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LSCOG Bicycle and Pedestrian Regional Plan 2012

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This technical handbook is intended to assist LSCOG in the selection and design of pedestrian and bicycle facilities. The
following chapters pull together best practices by facility type from public agencies and municipalities nationwide. Within
the design chapters, treatments are covered within a single sheet tabular format relaying important design information
and discussion, example photos, schematics (if applicable), and existing summary guidance from current or upcoming draft
standards. Existing standards are referenced throughout and should be the first source of information when seeking to
implement any of the treatments featured here.

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LSCOG Bicycle and Pedestrian Regional Plan 2012

  1. 1. LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA LSCOG Bicycle and Pedestrian Regional Plan Design Guidelines April 2012 PREPARED BY: Alta Planning + Design 108 S. Main Street, Suite B Davidson NC 28036 (704) 255-6200 Reviewed by SCDOT. Adopted by the Lower Savannah Rural Transportation Committee (TAC) April 3, 2012
  2. 2. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-1 Appendix E: Design Guidelines Appendix Outline: Overview Design Guidelines Technical Report Introduction Design Needs of Bicyclists Design Needs of Pedestrians Sidewalks Pedestrians at Intersections Crossing Beacons Shared Separated Bikeways Bikeway Signing Bicycle Support Facilities Bikeway Maintenance Greenways and Off-Street Facilities Attachments Overview This appendix presents bicycle and pedestrian facility design standards, based on appropriate MUTCD and Highway Design Manuals, and as supplemented by AASHTO best practices. The purpose is to provide readers and project designers with an understanding of the facility types that are proposed in the Plan, and with specific treatments that are recommended or required. The design guidelines included in the attached technical report provide a good framework for future implementation, but may not be feasible in all locations in the Lower Savannah Region given terrain and/or environmental constraints. Bikeway design and planning standards are continually changing and expanding. Project planners and designers may find additional options available by working closely with SCDOT, and by staying up-to-date on new innovations that are being studied in other areas. The Lower Savannah Regional Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Guidelines present standards and recommendations that specifically provide for consistency in the Lower Savannah region, or where details are needed beyond what is provided by state and federal design standards. All projects must meet state and federal design standards. This Plan also recommends that the LSCOG continually reference and supplement the design guidance in this appendix with the latest bicycle facility guidelines and best practices, including the NACTO Cities Urban Bikeway Design Guide and the revised AASHTO guide (when published). The NACTO guide represents the most up-to-date expertise in the field of bicycle facility design as implemented by leading agencies and municipalities throughout the United States. It is recommended that the NACTO guide serve as a prioritized reference for developing future bicycle facilities in the Lower Savannah region. Opposite: The design guidelines in this appendix were compiled to provide specific guidance on pedestrian and bicycle facility design in the LSCOG region.
  3. 3. E-2 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 1 Introduction This technical handbook is intended to assist LSCOG in the selection and design of pedestrian and bicycle facilities. The following chapters pull together best practices by facility type from public agencies and municipalities nationwide. Within the design chapters, treatments are covered within a single sheet tabular format relaying important design information and discussion, example photos, schematics (if applicable), and existing summary guidance from current or upcoming draft standards. Existing standards are referenced throughout and should be the first source of information when seeking to implement any of the treatments featured here. Guiding Principles The following are guiding principles for these bicycle and pedestrian design guidelines: • The walking and bicycling environment should be safe. All bicycling and walking routes should be physically safe and perceived as safe by all users. Safe means minimal conflicts with external factors, such as noise, vehicular traffic and protruding architectural elements. Safe also means routes are clear and well marked with appropriate pavement markings and directional signage. • The pedestrian and bicycle network should be accessible. Sidewalks, Shared-use paths, bike routes and crosswalks should permit the mobility of residents of all ages and abilities. The pedestrian and bicycle network should employ principles of universal design. Bicyclists have a range of skill levels, and facilities should be designed with a goal of providing for inexperienced/recreational bicyclists (especially children and seniors) to the greatest extent possible. • Pedestrian and bicycle network improvements should be economical. Bicycle improvements should achieve the maximum benefit for their cost, including initial cost and maintenance cost, as well as a reduced reliance on more expensive modes of transportation. Where possible, improvements in the right-of-way should stimulate, reinforce and connect with adjacent private improvements. • The pedestrian and bicycle network should connect to places people want to go. The pedestrian and bicycle network should provide continuous direct routes and convenient connections between destinations such as homes, schools, shopping areas, public services, recreational opportunities and transit. A complete network of on-street bicycling facilities should connect seamlessly to existing and proposed multi-use trails to complete recreational and commuting routes. • The walking and bicycling environment should be clear and easy to use. Sidewalks Shared-use paths and cross- ings should allow all people to easily find a direct route to a destination with minimal delays, regardless of whether these persons have mobility, sensory, or cognitive disability impairments. All roads are legal for the use of pedestrians and bicyclists (except freeways, from which each is prohibited unless a separate facility on that right of way is provid- ed). This means that most streets are bicycle facilities and should be designed, marked and maintained accordingly. • The walking and bicycling environment should be attractive enhance community livability. Good design should integrate with and support the development of complementary uses and should encourage preservation and con- struction of art, landscaping and other items that add value to communities. These components might include open spaces such as plazas, courtyards and squares, and amenities like street furniture, banners, art, plantings and special paving. These along with historical elements and cultural references, should promote a sense of place. Public activi- ties should be encouraged and the municipal code should permit commercial activities such as dining, vending and advertising when they do not interfere with safety and accessibility. • Design guidelines are flexible and should be applied using professional judgment. This document references specific national guidelines for bicycle and pedestrian facility design, as well as a number of design treatments not spe- cifically covered under current guidelines. Statutory and regulatory guidance may change. For this reason, the guid- ance and recommendations in this document function to complement other resources considered during a design process, and in all cases sound engineering judgment should be used.
