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  1. 1. In linguistics, morphology is the identification, analysisand description, in a language, of the structure ofmorphemes and other linguistic units, such as words,affixes, parts of speech, intonation/stress, or impliedcontext. (words in a lexicon are the subject matter oflexicology). Morphological typology represents amethod for classifying languages according to theways by which morphemes are used in a language —from the analytic that use only isolated morphemes,through the agglutinative ("stuck-together") andfusional languages that use bound morphemes(affixes), up to the polysynthetic, which compress lotsof separate morphemes into single words.
  2. 2.  A morpheme is a short segment of de language with meaning A morpheme is a meningful unit of meaning. A morpheme meets three criteria:1. It a word, or a part of de word that has meaning.2. It cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts with out violation of its meaning or with out meaninggless remainders.3. It appears in different environment with relatively same maening.
  3. 3. PEN It is a word: we can find in the dictionary and it has a denotative meaning. It is an instrument for writing with ink. We can not divide it into smaller meaningful parts. Ex. /pe/n/or/p/en/. In this word /en/ does not have meaning, in others can recur as part of a word with meaning. It is not possible to violate its meaning. It recurs in other environment with a stable meaning. Examples: pencil-penmanship-pen name.
  4. 4. Morphemes are of two kinds: free and bound A free morphemes: A free morphemes is one that can be expressed alone with meaning. It often carries lexical meaning.(the kind of meaning given in a dictionary). It also has the major meaning in the Bound morpheme: it is one that cannot be expressed alonewith cannot appear alone and must be attached to another morpheme.
  5. 5.  Buil= free morpheme rebuildbound m. Free m. builder Free m. Bound m.
  6. 6.  A base: is the part of the word that has the principal meaning. Most of the bases in English are free morphemes, but some are bound morphemes. A free form to which other morphemes maybe be attached is called a base or root.
  7. 7.  Lovable In spelling: lov=bound morpheme (bound base) Able= bound morpheme. In phonemic transcription: /l^vebl/: /l^v/= base (free morpheme) /ebl/= affixe Replay Re= affix /rl/ bound morpheme Play= base /pley/ free morpheme
  8. 8. Affixes: An affix is a bound morpheme thatoccurs before, within or after a base.There are three kinds of affixes.PrefixesSuffixesInfixesPrefixes: These morphemes occur before thatbase
  9. 9. Import prefix baseExamples with common prefixes: PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES a-am- With out Asexual- amoral a- To, toward Aloud- akin ab-,abs Off, away Absence- abnormal
  10. 10.  One of the characteristics of English words is that any modifications to them occur at the beginning or the end; mix can have something added at the beginning re-mix or at the end, mixes, mixer, but never in the middle, called infixes. This distinguishes English from many other languages like Inuktitit which thrive on adding things to words and end up with what to an English eye appears gigantic words.
  11. 11. Here is a list of some of the words that were foundby James McMillan awfully: beawfullyware bally: absoballylutely bleeding: absobleedinglutely bleep: fivebleepmile blessed: absoblessedlutely bloody: railbloodyway, whatsobloodyever, kangabloodyroo blooming: absobloominglutely damn: abdamnsurd, Piccadamnlilly fucking: somefuckingplace, selfdefuckingfence
  12. 12.  They are bound morphemes that occur after the base. The limit is three or four and they have a special order: first the derivational and after the inflectional. Example: teachers= teach=base-er=suffix-s=suffix Moralizers= mor=base-al=suffix-ize=suffix-er=suffix- s= suffix
  13. 13.  inflectional (grammatical): for example, changing singular to plural (dog > dogs), or changing present tense to past tense (walk > walked). In this case, the basic meaning of the word does not change. derivational (the new word has a new meaning, "derived" from the original word): for example, teach > teacher or care > careful
  14. 14. suffix grammatical example example change original word suffixed words plural dog dogs-en plural (irregular) ox oxen 3rd person-s like he likes singular present past tense he worked-ed work past participle he has worked past participle-en eat he has eaten (irregular) continuous/progre-ing sleep he is sleeping ssive-er comparative big bigger