Flow: Water Science 101

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Presentation deck "Flow: Water Science 101" from "Pressure+Flow" the four-city event series presented by La Marzocco USA in February and March 2013. This presentation provides an overview of water properties and water science as it relates to the care and maintenance of espresso machines, and the preparation of espresso.

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Flow: Water Science 101

  1. 1. Gushing Over Water#FLOWPressure & Flow 2013Scott GuglielminoProduct Manager, La Marzocco USA@scottflex
  2. 2. FLOW: What we will talk about• What is water• The water cycle• Why baristas should care• Water hardness• Corrosion• Common water questions• Your questions about water
  3. 3. FLOW: The Personification• Makes friends easily• Never alone, never wanders away• Always pulling others in• But always a distinct individualLife of the party: The Universal Solvent
  4. 4. FLOW: Hydrological Cycle Source: http://www.physicalgeography.net
  5. 5. FLOW: Water Sources Source: http://wi.water.usgs.gov
  6. 6. FLOW: Environmental factors of waterVegetation Acrid
  7. 7. FLOW: Environmental factors of waterGranite & Sand Limestone & Other Hardness Minerals
  8. 8. FLOW: Aquifers and you Source: http://wi.water.usgs.gov
  9. 9. FLOW: Aquifers and you
  10. 10. FLOW: Water Hardness (Scale)
  11. 11. FLOW: Water Hardness (Scale) Source: espresso-restorations.com
  12. 12. FLOW: Water hardnessConcentration of Hardness as Calciium Carbonate (mg/Liter) Source: www.water.usgs.gov
  13. 13. Defining Hard WaterSoft 0 to 60 mg/L as calcium carbonateModerately 61 to 120 mg/LHardHard 121 to 180 mg/LVery Hard more than 180 mg/L Source: usgs.gov
  14. 14. FLOW: Corrosion
  15. 15. pH
  16. 16. FLOW: Langelier Saturation IndexLSI = pH - pHsWhere: • pH is the measured water pH • pHs is the pH at saturation in calcite or calcium carbonate and is defined as: pHs = (9.3 + A + B) - (C + D) Where: • A = (Log10 [TDS] - 1) / 10 • B = -13.12 x Log10 (oC + 273) + 34.55 • C = Log10 [Ca2+ as CaCO3] - 0.4 • D = Log10 [alkalinity as CaCO3] Source: wqa.org
  17. 17. But what about my water?Target water propertiesTesting your waterCorrecting your water
  18. 18. FLOW: SCAA Water SpecificationsCharacteristic Target Acceptable RangeOdor Clean / Fresh, Odor-freeColor Clear ColorTotal Chlorine 0 mg/LTDS 150 mg/L 75-250 mg/L 1-5 grains or 17 mg/L – 85Calcium Hardness 4 grains or 68 mg/L mg/LTotal Alkalinity 40 mg/L At or near 40 mg/LpH 7.0 6.5 to 7.5Sodium 10 mg/L At or near 10 mg/L Source: scaa.com
  19. 19. FLOW: La Marzocco Water SpecificationsCharacteristic TargetOdor Clean / Fresh, Odor-freeColor Clear ColorTotal Chlorine 0 mg/LTDS 150 mg/LCalcium Hardness 3-5 grains or 51.3-85.5 mg/LTotal Alkalinity 90-120 mg/LpH 7-7.5Chlorides <30 mg/L
  20. 20. FLOW: Methods of Conditioning• Mechanical Filtration • Sediment removal • Small particle removal • Dissolved solids removal • TDS removal• Adsorption • Activated Carbon • Taste and Odor removal• Ion Exchange • Softening • Hardness Reduction
  21. 21. FLOW: Tools for knowing your water: Good Tool Source: Hach.com
  22. 22. FLOW: Tools for knowing your water: Best Tool
  23. 23. Questions?

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