  4. 4. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-3 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 2 National Standards The Federal Highway Administration’s Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) defines the standards used by road managers nationwide to install and maintain traffic control devices on all public streets, highways, bikeways, and private roads open to public traffic. The MUTCD is the primary source for guidance on lane striping requirements, signal warrants, and recommended signage and pavement markings. To further clarify the MUTCD, the FHWA created a table of contemporary bicycle facilities that lists various bicycle-related signs, markings, signals, and other treatments and identifies their official status (e.g., can be implemented, currently experimental). See Bicycle Facilities and the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices.1 Bikeway treatments not explicitly covered by the MUTCD are often subject to experiments, interpretations and official rulings by the FHWA. The MUTCD Official Rulings is a resource that allows website visitors to obtain information about these supplemen- tary materials. Copies of various documents (such as incoming request letters, response letters from the FHWA, progress reports, and final reports) are available on this website.2 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities last updated in 1999 provides detailed guidance on dimensions, use, and layout of specific facilities. At the time of writing AASHTO Guide was being updated to incorporate revised and new bicycle facility standards. The standards and guidelines presented by AASHTO provide basic information about the design of bicycle and pedestrian facilities, such as minimum sidewalk widths, bicycle lane dimensions, more detailed striping requirements and recommended signage and pavement markings. An update to this guide is in progress, and is likely to provide revised guidance on standard facilities and new information on more contemporary bikeway designs. Offering similar guidance for pedestrian design, the 2004 AASHTO Guide for the Planning, Design and Operation of Pedes- trian Facilities provides comprehensive guidance on planning and designing for people on foot. The National Association of City Transportation Officials’(NACTO) 2011 Urban Bikeway Design Guide3 is the newest publica- tion of nationally recognized bikeway design standards, and offers guidance on the current state of the practice designs. The NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide is based on current practices in the best cycling cities in the world. The intent of the guide is to offer substantive guidance for cities seeking to improve bicycle transportation in places where competing demands for the use of the right of way present unique challenges. All of the NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide treatments are in use interna- tionally and in many cities around the US. Designs shown are not to be presumed acceptable on roads maintained by SCDOT, or on other SC facilities. Some of these treatments are not directly referenced in the current versions of the AASHTO Guide to Bikeway Facilities or the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), although many of the elements of these treatments are found within these documents. In all cases, engineering judgment is recommended to ensure that the application makes sense for the context of each treatment, given the many complexities of urban streets. 1 Bicycle Facilities and the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. (2011). FHWA. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bikeped/mutcd_bike.htm 2 MUTCD Official Rulings. FHWA. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/orsearch.asp 3 http://nacto.org/cities-for-cycling/design-guide/
  5. 5. E-4 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 3 Local Standards The South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) offers additional local guidance regarding the design of non-motor- ized transportation facilities. The primary source of state level guidane is the SCDOT Highway Design Manual, which provides department criteria and practices for roadway construction. This guidance includes information on sidewalks and on-street bike lanes. Engineering level guidance can be found in the SCDOT Standard Drawings. These documents contain typical striping and construction plans for bike lanes and curb ramps. SCDOT developed Traffic Calming Guidelines to assist local governments in addressing cut-through and speeding traffic on SCDOT’s minor collector and local routes. The guidelines discuss eligibility criteria and the project request process. Additional guidance can be found in SCDOT Engineering Directive Memorandums (EDM) and Traffic Engineering Guidelines (TGs) covering specific topics. The EDMs and TGs most relevant to the content in this guide are summarized below: SCDOT EDM 22: Considerations for Bicycle Facilities addresses shared roadways and bike lanes/paved shoulders and provides guidance on design requirements for new projects. In addition, typical sections for both the design of bicycle facilities on new projects and restriping of existing five-lane sections to accommodate bicycle facilities are attached. Other design considerations for bicycle accommodations are also discussed. SCDOT EDM 53: Installation of Rumble Strips provides guidance on the installation of rumble strips on SCDOT’s state highway system. They are used to alert drivers of land departures by providing an audible and vibratory warning. On bicycle touring routes with a high percentage of road departure crashes, rumble strips may be considered for use. In these cases the Traffic Safety Office shall coordinate with the Office of the Pedestrian and Bicycle Engineer and applicable shareholders for input on designated bike routes where paved shoulders are less than 4 feet in width. TG-8: Warning Sign for“Share the Road with Bicyclists”provides guidelines on conditions warranting the use of the“Share the Road with Bicyclists”warning sign. TG-18: Engineering Guidelines For Way Finding Signs details requirements for highway signs. TG-24: Use of Shared Lane Marking Symbols defines the appropriate locations where this type of marking should be consid- ered for use on the South Carolina Highway System and the process by which municipalities request installation. TG-26: Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon Guideline clarifies the warrants, engineering study requirements, timing and design of pedestrian hybrid beacon installations. Access and Roadside Management Standards (ARMS) defines construction and design standards for driveways and en- trances onto SCDOT highways. The standards provide details on driveway spacing, placement of driveways near interchanges, requirements in school access areas, street intersections and other roadway design considerations. Additional References In addition to the previously described national standards, the basic bicycle and pedestrian design principals outlined in this chapter are derived from the documents listed below. Many of these documents are available online and provide a wealth of public information and resources. Additional U.S. Federal Guidelines • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. (2001). AASHTO Policy on Geometric Design of Streets and Highways. Washington, DC. www.transportation.org • United States Access Board. (2007). Public Rights-of-Way Accessibility Guidelines (PROWAG). Washington, D.C. http://www. access-board.gov/PROWAC/alterations/guide.htm Best Practice Documents • Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals (APBP). (2010). Bicycle Parking Design Guidelines, 2nd Edition. • City of Portland Bureau of Transportation. (2010). Portland Bicycle Master Plan for 2030. http://www.portlandonline.com/ transportation/index.cfm?c=44597 • Federal Highway Administration. (2005). BIKESAFE: Bicycle Countermeasure Selection System. http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/ bikesafe/index.cfm
