Of ancient mountain . . . so shalt thou see and hear The lovely shapes and sounds intelligible Of that eternal language, which thy God/Utters. (54-61)
  6. 6. Some Helpful Tips • Rule 1: Complete sentence: "quotation.” • Rule 2: Someone says, "quotation." • Rule 3: If Rules 1 and 2 do not apply, do not use any punctuation between your words and the quoted words.  And remember that a semicolon (;) never is used to introduce quotations.  When using a citation, periods go outside of the quotes  “ . . .” (Smith 92).  Exclamation points and question marks go inside  “ . . . !” (Smith 50)  Must use line numbers when citing poetry instead of page numbers  You may omit original words, but place brackets around added words  “it thrills [his] heart/With tender gladness . . . to think that [he] shalt learn” (Coleridge 45).
  7. 7. Some Helpful Tips  ALWAYS explain your quotes  The magistrate becomes frustrated and shouts, “What is [the town’s] chief business?” Mrs. Tarpey replies with “Business, is it? What business would the people here have but to be minding one another’s business?” (37)  This is quote is well introduced, but not explained.  The magistrate becomes frustrated and shouts, “What is [the town’s] chief business?” Mrs. Tarpey replies with “Business, is it? What business would the people here have but to be minding one another’s business” (37) She deflects the question while simultaneously suggesting that the magistrate should mind his own business as well. In this exchange, Mrs. Tarpey shows nationalism; she redirects the questions of the magistrate with sarcastic answers and essentially ignores him when he speaks to her.  By adding the final green section to the quote, it is now explained and the reader of the paper can understand the writer’s reason for including this section.
  8. 8. Summarizing and Paraphrasing  Read entire text. Note main ideas and key points  Summarize the single main idea of the source in your own words.  Paraphrase important supporting points of the source.  Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly.  Cite your summaries and paraphrasing! These are not your own ideas.
  9. 9. Summarizing and Paraphrasing  In Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew, two unmarried sisters, Bianca and Kate, live with their father. Kate must be married before Bianca, but Kate is seen as a shrew and not a suitable wife. However, a man named Petruccio comes to town and decides to tame Kate. They are married and he takes her to his home. He encounters obstacles when attempting to tame her, but in the end, they return to her father’s town and it seems that Kate is tamed (Shakespeare 150-200).  Summarizing; main points of the whole text  Kate and Petruccio have an argument in which Kate uses her wit insult Petruccio. He accepts her fiery temper as a challenge to tame her (Shakespeare 160).  Paraphrasing: the writer of this paper uses one specific section of the text and summarizes it using his/her own words.
  10. 10. Works cited and resources for you! “Integrating Quotations into Sentences.” Randy Rambo, 2012. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2013. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.