Positive psychology sample free talk


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LVS Consulting is pleased to offer 51 free talks on positive psychology in 2013. This is a sample of a free talk that was given as a keynote. For more information, please visit http://www.lvsconsulting.com/2012/09/06/51-free-talks-on-positive-psychology/ and contact LVS Consulting.

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Positive psychology sample free talk

  1. 1. Positive Psychology KCHC November 2012 Presented by: Lisa Sansom
  2. 2. A brief history of Positive Psychology Dr. Martin Seligman Learned Helplessness Optimism  Explanatory style IPPA  International Positive Psychology Association  Third World Congress in LA, summer 2013 MAPP  Masters in Applied Positive Psychology, U Pennwww.lvsconsulting.com 2
  3. 3. Positive Psychology Study of people at their best Science of what makes life worth living Flourishing  51% by 2051 Umbrella term for researchers  Psychologists  Neuroscientists  Funding attraction No claims to have invented the fieldwww.lvsconsulting.com 3
  4. 4. What is positive psychology? PERMA (Seligman, Flourish)www.lvsconsulting.com
  5. 5. Positive Emotions How many can you name?www.lvsconsulting.com
  6. 6. Why be “happy”? Happy people (high in SWB)  Live longer  Live healthier (fewer colds and other illnesses)  Faster recovery when sick  More friends (causal?)  Higher pay at work and more promotions  Better satisfaction with work  Higher quality relationships  Overcome challenges more easily  And other important findings… Happiness is a process, not an end goalwww.lvsconsulting.com 6
  7. 7. Positive Emotions PANAS scale  Positive Affect Negative Affect scale / schedule  Watson, Clark & Tellegen 1988 Measures positive and negative emotion separatelywww.lvsconsulting.com 7
  8. 8. Sample PANAS questions Indicate to what extent you feel this way right now (1-5 scale): Interested Irritable Distressed Alert Excited Ashamed Upset Inspired Strong Nervous Guilty Determined Scared Attentive Hostile Jittery Enthusiastic Active Proud Afraidwww.lvsconsulting.com 8
  9. 9. PANAS findings and implications Positive Affect (PA) is not simply the absence of Negative Affect (NA) PA seems to be consistent for an individual across time and situation  More variable for some individuals than others, but this variability is also consistent People high in PA more likely to be married (and happily so) and to like their jobs  Chicken and egg issue People who describe themselves as religious or spiritual higher on PAwww.lvsconsulting.com 9
  10. 10. Genetics of happiness? According to twin studies, PA is heritable – influenced by genetics – but less so than intelligence  About 50% of your PA is heritable  But does not mean inevitable as genetic expressions can be changed  ~10% is situational  ~40% is entirely within your choice / control  This is what we can focus on and affect directly  We can also reframe our “situation”www.lvsconsulting.com 10
  11. 11. Positivity Ratio 3:1 Barbara Fredrickson Work with Marcial Losada Broaden & Build theory  Not specific-action tendencies  Positive emotions signal safety  Future-oriented  Encourage learning, openness  Undo the effects of negative emotions 3:1 for flourishing  John Gottman: 5:1 in close relationshipswww.lvsconsulting.com 11
  12. 12. Flow / Engagement Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi Flow = experience of working at full capacity Optimal balance between skill and challenge  Creativity Activities perceived as voluntary Distinguished from “junk flow” We need to learn to rise to the occasion and meet challenges (grit, resilience)  Otherwise-depressed people who manage to keep busy in meaningful ways are not troubled by their symptoms while engagedwww.lvsconsulting.com 12
  13. 13. Flow / Engagement When you are engaged deeply in an activity and time seems to stand still When are you in flow?www.lvsconsulting.com
  14. 14. Positive Relationships Who do you have good relationships with? What makes them positive?www.lvsconsulting.com
  15. 15. Positive Relationships Happy people have more friends, more likely to be married, have happier relationships  But which way does this go?  Can’t just “give you more friends” to find out You can’t do without social relationships Satisfaction with marriage spikes, and then returns to baseline When spouse dies, widows exhibit steep decline in life satisfaction and only slowly recover (5-7 yrs)www.lvsconsulting.com 15
  16. 16. Adaptation to Marriage 7.5 7.45 7.4 7.35 7.3 7.25 7.2 7.15 7.1 7.05 2 Yr. Marriage 2 After Beforewww.lvsconsulting.com 16
  17. 17. Slow Adaptation to Widowhood 7.2 7 6.8 6.6 6.4 All is Fine 6.2 Husband failing 6 Widow 5.8 2 Yrs. All is Widow 4 Yrs. Fine 4 Yrs.www.lvsconsulting.com 17 6 Yrs.