  6. 6. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-5 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 4 • Federal Highway Administration. (2005). PEDSAFE: Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System. http:// www.walkinginfo.org/pedsafe/ • Federal Highway Administration. (2005). Report HRT-04-100, Safety Effects of Marked Versus Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncon- trolled Locations. http://www.tfhrc.gov/safety/pubs/04100/ • Federal Highway Administration. (2001). Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/ sidewalk2/contents.htm • Oregon Department of Transportation. (1995). Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan. http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/ BIKEPED/planproc.shtml • Rosales, Jennifer. (2006). Road Diet Handbook: Setting Trends for Livable Streets. Glossary The following list is comprised of common terms, acronyms and concepts used in bicycle transportation planning, design and operation. AASHTO – American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Accessible route – A continuous route on private property that is accessible to persons with disabilities. There must be at least one accessible route linking the public sidewalk to each accessible building. Actuated signal – A signal where the length of the phases for different traffic movements is adjusted for demand by a signal controller using information from detectors. ADA – Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990; broad legislation mandating provision of access to employment, services, and the built environment to those with disabilities. At-grade crossing – A junction where bicycle path or sidewalk users cross a roadway over the same surface as motor vehicle traffic, as opposed to a grade-separated crossing where users cross over or under the roadway using a bridge or tunnel. Bicycle boulevard - Streets designed to give bicyclists priority by limiting or prohibiting motor vehicle through traffic by using barriers or other design elements, in order to enhance bicycle safety and enjoyment. Bicycle facilities - A general term used to describe all types of bicycle-related infrastructure including linear bikeways and other provisions to accommodate or encourage bicycling, including bike racks and lockers, bikeways, and showers at employment destinations. Bike lane - A striped lane for one-way bike travel on a street or highway. Bike path – A paved pathway separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or barrier and either within the highway right-of-way or within an independent alignment. Bike paths may be used by pedestrians, bicyclists, skaters, wheel- chair users, runners, and other non-motorized users. Bike route - A shared roadway specifically identified for use by bicyclists, providing a superior route based on traffic volumes and speeds, street width, directness, and/or cross-street priority; designated by signs only. Bikeway – A generic term for any road, street, path or way that in some manner is specifically designed for bicycle travel, regardless of whether such facilities are designated for the exclusive use of bicycles or are to be shared with other transporta- tion modes. Bollard – Post used to restrict motor vehicle use of bicycle paths. Clearance interval – the length of time that the DON’T WALK indication is flashing on a pedestrian signal indication. Clearance, lateral – Width required for safe passage of bicycle path users as measured on a horizontal plane. Clearance, vertical – Height required for safe passage of bicycle path users as measured on a vertical plane. Crosswalk – any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere that is distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing. Where there are no pavement markings, there is a crosswalk at each leg of every intersection, defined by law as the prolongation or connection of the lateral lines of the sidewalks. Curb extension – an area where the sidewalk and curb are extended into the parking lane, usually in order to shorten pedes- trian crossing distance. Also called“bulb-out”or“curb bulb.”
  7. 7. E-6 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 5 Curb ramp – a combined ramp and landing to accomplish a change of level at a curb in order to provide access to pedestri- ans using wheelchairs. Geometry - The vertical and horizontal characteristics of a transportation facility, typically defined in terms of gradient, degrees, and super elevation. Grade-separated crossing – A bridge or tunnel allowing bicycle path users to cross a major roadway without conflict. HCM - Highway Capacity Manual HDM – Highway Design Manual Level of service (LOS) - Term for the measurement of how well traffic“flows”on a roadway system or how well an intersection functions. Loop detector - A device placed under the pavement at intersections to detect a vehicle or bicycle and subsequently trigger a signal to turn green. Medians – Area in the center of the roadway that separates directional traffic; may provide a striped crossing and halfway point for pedestrians (also can be effective traffic calming design). Medians may be level with the surrounding roadway or “raised”using curb and gutter. Medians may include landscaping, concrete, paint/striping or any combination thereof. Multi-use path – A trail that permits more than one type of user, such as a trail designated for use by both pedestrians and bicyclists. MUTCD – Federal Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices Paved shoulder – The edge of the roadway beyond the outer stripe edge that provides a place for bicyclists; functions as this only when it is wide enough (4-5 feet), free of debris, and does not contain rumble strips or other obstructions. Pavement marking – An assortment of markings on the surface of the pavement that provide directions to motorists and other road users as to the proper use of the road (the“Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices”determines these standard markings). Pedestrian – a person afoot; a person operating a pushcart; a person riding on, or pulling a coaster wagon, sled, scooter, tricycle, bicycle with wheels less than 14 inches in diameter, or a similar conveyance, or on roller skates, skateboard, wheel- chair or a baby in a carriage. Pedestrian signal indication – the lighted WALK/DON’T WALK (or walking man/hand) signal that indicates the pedestrian phase. Refuge islands – Corner raised triangles or medians, used by pedestrians and bicyclists at intersections or mid-block cross- ings for assistance with crossing wide streets, especially where motor vehicle right turn lanes exist. Right-of-way (ROW) - The right of one vehicle, bicycle or pedestrian to proceed in a lawful manner in preference to another vehicle, bicycle, or pedestrian. Also the strip of property in which a transportation facility or other facility is built. Shared lane marking (SLM) – Shared Lane Pavement Marking Shared roadway - A roadway where bicyclists and motor vehicles share the same space with no striped bike lane. Any roadway where bicycles are not prohibited by law (i.e. interstate highways or freeways) is a shared roadway. Sidewalk – an improved facility intended to provide for pedestrian movement; usually, but not always, located in the public right-of-way adjacent to a roadway. Typically constructed of concrete. Sight distance - The distance a person can see along an unobstructed line of sight. Traffic calming - Changes in street alignment, installation of barrier, and other physical measures to reduce traffic speeds and/or cut-through traffic volume in the interest of street safety, livability, and other public purposes. Traffic control devices - Signs, signals or other fixtures, whether permanent or temporary, placed on or adjacent to a travelway by authority of a public body having jurisdiction to regulate, warn, or guide traffic. Traffic volume - The number of vehicles that pass a specific point in a specific amount of time (hour, day, year). Wide curb lane – An outside lane adjacent to the curb of a roadway that provides space for bicyclists to ride to the right of motor vehicles. Also referred to as a“wide outside lane”. The lane width should be greater than 12 feet, but no more than 15 feet, ideally 14-15 feet . If adjacent to parking, 22 foot wide pavement may also be considered a wide curb lane.
