The use of psychopharmacology in children has been debated several times over the past few years. This presentation will highlight the issue in an effort to determine whether or not it is necessary in the treatment of children. I will also be discussing some alternatives that have been proven to be effective.
Mr. Brown states that medication often results in increased attentiveness and decreased impulsivity and over activity. It decreases inappropriate behavior but it does not decrease inappropriate behavior without additional intervention.
This article discusses a strong support system as an alternative to psychopharmacology.
This study found that the criteria for diagnosis of ADHD varies across the US, with potential over-diagnosis and overtreatment.
This article gives us an idea of which childhood disorders are prevalent.
This article was in favor of psychopharmacology in the treatment of some childhood disorders.
This article expresses concern about children being overmedicated, but these medications are useful when a child really needs them.
The conclusion is that the increase in diagnoses is primarily to the effects of psychostimulant medications. Basically, it’s saying that certain meds are causing children to have symptoms of PBD.
Ethics is very important in psychology. This article discusses some of the challenges faced by mental health care providers in prescribing or researching the use of drugs in preschoolers.
This article also stresses the importance of pediatric nurse practitioners to understand the pharmacological interactions and safety in the treatment of children.
There was a substantial increase in use of antipsychotics for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and affective disorders.
This research is very important because parents and pediatricians need to know that children are commonly misdiagnosed and inappropriately medicated. This will encourage them to be more cautious in their diagnosis.
Au psy492 m7_a2_pp_cooper_l
Psychopharmacology in Children: Is it really necessary?<br />LaToya Cooper<br />Fall Session II<br />PSY 492<br />Dr. Viventi<br />
Article: Diagnosis and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder<br />Michael Brown states that one major issue is misdiagnosis. There are other disorders in children that cause symptoms of ADHD. Some of those issues are:<br /><ul><li>Anxiety
School intervention</li></li></ul><li>Article: The Supporting Alliance in Child and Adolescent Treatment: Enhancing Collaboration Among Therapists, Parents, and Teachers<br />The child’s primary relationship with the parents, teachers, and therapist is very important in treatment.<br />Secondary relationships between parent-teacher and parent-therapist is also important.<br />Research indicates that the therapeutic alliance between therapist and pediatric patient is most effective in the context of the productive supporting alliance. <br />The alliance encompasses the network of relationships among therapists, parents, and teachers <br />
Article: The Extent of Drug Therapy for Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children in Public School<br />The authors once again discuss the issue of misdiagnosis. <br />The amount of students in this study receiving ADHD medications was 2 to 3 times high as the expected rate. <br />Medication use increased with years in school<br />
Article: Twenty-five years of research on childhood anxiety disorders: publication trends between 1982 and 2006 and a selective review of literature<br />This article examined the trends in childhood anxiety disorders over the past 25 years. <br />States that medications can be employed during the acute phase of treatment when symptoms are sever or when children or adolescents do not respond adequately to Cognitive Behavior Therapy intervention.<br />
Article: The pharmacological management of childhood anxiety disorders: a review<br />Study on how medications effect children with certain disorders.<br />Outcome was that there is good support to conclude that medications are helpful for certain disorders, such as pediatric anxiety and obsessive-convulsive disorder.<br />
Article: The best practices for mental health in child welfare: screening, assessment, and treatment guidelines<br />Focuses on developing guidelines in five key areas related to children’s mental health:<br /><ul><li>Screening and assessment
Youth empowerment</li></li></ul><li>Article: Pediatric bipolar disorder: underdiagnosed or fiction?<br />This article discusses how pediatric diagnoses of bipolar disorder have increased in recent years.<br />According to the author, three reasons for the increase are:<br /><ul><li>PBD had previously been unrecognized and under diagnosed by clinicians
The symptoms of PBD are largely a result of iatrogenic effects and side effects of psychostimulant medications.
Changes to the diagnostic system now classify previously normal behaviors of childhood symptoms of PBD.</li></li></ul><li>Article: ethical issues in child psychopharmacology research and practice: emphasis on preschoolers<br />Article is about how psychoactive drug prescription for preschoolers has increased.<br />Children and adolescents are deemed vulnerable populations, at risk of being harmed by unethical practice and research and are in need of special protection. <br />
Article: Pharmacokinetic considerations in the treatment of pediatric behavioral issues<br />This article is a review of psychopharmacology and the genetic considerations with pharmokinetics.<br />States the medications are important in the treatment of children with pediatric behavioral issues.<br /> Points out that meds can be helpful if administered correctly.<br />
Article: New users of antipsychotic medications among children enrolled in tenncare<br />Article describes a study of children in Tennessee's managed care program for Medicaid enrollees and the uninsured. <br />Pediatricians are prescribing newer medications more frequently than before. <br />The proportion of TennCare children who become new users of antipsychotics nearly doubled from 1996 to 2001.<br />
Conclusion<br />The one thing that these articles have in common are that they state that medications can be helpful, when diagnosis is accurate. <br />There are also alternative treatment options that should be used before or in conjunction with psychopharmacology. <br />Pediatricians need to educate themselves on the topic and make sure that they are using the proper method to test for childhood disorders. <br />
References<br />Brown, M. (2000). Diagnosis and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78(2), 195-203. Retrieved from Business Source Elite database.<br />Feinstein, N., Fielding, K., Udvari-Solner, A., & Joshi, S. (2009). The Supporting Alliance in Child and Adolescent Treatment: Enhancing Collaboration Among Therapists, Parents, and Teachers. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 63(4), 319-344. Retrieved from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database.<br />LeFever, G., Dawson, K., & Morrow, A. (1999). The Extent of Drug Therapy for Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children in Public Schools. American Journal of Public Health, 89(9), 1359-1364. Retrieved from Business Source Elite database.<br />Muris, P., & Broeren, S. (2009). Twenty-five Years of Research on Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Publication Trends Between 1982 and 2006 and a Selective Review of the Literature. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 18(4), 388-395. doi:10.1007/s10826-008- 9242-x.<br />
References cont…<br />Reinblatt, S., & Riddle, M. (2007). The pharmacological management of childhood anxiety disorders: a review. Psychopharmacology, 191(1), 67-86. Retrieved from SPORTDiscus with Full Text database.<br />Romanelli, L., Landsverk, J., Levitt, J., Leslie, L., Hurley, M., Bellonci, C., Gries, L., Pecora, P., & Jensen, P.. (2009). Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare: Screening, Assessment, and Treatment Guidelines. Child Welfare, 88(1), 163-88. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from Career and Technical Education. (Document ID: 1668934541).<br />Sahling, D. (2009). Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Underdiagnosed or Fiction?. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 11(3), 215-228. doi:10.1891/1559-43188.8.131.52.<br />Spetie, L., & Arnold, L. (2007). Ethical issues in child psychopharmacology research and practice: emphasis on preschoolers. Psychopharmacology, 191(1), 15-26. Retrieved from SPORTDiscus with Full Text database.<br />
References cont…<br />Theoktisto, K.. (2009). Pharmacokinetic Considerations in the Treatment of Pediatric Behavioral Issues. Pediatric Nursing, 35(6), 369-74; quiz 374-5. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from Career and Technical Education. (Document ID: 1929055951).<br />William O. Cooper, Gerald B. Hickson, Catherine Fuchs, Patrick G. Arbogast, and Wayne A. Ray New Users of Antipsychotic Medications Among Children Enrolled in TennCare Arch PediatrAdolesc Med, Aug 2004; 158: 753 - 759.<br />