  18. 18. Experience Sampling Method (ESM) Pager going off at Introverts Extroverts random times of waking Social hours Introverts / Extroverts – Alone how happy are you now? (1-6)  Alone?  With people?  6 is happiestwww.lvsconsulting.com 18
  19. 19. Experience Sampling Method (ESM) Pager going off at Introverts Extroverts random times of waking Social 2.4 2.9 hours Introverts / Extroverts – Alone how happy are you now? (1-6)  Alone?  With people?  6 is happiestwww.lvsconsulting.com 19
  20. 20. Experience Sampling Method (ESM) Pager going off at Introverts Extroverts random times of waking Social 2.4 2.9 hours Introverts / Extroverts – Alone 2.1 how happy are you now? (1-6)  Alone?  With people?  6 is happiestwww.lvsconsulting.com 20
  21. 21. Experience Sampling Method (ESM) Pager going off at Introverts Extroverts random times of waking Social 2.4 2.9 hours Introverts / Extroverts – Alone 1.5 2.1 how happy are you now? (1-6)  Alone?  With people?  6 is happiestwww.lvsconsulting.com 21
  22. 22. Relationships “Other people matter.”  Chris Peterson “Love. Full stop.”  George Vaillantwww.lvsconsulting.com
  23. 23. Meaning / purpose What do you contribute to the world? What is your meaning or purpose?www.lvsconsulting.com
  24. 24. Meaning People are meaning-making Post-traumatic growth (PTG not PTSD)  85% know PTSD – studies show that knowing about it makes it more likely to occur  Yet PTG is a more common outcome Strengths of belief, spirituality Meaning in life questionnaire  I understand my lifes meaning.  I am seeking a purpose or mission for my life.www.lvsconsulting.com 24
  25. 25. Character Strengths Strengths are things that  You are good at  You enjoy doing  Are beneficial to others  Inspire other people when they see you doing them  Provide potential sources of meaningwww.lvsconsulting.com
  26. 26. Some strengths (VIA classification) Creativity  Kindness  Gratitude Curiosity  Social  Hope Critical intelligence  Zest thinking  Teamwork  Love Love of  Fairness  Humour learning  Leadership  Honesty Wisdom  Forgiveness  Humility Bravery  Prudence Perseverance  Self-control Spirituality  Appreciationwww.lvsconsulting.com
  27. 27. What is a story about you at your best? What strengths did you hear?  Strengths can be from the list  Strengths can be other things that you heard and that you admirewww.lvsconsulting.com
  28. 28. Findings on Meaning Church-goers  Healthier  More forgiving  Less drugs, crime  More education, more money, live longer Active ingredients:  Comforting beliefs / ritual  Social support (confounding!)  Connecting to something permanent, important, larger than yourselfwww.lvsconsulting.com 28
  29. 29. Opportunities for increasing meaning Values Strengths  VIA vs. Gallup (also Realise2, StandOut, others) Increasing the perceived meaningfulness of an activity  Increases internalization / intrinsic motivation  Increases task curiosity  Increases autonomy More on this in accomplishment pillarwww.lvsconsulting.com 29
  30. 30. Accomplishment What have you done and achieved? What are you proud of?www.lvsconsulting.com
  31. 31. Accomplishment Newest addition to Pos Psych  Contentious Achievement, accomplishing goals  Goal theory (Locke & Latham)  Self-efficacy (Bandura)  Grit / perseverance (Duckworth)www.lvsconsulting.com 31
  32. 32. Grit (determination / perseverance) Grit scale (Duckworth) Among college students:  Higher GPAs, SATs In military:  Greater retention over first summer of training (Beast Barracks at West Point) In Spelling Bee:  Predicted number of hours of study  Predicted advancement to final rounds In another study (Duckworth) – self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescentswww.lvsconsulting.com 32
