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Giovanni Allegretti, Tuscommoning. When a law promote a new culture of com-moning and collaborative governance. The case of Tuscany

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Giovanni Allegretti CES, Facoltà di Economia, Università di Coimbra. Co-chair of the «Autorità Indipendente per la Promozione e la Garanzia della Partecipazione della Regione Toscana»

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Track 3:
Bologna,
November 6, 2015
Giovanni Allegretti
CES, Facoltà di Economia, Università di Coimbra.
Co-chair of the «Autorità Indipendente per la Promozione e la Garanzia della Partecipazione
della Regione Toscana»
«Tuscommoning. When a law promote a new culture of com-
moning and collaborative governance. The case of Tuscany.»
An introduction
• Hope not to contribute to a new “overstretching”
of the concept of “commons”
• But I would like to propose, from the perspective
of a person charged of a techno-political task in
a public institution, some reflections about an
other “overstretched” concept: participation.
• And I will try to do it joinining together reflections
on a Law “participation” who tried to give shape
to the “circular subsidiarity” foreseen by the
neglected article 118.4 of the Italian Constitution
(which we can imagine as a commons) and its
main contents, which deal with an issue
fundamental in commoning….
• The right to the city is far more than the
individual liberty to access urban resources: it
is a right to change ourselves by changing the
city. It is, moreover, a common rather
than an individual right since this
transformation inevitably depends upon the
exercise of a collective power to reshape the
processes of urbanization. The freedom to
make and remake our cities and ourselves is,
I want to argue, one of the most precious yet
most neglected of our human rights.
(David Harvey, THE RIGHT TO THE CITY, New Left Review nª 53/Sept 2008, p. 23)
In Tuscany we have a Regional Law (since 2007, then modified in
2013) for promoting and guaranteeing participation of citizens in the
construction of public policies at regional and local levels, as a way to
implement the Right to the City (including the rural) and to pass from
a community participation to a citizens participation.
Although it doesn’t explicitly talk about commons, we
consider itself a “commons”, because:
1) it was the output of a 2 years process of public
debate;
2) it has a “fading clause” which obliges citizens to
take care of it and its effectiveness (if the finiteness
of resources is a pivotal aspect for promoting
commoning);
3) It allows the use of public resources (60% at least
of 700.000 €) to promote effective social dialogue,
finding point of convergence between forms of
PARTICIPATION BY INVITATION and forms of
PARTICIPATION BY IRRUPTION (Ibarra, 2007)
4) Created an independent authority for monitoring
and stimulating participatory cultures (named by the
Council) (so recognizing the role of institution in
multiplying the effects of grassroots processes while
granting social authonomy)
Some of its values, which make
it a “promoter of commoning” (1)
• Section I – Art. 1– Principles
• 1. Participation in the formulation and making of regional and local policies
is a right. This law promotes forms and instruments of democratic
participation to render this right effective.
• 2. (… it refers to articles 58 and 59 of the Tuscanian Statutes, on social
subsidiarity, in as much as the law encourages the autonomous initiative of
inhabitants and organised social groups
• 3. This law likewise pursues the following aims:
• a) contributing to the renewal of democracy and its institutions by integrating
it with practices, processes and instruments of participatory democracy;
• b) promoting participation as an everyday form of administration and
government of the Region in all sectors and at all governmental levels;
• c) reinforcing, by means of the participation of inhabitants, the capacity to
elaborate, define and formulate public policies;
• (…) e) contributing to greater social cohesion by means of the diffusion of a
culture of participation and enhancement of all forms of civic commitment;
Some of its values, which make it a “promoter of
commoning” (2) - methodological pluralism
• f) contributing to gender equality(
• g) favouring the social inclusion and emerging of diffused or inadequately
represented interests;
• h) stimulating and activating the commitment and participation of everyone
in the choices and life of local and regional communities;
• i) enhancing the widespread knowledge, competences and commitment of
the community;
• j) promoting the diffusion of best practices in participation and their relative
models;
• k) enhancing other participatory experiences in progress.
• 4. The provisions of this law cannot be interpreted as limiting the forms of
participation not provided for by this law itself nor as limiting the broader
inclusivity of all participatory processes.
• 5. In the definition of regional programmes for public works with equal
criteria of priority, the Regional Government favours those works for which
public debate in accordance with Section II is to be or has already been
held.

