The 5 Stage Model (Salmon, 2011)
Log on & make contact
Form the online community
Engage with the learning
Apply new knowledge
Welcome & encourage
Find common links
Link to wider context
Designing online learning activities
They should be –
•Flexible and adaptable
What’s different about teaching online (1)?
Encourage participationEncourage participation
& collaboration& collaboration
Organise & manageOrganise & manage
the online environmentthe online environment
Give clear instructionsGive clear instructions
on activities &on activities &
discussion topicsdiscussion topics
Facilitate onlineFacilitate online
Set tone ofSet tone of
the discussionsthe discussions
Provide basicProvide basic
‘‘ground rules’ground rules’
for the online learnersfor the online learners
You will ....
What’s different about teaching online (2)?
Learners need to......
• be more self-motivated
• become confident in using the technology
• be prepared to accept more responsibility for their own
• make time to contribute to online discussions and activities
What’s different about teaching online (3)?
Tutors and students also need to ....
• develop an online identity
• be willing to engage with the online community
• know when and where to find help and support
• manage time to allow for regular communication/online and
Online communication tools
• Discussion boards/wikis/blogs etc
– You don’t need to reply right away
– You can have time for reflection before
– Everything posted there remains visible for all to
• Real-time ‘chat’ and videoconferencing
– Immediate responses
– Gives a sense of ‘presence’
– Requires quick thinking and short responses
– Needs to be well managed
Building the Learning Community
GCULearn discussion groups, wikis, blogs, social
agreeing responsibilities between learners & tutors
group members supporting each other
Making sure everyone is clear about what’s expected
Most importantly, regular & meaningful
supported by ….
Things to think about –
• Formal or informal?
• Personal or impersonal?
• Length of messages?
• Frequency of messages?
• To the group/tutor/individual?
• Use of jargon, acronyms etc?
• Use of humour (carefully & sparingly)!
• Give messages a meaningful
• Avoid ambiguity
• highlight key points in bold
• Use clear fonts in reasonable
• Use paragraphs to divide text
to make it easier to read
• use file attachments for long
• respond to correct thread in
the discussion group
• KISS – Keep It Short and
" I agree/disagree ….."
" I'm confused…………."
" I feel strongly about this ……."
" I'm finding this very interesting …….."
Makes it less impersonal!
• Salmon, G. (2011) (3rd
Ed) E-Moderating: The Key to Online
Teaching and Learning, Routledge
• MacDonald, J. (2008) (2nd
Ed), Blended Learning and Online