  8. 8. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-7 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 6 Physical Handlebar 3’8”(1.1m) Eye Level 5’(1.5m) Operating Envelope 8’4”(2.5m) 2’6”(.75m) 4’(1.2m) Min Operating 5’(1.5m) Preferred Operating Figure 2-1 Standard Bicycle Rider Dimensions Source: AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 3rd Edition Operating Envelope 8’4” Eye Level 5’ Handlebar Height 3’8” Preferred Operating Width 5’ Minimum Operating Width 4’ Physical Operating Width 2’6” Design Needs of Bicyclists The purpose of this section is to provide the facility designer with an understanding of how bicyclists operate and how their bicycle influences that operation. Bicyclists, by nature, are much more affected by poor facility design, construction and maintenance practices than motor vehicle drivers. Bicyclists lack the protection from the elements and roadway hazards provided by an automobile’s structure and safety features. By understanding the unique characteristics and needs of bicyclists, a facility designer can provide the highest quality facilities and minimize risk to their users. Bicycle as a Design Vehicle Similar to motor vehicles, bicyclists and their bicycles exist in a variety of sizes and configurations. These variations occur in the types of vehicle (such as a conventional bicycle, a recumbent bicycle or a tricycle), and behavioral characteristics (such as the comfort level of the bicyclist). The design of a bikeway should consider reasonably expected bicycle types on the facility and utilize the appropriate dimensions. Figure 2-1 illustrates the operating space and physical dimensions of a typical adult bicyclist, which are the basis for typical facility design. The bicyclist requires clear space to operate within a facility; this is why the minimum operating width is greater than the physical dimensions of the bicyclist. Bicyclists prefer five feet or more operating width, although four feet is minimally acceptable.
  9. 9. E-8 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 7 Table 2-2 Bicycle as Design Vehicle - Design Speed Expectations Table 2-1 Bicycle as Design Vehicle - Typical Dimensions *Tandem bicycles and bicyclists with trailers have typical speeds equal to or less than upright adult bicyclists. Bicycle Type Feature Typical Dimensions Upright Adult Bicyclist Physical width 2 ft 6 in Operating width (Minimum) 4 ft Operating width (Preferred) 5 ft Physical length 5 ft 10 in Physical height of handlebars 3 ft 8 in Operating height 8 ft 4 in Eye height 5 ft Vertical clearance to obstructions (tunnel height, lighting, etc) 10 ft Approximate center of gravity 2 ft 9 in - 3 ft 4 in Recumbent Bicyclist Physical length 8 ft Eye height 3 ft 10 in Tandem Bicyclist Physical length 8 ft Bicyclist with child trailer Physical length 10 ft Physical width 2 ft 8 in Bicycle Type Feature Typical Speed Upright Adult Bicyclist Paved level surfacing 15 mph Crossing Intersections 10 mph Downhill 30 mph Uphill 5 -12 mph Recumbent Bicyclist Paved level surfacing 18 mph In addition to the design dimensions of a typical bicycle, there are many other commonly used pedal-driven cycles and acces- sories to consider when planning and designing bicycle facilities. The most common types include tandem bicycles, recumbent bicycles, and trailer accessories. Figure 2-2 and Table 2-1 summarize the typical dimensions for bicycle types. Design Speed Expectations The expected speed that different types of bicyclists can maintain under various conditions also influences the design of facilities such as shared use paths. Table 2-2 provides typical bicyclist speeds for a variety of conditions. Figure 2-2 Bicycle as Design Vehicle - Typical Dimensions Source: AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 3rd Edition *AASHTO does not provide typical dimensions for tricycles. 3’6” 2’8” 3’9” 8’ 8’ 5’10”
  10. 10. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-9 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 8 Types of Bicyclists It is important to consider bicyclists of all skill levels when creating a non-motorized plan or project. Bicyclist skill level greatly influences expected speeds and behavior, both in separated bikeways and on shared roadways. Bicycle infrastruc- ture should accommodate as many user types as possible, with decisions for separate or parallel facilities based on provid- ing a comfortable experience for the greatest number of bicyclists. The bicycle planning and engineering professions currently use several systems to classify the population, which can assist in understanding the characteristics and infrastructure preferences of different bicyclists. The most conventional framework classifies the“design cyclist”as Advanced, Basic, or Child1 . A more detailed understanding of the US population as a whole is illustrated in Figure 2-3. Developed by planners in the City of Portland, OR2 and supported by data collected nationally since 2005, this classification provides the following alternative categories to address ‘varying attitudes’towards bicycling in the US: • Strong and Fearless (Very low percentage of popula- tion) – Characterized by bicyclists that will typically ride anywhere regardless of roadway conditions or weather. These bicyclists can ride faster than other user types, prefer direct routes and will typically choose roadway connections -- even if shared with vehicles -- over separate bicycle facilities such as shared use paths. • Enthused and Confident (5-10% of population) -This user group encompasses‘intermediate’bicyclists who are fairly comfortable riding on all types of bicycle facilities but usually choose low traffic streets or shared use paths when available. These bicyclists may deviate from a more direct route in favor of a preferred facility type. This group includes all kinds of bicyclists such as commuters, recreationalists, racers and utilitarian bicyclists. • Interested but Concerned (approximately 60% of population) – This user type comprises the bulk of the cycling population and represents bicyclists who typically only ride a bicycle on low traffic streets or shared use paths under favorable weather conditions. These bicyclists perceive significant barriers to their increased use of cycling, specifically traffic and other safety issues. These bicyclists may become“Enthused & Confident”with encouragement, education and experience. • No Way, No How (approximately 30% of population) – Persons in this category are not bicyclists, and perceive severe safety issues with riding in traffic. Some people in this group may eventually become more regular cyclists with time and education. A significant portion of these people will not ride a bicycle under any circumstances. 1 Selecting Roadway Design Treatments to Accommodate Bicycles. (1994). Publication No. FHWA-RD-92-073 2 Four Types of Cyclists. (2009). Roger Geller, City of Portland Bureau of Transportation. http://www.portlandonline.com/transportation/index.cfm?&a=237507 1% 7% 60% 32% Interested but Concerned No Way, No How Enthused and Confident Strong and Fearless Figure 2-3 Typical distribution of bicyclist types