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Giovanni Allegretti, Tuscommoning. When a law promote a new culture of com-moning and collaborative governance. The case of Tuscany

  • 1. Track 3: Bologna, November 6, 2015 Giovanni Allegretti CES, Facoltà di Economia, Università di Coimbra. Co-chair of the «Autorità Indipendente per la Promozione e la Garanzia della Partecipazione della Regione Toscana» «Tuscommoning. When a law promote a new culture of com- moning and collaborative governance. The case of Tuscany.»
  • 2. An introduction • Hope not to contribute to a new “overstretching” of the concept of “commons” • But I would like to propose, from the perspective of a person charged of a techno-political task in a public institution, some reflections about an other “overstretched” concept: participation. • And I will try to do it joinining together reflections on a Law “participation” who tried to give shape to the “circular subsidiarity” foreseen by the neglected article 118.4 of the Italian Constitution (which we can imagine as a commons) and its main contents, which deal with an issue fundamental in commoning….
  • 3. • The right to the city is far more than the individual liberty to access urban resources: it is a right to change ourselves by changing the city. It is, moreover, a common rather than an individual right since this transformation inevitably depends upon the exercise of a collective power to reshape the processes of urbanization. The freedom to make and remake our cities and ourselves is, I want to argue, one of the most precious yet most neglected of our human rights. (David Harvey, THE RIGHT TO THE CITY, New Left Review nª 53/Sept 2008, p. 23)
  • 4. In Tuscany we have a Regional Law (since 2007, then modified in 2013) for promoting and guaranteeing participation of citizens in the construction of public policies at regional and local levels, as a way to implement the Right to the City (including the rural) and to pass from a community participation to a citizens participation. Although it doesn’t explicitly talk about commons, we consider itself a “commons”, because: 1) it was the output of a 2 years process of public debate; 2) it has a “fading clause” which obliges citizens to take care of it and its effectiveness (if the finiteness of resources is a pivotal aspect for promoting commoning); 3) It allows the use of public resources (60% at least of 700.000 €) to promote effective social dialogue, finding point of convergence between forms of PARTICIPATION BY INVITATION and forms of PARTICIPATION BY IRRUPTION (Ibarra, 2007) 4) Created an independent authority for monitoring and stimulating participatory cultures (named by the Council) (so recognizing the role of institution in multiplying the effects of grassroots processes while granting social authonomy)
  • 5. Some of its values, which make it a “promoter of commoning” (1) • Section I – Art. 1– Principles • 1. Participation in the formulation and making of regional and local policies is a right. This law promotes forms and instruments of democratic participation to render this right effective. • 2. (… it refers to articles 58 and 59 of the Tuscanian Statutes, on social subsidiarity, in as much as the law encourages the autonomous initiative of inhabitants and organised social groups • 3. This law likewise pursues the following aims: • a) contributing to the renewal of democracy and its institutions by integrating it with practices, processes and instruments of participatory democracy; • b) promoting participation as an everyday form of administration and government of the Region in all sectors and at all governmental levels; • c) reinforcing, by means of the participation of inhabitants, the capacity to elaborate, define and formulate public policies; • (…) e) contributing to greater social cohesion by means of the diffusion of a culture of participation and enhancement of all forms of civic commitment;
  • 6. Some of its values, which make it a “promoter of commoning” (2) - methodological pluralism • f) contributing to gender equality( • g) favouring the social inclusion and emerging of diffused or inadequately represented interests; • h) stimulating and activating the commitment and participation of everyone in the choices and life of local and regional communities; • i) enhancing the widespread knowledge, competences and commitment of the community; • j) promoting the diffusion of best practices in participation and their relative models; • k) enhancing other participatory experiences in progress. • 4. The provisions of this law cannot be interpreted as limiting the forms of participation not provided for by this law itself nor as limiting the broader inclusivity of all participatory processes. • 5. In the definition of regional programmes for public works with equal criteria of priority, the Regional Government favours those works for which public debate in accordance with Section II is to be or has already been held.
  • 7. Some of its values, which make it a “promoter of commoning” (3) – a broader range of persons entitled participants • Article 2: • Holders of the right to participate • 1. Participatory processes can be partaken by: • a) resident citizens and foreign or displaced citizens who are legally resident in the territory affected by participatory processes; • b) the people who work, study or are occasionally living in the concerned territory; • c) when in Tuscany, the Tuscans who reside abroad; • d) other persons, also at their request, who have an interest in the concerned territory or in the matter of the participatory process, in so far as their involvement in the participatory process is deemed useful by the person in charge of the proceedings.
