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Vaccines and you

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Vaccines & You
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Vaccines and you

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Dr Jennifer Njenga presented a workshop for LCCMedia Foundation on Vaccines and You. This workshop is the first of three workshops that Dr. Jennifer will deliver for the Foundation.

She covered how the virus spreads, how to prevent and the the efficacy of the vaccines.

Dr Jennifer Njenga presented a workshop for LCCMedia Foundation on Vaccines and You. This workshop is the first of three workshops that Dr. Jennifer will deliver for the Foundation.

She covered how the virus spreads, how to prevent and the the efficacy of the vaccines.

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Vaccines and you

  1. 1. VACCINES AND YOU Canada Homecare Group Dr Jennifer Njenga MD MPH DRPH Ebian Ali RN
  2. 2. COVID-19 VIRUS
  3. 3. GLOBAL COVID-19 STATISTICS • 195 886 929 • Confirmed cases • Last update: 29 July 2021, 10:17 am GMT-6 • 4 189 148 • Confirmed deaths • Last update: 29 July 2021, 10:17 am GMT-6 • 3 830 124 730 • Vaccine doses administered • Last update: 28 July 2021 https://www.who.int/
  4. 4. COVID-19 STATISTICS CANADA • 895 Cases today 1,429,577 Total cases 5,965 Active cases 1,397,037 Total Resolved 5 Deaths today 26,575 Total deaths https://www.canada.ca/en.html
  5. 5. ALBERTA COVID-19 CASES • 234, 108 (233 on July 28) • Confirmed • 520 • Active cases • 230,263 • Recovered cases • 2,325 • Deaths
  6. 6. CORONA VIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID- 19) • COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a new coronavirus discovered in 2019. • The virus is reported to spread mainly from person to person through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks. The virus may also spread when a person touches another person (i.e., a handshake) or a surface or an object that has the virus on it, then touches their mouth, nose or eyes with unwashed hands. • The virus may also spread when a person touches another person (i.e., a handshake) or a surface or an object (also referred to as a fomite) that has the virus on it, and then touches their mouth, nose or eyes with unwashed hands. • Disease ranges from mild to severe and some people may be asymptomatic. • Adults 65 years and older and people of any age with pre-existing medical conditions are at a higher risk for severe illness. • Symptoms may take up to 14 days to appear after exposure to Covid-19.
  7. 7. COVID-19 SYMPTOMS • new or worsening cough • shortness of breath or difficulty breathing • temperature equal to or over 38°C • feeling feverish • chills • fatigue or weakness • muscle or body aches • new loss of smell or taste • headache • gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting) • feeling very unwell • Children tend to have abdominal symptoms and skin changes or rashes.
  8. 8. HOW LONG DOES THE VIRUS LAST IN THE BODY • People infected with COVID-19 seem to be most contagious in the first week of showing symptoms. • Up to 11 days of first showing symptoms, people were reported to have the virus in their sputum. • A study conducted in two hospitals in Wuhan, China, in March this year showed that the virus was on average still being shed by cells in the human body 20 days after infection, and in some patients even after 37 days. https://www.gavi.org/
  9. 9. PREVENTION OF COVID-19 • Quarantine : if you have been in close contact with someone (within 6 feet of someone for total of 15 minutes or more over a 24-hour period) who has COVID-19, unless you have been fully vaccinated. People who have been fully vaccinated do not need to quarantine after contact with someone who had COVID-19 unless they have symptoms. However, they should get tested 3-5 days after exposure and wear a mask indoors in public for 14 days or until their test result in negative. • Isolation: is used to separate people infected with COVID-19 from those who are not infected. People in isolation should stay home until its safe for them to be around others. They should use separate rooms from others, including bathroom, and not share cup, towels and utensils.
  10. 10. PREVENTION CONT’ • Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. • Avoid close contact with people outside your home. Stay at least 6 feet (about 2 arms’ length) from others. • Wear a mask in public, even if you don’t feel sick. The make cover will help protect others in case you are infected. • Cover your coughs and sneezes with a tissue or the inside of your elbow. Throw used tissues in the trash and then wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. • Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces daily. This includes tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, and sinks. • Stay home if you have symptoms such as fever, cough, shortness of breath. • Seek emergency medical care if you develop severe symptoms, such as trouble breathing, chest pain, new confusion, inability to wake or stay awake, or pale, gray, or blue-colored skin, lips, or nail beds, depending on skin tone.​ https://www.cdc.gov/