  33. 33. Resilience Resilience is about how we bounce back from adversity  How do we overcome the bad things that happen to us? Much easier to do for optimistic thinkers ABCDE model A = Adversity – the bad thing that happened B = Beliefs – what do you believe to be true about that adverse event? C = Consequences – how do you feel, what do you think, what do you do as a result?www.lvsconsulting.com
  34. 34. Example of a bad thing Activating event: I applied for a job and I didn’t get it. B = the beliefs – what do you believe to be true?  I’m no good at job interviews  There was someone else better  They had someone else in mind the whole time.  I’m under-qualified C = how do you feel, what do you think, what you do?  I feel bad, upset, frustrated  I don’t apply for any more jobs at that company  I apply for lower-level jobswww.lvsconsulting.com
  35. 35. What next? D = Disputation  How can you dispute or debate the Beliefs? Four key questions:  What evidence do you have?  What are some alternatives?  What are the implications, even if your Belief is correct?  What is the usefulness of holding onto that Belief?www.lvsconsulting.com
  36. 36. Let’s test B = I’m no good at job interviews What evidence do you have?  Ask for feedback. How have I done in other interviews? What are some alternatives?  I did ok in the interview, but wasn’t a good fit.  Someone else was more qualified. What are the implications, even if your Belief is correct?  I can get training on how to do job interviews What is the usefulness of holding onto that Belief?  Not very – it will just make me feel bad and I won’t want to do other interviews.www.lvsconsulting.com
  37. 37. After the Disputation E = energization  You have a path to move forward  You feel better – more positive! In this example:  Get interview training  Get feedback from the interviewerswww.lvsconsulting.com
  38. 38. Science-based What distinguishes positive psychology from “self-help” is the sciencewww.lvsconsulting.com
  39. 39. Validating positive interventions(Seligman, Steen, Park, Peterson) Five different positive interventions:  Gratitude visit  Three good things  You at your best  Using signature strengths  Identifying signature strengths One weekwww.lvsconsulting.com 39
  40. 40. Validating positive interventions(Seligman, Steen, Park, Peterson)www.lvsconsulting.com 40
  41. 41. Validating positive interventions(Seligman, Steen, Park, Peterson)www.lvsconsulting.com 41
  42. 42. Resources – books Authentic Happiness – Seligman Learned Optimism – Seligman Positivity – Fredrickson A Primer in Positive Psychology – Peterson Happiness – Diener & Biswas-Diener  Practically anything by Ed Diener Spark – Ratey (positive health) The How of Happiness – Lyubomirsky The Happiness Hypothesis – Haidt Spiritual Evolution – Vaillant  Harvard Study, another book: Aging Wellwww.lvsconsulting.com 42
  43. 43. Resources – web www.authentichappiness.org – Seligman  Lots of assessments – all free www.positivepsychologycanada.com – CPPA  Canadian Positive Psychology Association  Newsletter, webinars, conference 2014 (Ottawa) http://positivepsychologynews.com – PPND  Free daily newsletter – written by MAPP alum www.lvsconsulting.com  My own irregular blogwww.lvsconsulting.com 43
  44. 44. To be happier… Create more PERMA  Positive emotions  Engagement / flow  Relationships  Meaning / purpose  Accomplishment / achievement Spot your strengths and those of others! “Other people matter”www.lvsconsulting.com
  45. 45. Thank you! Any questions?www.lvsconsulting.com