  • 8. Multipolar and multifactorial participation Citizen Citizen Citizen Informal groups Associations, movements, NGOs, other organized groups citizen citizencitizen Elected Officials Technical staff/employees “One-to-one Dialogue” Abandoning a model which foster self-referenciality Elected Officials Technical staff/employees We are trying to foster a culture which help to progressive abandon the traditional “concertation between “stakeholders” in favor of a larger dialogue which can reduce stiffness in representing frozen positions…
  • 9. Taking a position means explaining why we have a preference, not imposing it…. Since article 10 of Law 69/2007, there is an obligation to respond to people’s proposals, as a minimum requirement – but few commitment has been put in SELF-RULING PARTICIPATION…
  • 10. RESPONSIVENESS and MEANINGFUL TIMINGS AT THE CORE: Reminding that every participatory process is composed by two cycles, and taking care of the second is strategic for the sake of the first one… CYCLE 1 Decision- making CYCLE 2 Implementation and evaluation
  • 11. 60% of our annual budget must be allocated (by law) to support proposals of local authorities, schools (with a fix %), private sector enterprises and groups of citizens (the latter having to collect signatures and create a formal organism in order to be able to receive funding). The law provides some basic criteria for rewarding best proposals during the 3 yearly CALL FOR PROPOSALS. We added some others…. 1) Relevance of the object 2) Relevance of costs (in relation to the costs of implementation of decisions) 3) Evaluation of effects on local community (also for spreading a culture of participation and active citizenship).
  • 12. WITH THESE GOALS, MAINTAINING COLLECTIVE MEMORY AS A CENTRAL ELEMENT OF A “COMMONS” SEEMED A BASIC START…. The role of OPEN TOSCANA
  • 13. We imagine that DATA linked to LOCAL POLICIES and PARTICIPATORY PROCESSES THEMSELVES are also a commons that must be enhanced…with the tools that each one have! We tried to start to foster such a sharing through OPEN TOSCANA and now we are facing debates about PROTECTION of DATA and Misuse….
  • 14. SUPPORTED LOCAL PROCESSES UNTIL 2013 (5 years) • 220 Requests 21% Schools 12% Citizens Groups 0% Enterprises 67 % Local Authorities 77% municipalities) • 116 Funded Processes • Everage cost per project: 33.000 € (+ 6.000 € in co-funding) • 2 millions of citizens interested (out of 3.750.511 hab/2014) • 80.000 participants • 10.000 with high degree of activism • 19% Participatory Budgeting • 20,9% Educational projects • 18,6% urban requalification • 10% Tools of planning • 6,8% Environmental policies • 6,4% Ruling codes • 6,4% Socioeconomic policies • 4,5% rail and road infrastructures/ports
  • 15. HOW DID WE WORK, IN ORDER TO IMPROVE THE PAST RESULTS AND BETTER ADAPT TO A GROWTH IN THE DIFFUSION OF A CULTURE OF PARTICIPATION? WE TRIED TO INCREASE THE DIALOGUE WITH PRIOPOSAL IN A PEDAGOGIC ENVIROMENT, OFFERING INTERNATIONAL MIRRORS, WITH “LA MIA TOSCANA” PROJECT WE TRIED TO INCREASE THE CAPACITY OF REGIONAL EMPLOYEES TO BE PREPARED FOR ENGAGING IN PARTICIPATION FINALLY WE ADDED NEW CREATERIA ABOUT SUSTAINABILITY OF THE PROCESS, CLEARENNESS OF RULES, COHERENCE GOALS/TOOLS, and capacity of increasing ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP
  • 16. The new deal: 16 Presented projects Approved projects % of approvals out of the total Local Authorities 70 40 66,04 Enterprises 12 3 11,32 Schools 14 5 13,21 Residents 10 6 9,43 Total 106 54 100
  • 17. Our tight dialogue with proposers translates the desire of expelling ourselves as gatekeepers, and opening a co-pedagogic space where we co-plan the processes and learn together how to do it (so dematerializing our eventual technocratic touch as an academic elite borrowed to a political task…). We would like to avoid to say to project “passed”/”not approved”….