  11. 11. E-10 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 9 Design Needs of Pedestrians Types of Pedestrians Similar to bicyclists, pedestrians have a variety of characteristics and the transportation network should accommodate a va- riety of needs, abilities, and possible impairments. Age is one major factor that affects pedestrians’physical characteristics, walking speed, and environmental perception. Children have low eye height and walk at slower speeds than adults walk. They also perceive the environment differently at various stages of their cognitive development. Older adults walk more slowly and may require assistive devices for walking stability, sight, and hearing. Table 3-1 summarizes common pedestrian characteristics for various age groups. The MUTCD recommends a normal walking speed of three and a half feet per second when calculating the pedestrian clearance interval at traffic signals. The walking speed can drop to three feet per second for areas with older populations and persons with mobility impairments. While the type and degree of mobility impairment varies greatly across the population, the transportation system should accommodate these users to the greatest reasonable extent. Table 3-1 Pedestrian Characteristics by Age Source: AASHTO Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities (July 2004), Exhibit 2-1. Age Characteristics 0-4 Learning to walk Requires constant adult supervision Developing peripheral vision and depth perception 5-8 Increasing independence, but still requires supervision Poor depth perception 9-13 Susceptible to“dart out”intersection dash Poor judgment Sense of invulnerability 14-18 Improved awareness of traffic environment Poor judgment 19-40 Active, fully aware of traffic environment 41-65 Slowing of reflexes 65+ Difficulty crossing street Vision loss Difficulty hearing vehicles approaching from behind
  12. 12. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-11 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 10 Table 3-2 Disabled Pedestrian Design Considerations Impairment Effect on Mobility Design Solution Wheelchair and Scooter Users Difficulty propelling over uneven or soft surfaces. Firm, stable surfaces and structures, including ramps or beveled edges. Cross-slopes cause wheelchairs to veer downhill. Cross-slopes to less than two percent. Require wider path of travel. Sufficient width and maneuvering space Walking Aid Users Difficulty negotiating steep grades and cross slopes; decreased stability. Smooth, non-slipperly travel surface. Slower walking speed and reduced endurance; reduced ability to react. Longer pedestrian signal cycles, shorter crossing distances, median refuges, and street furniture. Hearing Impairment Less able to detect oncoming hazards at locations with limited sight lines (e.g. driveways, angled intersections, right-turn slip lanes) and complex intersections. Longer pedestrian signal cycles, clear sight distanc- es, highly visible pedestrian signals and markings. Vision Impairment Limited perception of path ahead and obstacles Accessible text (larger print and raised text), ac- cessible pedestrian signals (APS), guide strips and detectable warning surfaces, safety barriers, and lighting. Reliance on memory Reliance on non-visual indicators (e.g. sound and texture) Cognitive Impairment Varies greatly. Can affect ability to perceive, recog- nize, understand, interpret, and respond to informa- tion. Signs with pictures, universal symbols, and colors, rather than text. Table 3 2 summarizes common physical and cognitive impairments, how they affect personal mobility, and recommenda- tions for improved pedestrian-friendly design.
  13. 13. E-12 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 11 Sidewalks are the most fundamental element of the walking network, as they provide an area for pedestrian travel that is separated from vehicle traffic. Sidewalks are typically constructed out of concrete and are separated from the roadway by a curb or gutter and sometimes a landscaped planting strip area. Sidewalks are a common application in both urban and suburban environments. Attributes of well-designed sidewalks include the following: Accessibility: A network of sidewalks should be acces- sible to all users. Adequate width: Two people should be able to walk side-by-side and pass a third comfortably. Different walking speeds should be possible. In areas of intense pedestrian use, sidewalks should accommodate the high volume of walkers. Safety: Design features of the sidewalk should allow pedestrians to have a sense of security and predictability. Sidewalk users should not feel they are at risk due to the presence of adjacent traffic. Continuity: Walking routes should be obvious and should not require pedestrians to travel out of their way unnecessarily. Landscaping: Plantings and street trees should con- tribute to the overall psychological and visual comfort of sidewalk users, and be designed in a manner that contributes to the safety of people. Drainage: Sidewalks should be well graded to minimize standing water. Social space: There should be places for standing, visiting, and sitting. The sidewalk area should be a place where adults and children can safely participate in public life. Quality of place: Sidewalks should contribute to the character of neighborhoods and business districts. This Section Includes: • Zones in the Sidewalk Corridor • Sidewalk Widths • Sidewalk Obstructions and Driveway Ramps Zones in the Sidewalk Corridor Sidewalks Sidewalk Obstructions and Driveways Sidewalk Widths
  14. 14. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-13 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 12 Zones in the Sidewalk Corridor Materials and Maintenance Sidewalks are typically constructed out of concrete and are separated from the roadway by a curb or gutter and sometimes a landscaped boulevard. Colored, patterned, or stamped concrete can add distinctive visual appeal. Discussion Sidewalks should be more than areas to travel; they should provide places for people to interact. There should be places for standing, visiting, and sitting. Sidewalks should contribute to the character of neighborhoods and business districts, strengthen their identity, and be an area where adults and children can safely participate in public life. Additional References and Guidelines USDOJ. (2010). ADA Standards for Accessible Design. United States Access Board. (2007). Public Rights-of-Way Accessibil- ity Guidelines (PROWAG). AASHTO. (2004). Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities. Description Sidewalks are the most fundamental element of the walking network, as they provide an area for pedestrian travel separated from vehicle traffic. A variety of con- siderations are important in sidewalk design. Providing adequate and accessible facilities can lead to increased numbers of people walking, improved safety, and the creation of social space. Sidewalks Property Line Frontage ZonePedestrian Through ZoneFurnishing ZoneParking Lane/Enhancement Zone EdgeZone The Frontage Zone allows pedestrians a comfortable “shy”distance from the building fronts. It provides opportunities for window shopping, to place signs, planters, or chairs. Not applicable if adjacent to a landscaped space. The furnishing zone buffers pedestrians from the adjacent roadway, and is also the area where ele- ments such as street trees, signal poles, signs, and other street furniture are properly located. The through zone is the area intended for pedes- trian travel. This zone should be entirely free of permanent and temporary objects. Wide through zones are needed in downtown areas or where pedestrian flows are high. The parking lane can act as a flexible space to further buffer the sidewalk from moving traffic. Curb extensions, and bike corrals may occupy this space where appropriate. In the edge zone there should be a 6 inch wide curb.