  11. 11. VACCINES • COVID-19 vaccination is a critical prevention measure to help end the COVID-19 pandemic. • There are four categories of vaccines: Whole Virus, Protein Subunit, Viral Vector and Nucleic Acid (mRNA). • Health Canada authorized the use of four different COVID-19 vaccines made by Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, AstraZeneca and Janssen (Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine division) • Alberta and Ontario discontinued the use of Astrazeneca. • Alberta offers only Pfizer or Moderna for people ages 12+ • One needs to get two vaccines of either Pfizer or Moderna to be full vaccinated and protected against COVID-19. 95% f​or the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines, 82% for the AstraZeneca/COVISHIELD vaccine • Vaccines can be mixed and matched. • Its safe and highly recommended to be vaccinated after having Covid-19. • 75.7% of the 12+ population who received at least one dose • 64.6% of the 12+ population are fully vaccinated
  12. 12. MRNA VACCINES- PFIZER & MODERNA • mRNA vaccines teach our cells how to make a protein that will trigger an immune response without using the live virus that causes COVID-19. Once triggered, our body then makes antibodies. These antibodies help us fight the infection if the real virus does enter our body in the future. • ‘RNA’ stands for ribonucleic acid, which is a molecule that provides cells with instructions for making proteins. Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines contain the genetic instructions for making the SARS- CoV-2 spike protein, which is found on the surface of the virus that causes COVID-19. • When a person is given the vaccine, their cells will read the genetic instructions like a recipe and produce the spike protein. After the protein piece is made, the cell breaks down the instructions and gets rid of them. • The cell then displays the protein piece on its surface. Our immune system recognizes that the protein doesn’t belong there and begins building an immune response and making antibodies.
  13. 13. MRNA VACCINES CONT’ • The vaccine is given by an injection (0.3 mL) into the muscle of the arm. For the vaccine to work best, you need to get 2 doses: a single dose and then a second dose 21 days later. • Immunity develops over time. It takes about 2 weeks to develop significant protection against COVID-19. For the greatest protection, you will need the second dose. • Ingredients • Medicinal ingredient • mRNA • Non-medicinal ingredients • ALC-0315 = ((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2-hexyldecanoate) • ALC-0159 = 2-[(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide • 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine • cholesterol • dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate • monobasic potassium phosphate • potassium chloride • sodium chloride • sucrose • water for injection
  14. 14. V I R A L V E C T O R VA C C I N E S - A S T R A Z E N E C A & J O H N S O N & J O H N S O N • Viral Vector Vaccines use a harmless virus, such as an adenovirus, as a delivery system. This “vector” virus is not the virus that causes COVID-19. Adenoviruses are among the viruses that can cause the common cold. There are many different types of adenoviruses, and many have been used as delivery systems for other vector-based vaccines for decades. • When a person is given the vaccine, the vector virus contained within the vaccine produces the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. This protein is found on the surface of the virus that causes COVID-19. This protein will not make you sick. It does its job and goes away. • Through this process, the body can build a strong immune response against the spike protein without exposing you to the virus that causes COVID-19.
  15. 15. VIRAL VECTOR VACCINES CONT’ • The vaccine is given by 2 separate injections of 0.5 mL each into the muscle of the arm. For the vaccine to work best, you need to get 2 doses: a first dose and then a second dose 4 to 12 weeks later. • Immunity develops over time. It takes about 2 weeks to develop significant protection against COVID-19. For the greatest protection, you will need the second dose. • Ingredients • Medicinal ingredient • Adenovirus vector vaccine • Non-medicinal ingredients • disodium edetate dihydrate (EDTA) • ethanol • L-histidine • L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate • magnesium chloride hexahydrate • polysorbate 80 • sodium chloride • sucrose • water for injection
  16. 16. COVID-19 VACCINE SIDE EFFECTS • redness, warmth, swelling, bruising, itching, or feeling sore where you had the needle • feeling tired or unwell • a headache • a fever or chills • body aches or sore joints • feeling sick to your stomach (nausea), vomiting (throwing up), or loose stool (diarrhea) • swollen lymph nodes • a cough
  17. 17. POST COVID-19 CONDITIONS • Tiredness or fatigue • Symptoms that get worse after physical or mental activities • Difficulty thinking or concentrating (sometimes referred to as “brain fog”) • Cough and difficulty in breathing • Chest or stomach pain • Headache • Fast-beating or pounding heart (also known as heart palpitations) • Joint or muscle pain • Pins-and-needles feeling • Diarrhea • Sleep problems • Fever • Dizziness on standing (lightheadedness) • Rash • Mood changes • Change in smell or taste • Changes in period cycles
  18. 18. MYTHS ABOUT COVID-19 VACCINE • Children have developed autism about receiving the MMR vaccination • Can I get vaccinated and still get the disease? • Natural prevention is so much better than artificial inventions • The COVID-19 vaccine may give you COVID-19! • Is the COVID-19 vaccine safe it its only been around for a few months • mRNA vaccines changes the human genome • COVID-19 vaccine affects fertility • COVID-19 vaccine will turn one into a zombie! • COVID-19 vaccine has terrible side effects. • COVID-19 is just another flu!
  19. 19. Thank You

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