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Bottled Water and The EnvironmentBottled Water and The Environment
Sustainable Product Development
Stanford University
Lui...
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
LCA is a quantitative tool for analyzingLCA is a quantitative tool ...
Bottled water benefitsBottled water benefits
 Easy delivery of potable water:Easy delivery of potable water:

Disaster r...
RegulationsRegulations
Tap Water (EPA)Tap Water (EPA)
 Detailed ConsumerDetailed Consumer
Reports (water source,Reports (...
Environmental ImpactsEnvironmental Impacts
of the bottlesof the bottles
Path To MarketPath To Market
(International Bottled Water Association)
What is a basin/aquifer, and why does itWhat is a basin/aquifer, and why does it
matter if we pump water out of it?matter ...
Life Cycle Impacts: ProductionLife Cycle Impacts: Production
 It takes 72 billion gallons ofIt takes 72 billion gallons o...
Life Cycle Impacts: ProductionLife Cycle Impacts: Production
It takesIt takes ~900 million gallons~900 million gallons
of...
Life Cycle Impacts: DisposalLife Cycle Impacts: Disposal
 Many plastic bottles areMany plastic bottles are
NOT being recy...
Plastics do not biodegrade, theyPlastics do not biodegrade, they photodegradephotodegrade
(They break into smaller and sma...
Rethink water!Rethink water!
 Take home messagesTake home messages

Tap water is better regulated than bottled water, pl...
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Industrial Ecology and Systems Approach &

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LCA is a quantitative tool for analyzing consumption of resources (renewable & non-renewable) and emission of wastes to the environment (air, water, land) in a system, or in a subsystem

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Industrial Ecology and Systems Approach &

  1. 1. Bottled Water and The EnvironmentBottled Water and The Environment Sustainable Product Development Stanford University Luis Lorgio
  2. 2. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) LCA is a quantitative tool for analyzingLCA is a quantitative tool for analyzing consumption of resources (renewable & non-consumption of resources (renewable & non- renewable) and emission of wastes to therenewable) and emission of wastes to the environment (air, water, land) in a system, orenvironment (air, water, land) in a system, or in a subsystemin a subsystem
  3. 3. Bottled water benefitsBottled water benefits  Easy delivery of potable water:Easy delivery of potable water:  Disaster reliefDisaster relief  Contaminated public/private water supplyContaminated public/private water supply  No access to any other supplyNo access to any other supply  Healthier than soda!Healthier than soda! Report the resultsReport the results
  4. 4. RegulationsRegulations Tap Water (EPA)Tap Water (EPA)  Detailed ConsumerDetailed Consumer Reports (water source,Reports (water source, contaminant testcontaminant test violations) to consumersviolations) to consumers  Microbial tests severalMicrobial tests several times per daytimes per day  Tests 4 times the numberTests 4 times the number of chemical contaminantsof chemical contaminants as required by the SDWAas required by the SDWA Bottled Water (FDA)Bottled Water (FDA)  No reports to consumersNo reports to consumers are requiredare required  Microbial Tests once perMicrobial Tests once per weekweek  Tests for only ¼ of theTests for only ¼ of the chemical contaminantschemical contaminants listed by SDWAlisted by SDWA
  5. 5. Environmental ImpactsEnvironmental Impacts of the bottlesof the bottles
  6. 6. Path To MarketPath To Market (International Bottled Water Association)
  7. 7. What is a basin/aquifer, and why does itWhat is a basin/aquifer, and why does it matter if we pump water out of it?matter if we pump water out of it? http://www.cleanwateroxford.org/watershed.htm http://www.sciencemadesimple.co.uk/page72g.html http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthgwaquifer.html
  8. 8. Life Cycle Impacts: ProductionLife Cycle Impacts: Production  It takes 72 billion gallons ofIt takes 72 billion gallons of water per year just to producewater per year just to produce thethe empty bottlesempty bottles used forused for bottled water.bottled water. ))
  9. 9. Life Cycle Impacts: ProductionLife Cycle Impacts: Production It takesIt takes ~900 million gallons~900 million gallons of oilof oil to make empty PETto make empty PET (Polyethylene terephthalate)(Polyethylene terephthalate) bottles forbottles for bottled water.bottled water.
  10. 10. Life Cycle Impacts: DisposalLife Cycle Impacts: Disposal  Many plastic bottles areMany plastic bottles are NOT being recycled.NOT being recycled. Recycling rate has fallenRecycling rate has fallen from 54% in 1994 tofrom 54% in 1994 to 47.5%47.5% in 2009.in 2009.  US consumesUS consumes 50 Billion50 Billion 16-16- ounce Polyethyleneounce Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottlesterephthalate (PET) bottles ((167167 bottles per person)bottles per person) Water Follies (2002),Water Follies (2002), www.designinsite.dkwww.designinsite.dk,, msnbc, 2005; fast company.com (2007)msnbc, 2005; fast company.com (2007)
  11. 11. Plastics do not biodegrade, theyPlastics do not biodegrade, they photodegradephotodegrade (They break into smaller and smaller pieces of plastic that are often still(They break into smaller and smaller pieces of plastic that are often still very difficult to reincorporate into ecological systems.)very difficult to reincorporate into ecological systems.) Life Cycle Impacts: DisposalLife Cycle Impacts: Disposal
  12. 12. Rethink water!Rethink water!  Take home messagesTake home messages  Tap water is better regulated than bottled water, plus moreTap water is better regulated than bottled water, plus more environmentally and socially responsible (lower carbon footprint, lessenvironmentally and socially responsible (lower carbon footprint, less plastic pollution, not supporting mega corporations)plastic pollution, not supporting mega corporations)  ActionsActions  Carry your own water in a reusable BPA-free bottle, or just drink fromCarry your own water in a reusable BPA-free bottle, or just drink from a glass or fountaina glass or fountain  If you have to buy a drink that comes in a plastic bottle, read theIf you have to buy a drink that comes in a plastic bottle, read the label (look for the water source and how it was treated), look forlabel (look for the water source and how it was treated), look for environmentally friendly bottles, and then REUSE the bottle severalenvironmentally friendly bottles, and then REUSE the bottle several times before you recycle it!times before you recycle it!  RethinkRethink  Water is essential to life… Should it be for sale?Water is essential to life… Should it be for sale?

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