  15. 15. E-14 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 13 Street Classification Parking Lane/ Enhancement Zone Furnishing Zone Pedestrian Through Zone Frontage Zone Total Local Streets Varies 2 - 5 feet 4 - 6 feet N/A 6 - 11 feet Commercial Areas Varies 4 - 6 feet 6 - 12 feet 2 - 10 feet 12 - 28 feet Arterials and Collectors Varies 2 - 6 feet 4 - 8 feet 2 - 5 feet 8 -19 feet Sidewalk Widths Materials and Maintenance Sidewalks are typically constructed out of concrete and are separated from the roadway by a curb or gutter and sometimes a landscaped boulevard. Surfaces must be firm, stable, and slip resistant. Colored, patterned, or stamped concrete can add distinctive visual appeal. Discussion It is important to provide adequate width along a sidewalk corridor. Two people should be able to walk side-by-side and pass a third comfortably. In areas of high demand sidewalks should contain adequate width to accommodate the high volumes and different walking speeds of pedestrians. The Americans with Disabilities Act requires a 4 foot clear width in the pedestrian zone plus 5 foot passing areas every 200 feet. Additional References and Guidelines SCDOT. (2003). Highway Design Manual. USDOJ. (2010). ADA Standards for Accessible Design. United States Access Board. (2007). Public Rights-of-Way Accessibil- ity Guidelines (PROWAG). AASHTO. (2004). Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities. Sidewalks Six feet enables two pedestrians (including wheelchair users) to walk side-by-side, or to pass each other comfortably. Description The width and design of sidewalks will vary depending on street context, functional classification, and pedestrian demand. Below are preferred widths of each sidewalk zone according to general street type. Standardizing sidewalk guidelines for different areas of the city, dependent on the above listed factors, ensures a minimum level of quality for all sidewalks. Property Line SCDOT’s minimum sidewalk width is five feet, when no furnishing zone is present. The SCDOT Highway Design Manual says that buffers are desirable, and should be 2 foot wide at a minimum.
  16. 16. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-15 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 14 Sidewalk Obstructions and Driveway Ramps Materials and Maintenance Sidewalks are typically constructed out of concrete and are separated from the roadway by a curb or gutter and sometimes a landscaped boulevard. Surfaces must be firm, stable, and slip resistant. Discussion Driveways are a common sidewalk obstruction, especially for wheelchair users. When constraints only allow curb-tight sidewalks, dipping the entire sidewalk at the driveway approaches keeps the cross-slope at a constant grade. However, this may be uncomfortable for pedestrians and could create drainage problems behind the sidewalk. Additional References and Guidelines USDOJ. (2010). ADA Standards for Accessible Design. United States Access Board. (2007). Public Rights-of-Way Accessibil- ity Guidelines (PROWAG). AASHTO. (2004). Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities. SCDOT. (2008). Access and Roadside Management Standards. Description Obstructions to pedestrian travel in the sidewalk corridor typically include driveway ramps, curb ramps, sign posts, utility and signal poles, mailboxes, fire hydrants and street furniture. Sidewalks Guidance Reducing the number of accesses reduces the need for special provisions. This strategy should be pursued first. Obstructions should be placed between the sidewalk and the roadway to create a buffer for increased pedestrian comfort. Where constraints preclude a planter strip, wrapping the sidewalk around the driveway provides adequate driveway ramp space. Planter strips allow sidewalks to remain level, with the driveway grade change occurring within the planter strip. Dipping the entire sidewalk at the driveway approaches keeps the cross-slope at a constant grade. (The least preferred driveway option) When sidewalks abut hedges, fences, or buildings, an additional two feet of lateral clearance should be added to provide appropriate shy distance. When sidewalks abut angled on-street parking, consider wheel stops to prevent vehicles from overhanging in the sidewalk.
  17. 17. E-16 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 15 Attributes of pedestrian-friendly intersection design include: Clear Space: Corners should be clear of obstructions. They should also have enough room for curb ramps, for transit stops where appropriate, and for street conversa- tions where pedestrians might congregate. Visibility: It is critical that pedestrians on the corner have a good view of vehicle travel lanes and that motor- ists in the travel lanes can easily see waiting pedestrians. Legibility: Symbols, markings, and signs used at corners should clearly indicate what actions the pedestrian should take. Accessibility: All corner features, such as curb ramps, landings, call buttons, signs, symbols, markings, and textures, should meet accessibility standards and follow universal design principles. Separation from Traffic: Corner design and construc- tion should be effective in discouraging turning vehicles from driving over the pedestrian area. Crossing distances should be minimized. Lighting: Adequate lighting is an important aspect of visibility, legibility, and accessibility. These attributes will vary with context but should be considered in all design processes. For example, suburban and rural intersections may have limited or no signing. However, legibility regarding appropriate pedestrian movements should still be taken into account during design. See Crossing Beacons for a discussion of crossing enhancements. This Section Includes: • Marked Crosswalks • Raised Crosswalks • Reducing Crossing Distance • Median Refuge Islands • Minimizing Curb Radii • Curb Extensions • Minimizing Conflict with Automobiles • Advance Stop Bars • Parking Control • ADA Compliant Curb Ramps Pedestrians at Intersections Marked Crosswalks Curb Extensions ADA Compliant Curb Ramps Median Refuge Islands Minimizing Conflict with Automobiles Raised Crosswalks
  18. 18. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-17 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 16 Parallel markings are the most basic crosswalk marking type Marked Crosswalks Materials and Maintenance Because the effectiveness of marked crossings depends entirely on their visibility, maintaining marked crossings should be a high priority. Thermoplastic markings offer increased durability than conventional paint. Discussion Continental crosswalk markings should be used at crossings with high pedestrian use or where vulnerable pedestrians are expected, including: School crossings, across arterial streets for pedestrian-only signals, at mid-block crosswalks, at intersections where there is expected high pedestrian use and the crossing is not controlled by signals or stop signs. Additional References and Guidelines FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. (3B.18) AASHTO. (2004). Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities. FHWA. (2005). Safety Effects of Marked vs. Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations. FHWA. (2010). Crosswalk Marking Field Visibility Study. Description A marked crosswalk signals to motorists that they must stop for pedestrians and encourages pedestrians to cross at designated locations. Installing crosswalks alone will not necessarily make crossings safer especially on multi-lane roadways. At mid-block locations, crosswalks can be marked where there is a demand for crossing and there are no nearby marked crosswalks. Mid-block crosswalks are allowed under limited cases and with careful engineering review and study. Marked Crosswalks Guidance At signalized intersections, all crosswalks should be marked. At un-signalized intersections, crosswalks may be marked under the following conditions: • At a complex intersection, to orient pedestrians in finding their way across. • At an offset intersection, to show pedestrians the shortest route across traffic with the least exposure to vehicular traffic and traffic conflicts. • At an intersection with visibility constraints, to position pedestrians where they can best be seen by oncoming traffic. • At an intersection within a school zone on a walking route. Continental markings provide additional visibility The crosswalk should be located to align as closely as possible with the through pedestrian zone of the sidewalk corridor