  • 18. Improving quality in time 18 APPROVED PROJECTS (presented once or more times) Jun e14 July 14 Oct. 14 Jan 15 May 15 Projects approved at the first time 17 3 10 8 6 Projects approved at the second representation 4 2 3 Projects approved at the third representation 1 Total 17 3 14 10 10 UNAPPROVED PROJECTS (in relation to how many times they have been represented) Project presented once, not approved and never represented 24 Project presented twice, not approved and never represented 7 Total 31
  • 19. Geographic distribution 19 provenienza geografica progetti finanziati Arezzo 2% Firenze 33% Grosseto 7%Livorno 4% Lucca 11% Massa 4% Pisa 15% Prato 9% Pistoia 6% Siena 9% Arezzo Firenze Grosseto Livorno Lucca Massa Pisa Prato Pistoia Siena
  • 20. 20 Dimensione ente proponente 10 12 8 8 4 enti locali tra 0 e 10,000 abitanti tra 10,000 e 20,000 abitanti tra 20,000 e 50,000 abitanti tra 50,000 e 100,000 abitanti oltre 100.000 abitanti Enti locali finanziati dalla legge 46/2013 Finanziamenti erogati 477000 51000 275000 250000 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 Serie2 477000 51000 275000 250000 giu-14 lug-14 ott-14 gen-15
  • 21. Typologies of projects 21 Categorie progetti finanziati pianificazione territoriale 28% Coesione sociale e beni comuni 32% Strumenti di programmazione e governance partecipativa 40% Coesione sociale e beni comuni pianificazione territoriale Strumenti di programmazione e governance partecipativa Social cohesion and commons Urban planning Tools for programming, planning and participatory governance
  • 22. 22 Subcategories Coesione sociale e beni comuni - sottocategorie 3 3 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 creazione legami (“patti”) comunitari, contratti di fiume ecc Piani partecipati della protezione civile stategie di coesione sociale Pianificazione territoriale - sottocategorie progettazione ambientale 13% formulazione piani urbanistici e regolamenti 7% recupero e rivitalizzazione centri storici 20% progettazione e riqualificazione scuole e servizi scolastici 27% progettazione di servizi 20% recupero edifici storici (e progettazione di servizi) 13% recupero e rivitalizzazione centri storici formulazione piani urbanistici e regolamenti progettazione ambientale progettazione di servizi progettazione e riqualificazione scuole e servizi scolastici recupero edifici storici (e progettazione di servizi)
  • 23. 23 1 2 1 3 11 1 1 1 Strumenti di programmazione locale e governance partecipativa - sottocategorie Serie2 Serie2 1 2 1 3 11 1 1 1 formulazione piani, regolamenti politiche pubbliche per la mobilità e i politiche pubbliche per lo sviluppo Bilanci partecipativi piani di sviluppo locale e politiche per l'istruzione: progettazion politiche pubbliche culturali politiche pubbliche per l’integrazione
  • 24. In general, the bottom-up proposals are more chaotic initially, but the ones who faster grow/mature… (in terms of language and methodologies absorbed from facilitators) 24
  • 25. In terms of issues citizens concerns are more often linked to unemployment, counter-projects for sensitive areas, fair trade and solidarity economy, management of abandoned areas. They are less sophisticated in terms of ICTs, but more engaged, and – first of all “Self-ruled”. In some cases we have to protect them from the rage of their administrative institutions, which refuse to become their counterparts… Recently we are incentivizing municipalities which want to create legal systems (Fosdinovo) for letting citizens manage resources as woods to produce energy… 25
  • 26. Some exemples of collaborative governance, as POP-UP (revitalization of comercial spaces in historic centres), almost are becoming “regional policies” and national references. They also are connected with networks and ideas around the country (as CIVISM project showed) …but we still miss a lot (CO-CITIES for exemple, urban food sovereignity plans;)
  • 27. CO-MAPPING is often a large part of such incremental processes… 27
  • 28.  What is more difficult? a) Scaling-up these reflections at Regional level. Especially where the private sector is involved. It seems that our Law gave up to the possibilities of articles 41-42 of Italian Constitutions which submit private sector and private properties to the “public function” values… So, we have different procedures and obligations (in relation to Public Debate) for private and public actors. 2) Finally the use of public resources for improving participation tends to be seen as a sort of “waste of Money”, without thinking about the quality of deliberation and its need to be seriously pursued through a logic of civic pedagogy. 28
  • 29. Thanks a lot for your patience… (questions are more than welcome)