  19. 19. E-18 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 17 No grade change with sidewalk level Raised Crosswalks Materials and Maintenance Because the effectiveness of marked crossings depends entirely on their visibility, maintaining marked crossings should be a high priority. On SCDOT highways these crosswalks are only installed and maintained by local governments. Discussion Like a speed hump, raised crosswalks have a traffic slowing effect which may be unsuitable on emergency response routes. On SCDOT highways, raised crosswalks can only be installed in accordance with the details and the process outlined in the Traffic Calming Guidelines (TCG).  On SCDOT highways these crosswalks are only installed and maintained by local governments. Additional References and Guidelines FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. (3B.18) AASHTO. (2004). Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities. USDOJ. (2010). ADA Standards for Accessible Design. SCDOT. (2006). Traffic Calming Guidelines. Description A raised crosswalk or intersection can eliminate grade changes from the pedestrian path and give pedestrians greater prominence as they cross the street. Raised crosswalks should be used only in very limited cases where a special emphasis on pedestrians is desired; review on case-by-case basis. Marked Crosswalks Guidance • Use detectable warnings at the curb edges to alert vision-impaired pedestrians that they are entering the roadway. • Approaches to the raised crosswalk may be designed to be similar to speed humps. • Raised crosswalks can also be used as a traffic calming treatment. A tactile warning device should be used at the curb edge
  20. 20. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-19 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 18 Median Refuge Islands Materials and Maintenance Refuge islands may collect road debris and may require somewhat frequent maintenance. Refuge islands should be visible to snow plow crews and should be kept free of snow berms that block access. Discussion If a refuge island is landscaped, the landscaping should not compromise the visibility of pedestrians crossing in the crosswalk. Shrubs and ground plantings should be no higher than 1 ft 6 in. On multi-lane roadways, consider configuration with active warning beacons for improved yielding compliance. Additional References and Guidelines FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. AASHTO. (2004). Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities. NACTO. (2011). Urban Bikeway Design Guide. Description Median refuge islands are located at the mid-point of a marked crossing and help improve pedestrian safety by allowing pedestrians to cross one direction of traffic at a time. Refuge islands minimize pedestrian exposure by shortening crossing distance and increasing the number of available gaps for crossing. Reducing Crossing Distance Guidance • Can be applied on any roadway with more than two lanes of traffic. • Appropriate at signalized or unsignalized crosswalks • The refuge island must be accessible, preferably with an at-grade passage through the island rather than ramps and landings. • The island should be at least 6’wide between travel lanes and at least 20’long • The refuge area should be wide enough ( > 6’) to accommodate bikes with trailers and wheelchair users • On streets with speeds higher than 25 mph there should also be double centerline marking, reflectors, and“KEEP RIGHT”signage Cur through median islands are preferred over curb ramps, to better accommodate bicyclists. W11-15, W16-7P
  21. 21. E-20 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 19 Minimizing Curb Radii Materials and Maintenance A small curb radius is also beneficial for street sweeping operations. Discussion Several factors govern the choice of curb radius in any given location. These include the desired pedestrian area of the corner, traffic turning movements, the turning radius of the design vehicle, the geometry of the intersection, the street classifications, and whether there is parking or a bike lane (or both) between the travel lane and the curb. Additional References and Guidelines AASHTO. (2004). Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities. AASHTO. (2004). A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Description The size of a curb’s radius can have a significant impact on pedestrian comfort and safety. A smaller curb radius provides more pedestrian area at the corner, allows more flexibility in the placement of curb ramps, results in a shorter crossing distance and requires vehicles to slow more on the intersection approach. During the design phase, the chosen radius should be the smallest possible for the circumstances. Reducing Crossing Distance Guidance For increased pedestrian comfort, the radius should be as small as possible as determined by careful engineering review and study. A small curb radius is also beneficial for street sweeping operations. Effective vehicle radius Curb Radius
  22. 22. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-21 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 20 Curb Extensions Materials and Maintenance Planted curb extensions may be designed as a bioswale, a vegetated system for stormwater management. Discussion If there is no parking lane, adding curb extensions may be a problem for bicycle travel and truck or bus turning move- ments. If a refuge island is landscaped, the landscaping should not compromise the visibility of pedestrians crossing in the crosswalk. Shrubs and ground plantings should be no higher than 1 ft 6 in. Additional References and Guidelines AASHTO. (2004). Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities. AASHTO. (2004). A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Description Curb extensions minimize pedestrian exposure during crossing by shortening crossing distance and give pedestri- ans a better chance to see and be seen before committing to crossing. They are appropriate for any crosswalk where it is desirable to shorten the crossing distance and there is a parking lane adjacent to the curb. Reducing Crossing Distance Guidance • In most cases, the curb extensions should be designed to transition between the extended curb and the running curb in the shortest practicable distance. • For purposes of efficient street sweeping, the mini- mum radius for the reverse curves of the transition is 10 ft and the two radii should be balanced to be nearly equal • Curb extensions should terminate one foot short of the parking lane to maximize bicyclist safety. Crossing distance is shortened 1‘ buffer from edge of parking lane Curb extension length can be adjusted to accommodate bus stops or street furniture.
  23. 23. E-22 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 21 Advance Stop Bar Minimizing Conflict with Automobiles Permitting bicyclists to stop at the crosswalk rather than the advance stop bar. R1-5c 24”advance stop bar Guidance • All advanced stop bars should conform to the MUTCD standards • On streets with at least two travel lanes in each direction • Prior to a marked crosswalk • In one or both directions of motor vehicle travel • Recommended 15-50 feet in advance of the crosswalk • A“Stop Here for Pedestrians”sign should accompany the advance stop bar Description Advance stop bars increase pedestrian comfort and safety by stopping motor vehicles well in advance of marked crosswalks, allowing vehicle operators a better line of sight of pedestrians and giving inner lane motor vehicle traffic time to stop for pedestrians. Materials and Maintenance Because the effectiveness of markings depends entirely on their visibility, maintaining markings should be a high priority. Discussion If a bicycle lane is present, mark the advance stop bar to permit bicyclists to stop at the crosswalk ahead of the stop bar. If the State law requires drivers to YIELD to pedestrians in crosswalks, a Yield Line marking must be used rather than a stop line in these cases. Additional References and Guidelines FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices.
  24. 24. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-23 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 22 Parking Control Materials and Maintenance Signage and striping require routine maintenance. Discussion Parking should not be allowed within any type of intersection. This includes“T”and offset intersections. Additional References and Guidelines FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. AASHTO. (2004). Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities. AASHTO. (2004). A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Description Parking control involves restricting or reducing on-street parking near intersections with high pedestrian activity. Locating parking away from the intersection improves motorist’s visibility on the approach to the intersection and crosswalk. Improved sight lines at intersections reduces conflicts between motorists and pedestrians. Minimizing Conflict with Automobiles Curb paint may be used to keep intersection approaches clear R7-1 Curb extensions physically prevent parking at intersection approaches Guidance • No parking signs should be placed in accordance with Section 2B.48 in the MUTCD. • Curb extensions,‘No Parking’signage, or curb paint can be used to keep the approach to intersections clear of parked vehicles.
  25. 25. E-24 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 23 ADA Compliant Curb Ramps Materials and Maintenance It is critical that the interface between a curb ramp and the street be maintained adequately. Asphalt street sec- tions can develop potholes in the at the foot of the ramp, which can catch the front wheels of a wheelchair. Discussion The edge of an ADA compliant curb ramp will be marked with a tactile warning device (also known as truncated domes) to alert people with visual impairments to changes in the pedestrian environment. Color contrast between the raised tactile device and the surrounding infrastructure is important so that the change is readily evident. Additional References and Guidelines United States Access Board. (2002). Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities. United States Access Board. (2007). Public Rights-of-Way Accessibil- ity Guidelines (PROWAG). USDOJ. (2010). ADA Standards for Accessible Design. Description Curb ramps are the design elements that allow all users to make the transition from the street to the sidewalk. There are a number of factors to be considered in the design and placement of curb ramps at corners. Properly designed curb ramps ensure that the sidewalk is accessible from the roadway. A sidewalk without a curb ramp can be useless to someone in a wheelchair, forcing them back to a driveway and out into the street for access. Although diagonal curb ramps might save money, they create potential safety and mobility problems for pedestrians,including reduced maneuverability and increased interaction with turning vehicles,particularly in areas with high traffic volumes. Diagonal curb ramp configurations are the least preferred of all options. ADA Compliant Curb Ramps Guidance • The landing at the top of a ramp shall be at least 4 feet long and at least the same width as the ramp itself. • The ramp shall slope no more than 1:50 (2.0%) in any direction. • If the ramp runs directly into a crosswalk, the landing at the bottom will be in the roadway. • If the ramp lands on a dropped landing within the sidewalk or corner area where someone in a wheel- chair may have to change direction, the landing must be a minimum of 5’-0”long and at least as wide as the ramp, although a width of 5’-0”is preferred. Parallel Curb Ramp Diagonal Curb Ramp (not preferred)Perpendicular Curb Ramp Curb ramps shall be located so that they do not project into vehicular traffic lanes, parking spaces, or parking access aisles. Three configurations are illustrated below. Crosswalk spacing not to scale. For illustration purposes only. Diagonal ramps shall include a clear space of at least 48” within the crosswalk for user maneuverability
  26. 26. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-25 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 24 Crossing beacons facilitate crossings of roadways for pedestrians and bicyclists. Beacons make crossing inter- sections safer by clarifying when to enter an intersection and by alerting motorists to the presence of pedestrians in the crosswalk. Flashing amber warning beacons can be utilized at un- signalized intersection crossings. Push buttons, signage, and pavement markings may be used to highlight these facilities for pedestrians, bicyclists and motorists. Determining which type of signal or beacon to use for a particular intersection depends on a variety of factors. These include speed limits, Average Daily Traffic (ADT), and the anticipated levels of pedestrian and bicycle crossing traffic. An intersection with crossing beacons may reduce stress and delays for a crossing users, and discourage illegal and unsafe crossing maneuvers. This Section Includes: • Active Warning Beacons • Hybrid Beacon for Mid-Block Crossing Crossing Beacons Hybrid Beacons Active Warning Beacons
  27. 27. E-26 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 25 Active Warning Beacons Guidance • Warning beacons shall not be used at crosswalks controlled by YIELD signs, STOP signs, or traffic signals. • Warning beacons shall initiate operation based on pedestrian or bicyclist actuation and shall cease operation at a predetermined time after actuation or, with passive detection, after the pedestrian or bicyclist clears the crosswalk. Materials and Maintenance Depending on power supply, maintenance can be minimal. If solar power is used, RRFBs should run for years without issue. Discussion RRFBs have Interim Approval from the FHWA, but have not yet been approved for use in South Carolina. Rectangular rapid flash beacons have the most increased compliance of all the warning beacon enhancement options. A study of the effectiveness of going from a no-beacon arrangement to a two-beacon RRFB installation increased yielding from 18 percent to 81 percent. A four-beacon arrangement raised compliance to 88 percent. Additional studies over long term installations show little to no decrease in yielding behavior over time. Additional References and Guidelines NACTO. (2011). Urban Bikeway Design Guide. FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. FHWA. (2008). MUTCD - Interim Approval for Optional Use of Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacons (IA-11) Description Active warning beacons are user actuated illuminated devices designed to increase motor vehicle yielding compliance at crossings of multi lane or high volume roadways. Types of active warning beacons include conventional circular yellow flashing beacons, in-roadway warning lights, or Rectangular Rapid Flash Beacons (RRFB). Crossing Beacons Rectangular Rapid Flash Beacons (RRFB) dramatically increase compliance over conventional warning beacons. W11-15, W16-7P Providing secondary installations of RRFBs on median islands improves driver yielding behavior.
  28. 28. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-27 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 26 Hybrid Beacon for Mid- Block Crossing Guidance Hybrid beacons may be installed without meeting traffic signal control warrants if an engineering study indicates the conditions described in SCDOT TG-26 are met. Ad- ditional considerations include • If installed within a signal system, signal engineers should evaluate the need for the hybrid signal to be coordinated with other signals. • Parking and other sight obstructions should be prohibited for at least 100 feet in advance of and at least 20 feet beyond the marked crosswalk to provide adequate sight distance. Materials and Maintenance Hybrid beacons are subject to the same maintenance needs and requirements as standard traffic signals. Signing and striping need to be maintained to help users understand any unfamiliar traffic control. Discussion Hybrid beacon signals are normally activated by push buttons, but may also be triggered by infrared, microwave or video detectors. The maximum delay for activation of the signal should be two minutes, with minimum crossing times determined by the width of the street. Each crossing, regardless of traffic speed or volume, requires additional review by a registered engineer to identify sight lines, potential impacts on traffic progression, timing with adjacent signals, capacity, and safety. Additional References and Guidelines FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. NACTO. (2011). Urban Bikeway Design Guide. SCDOT. (2011). Traffic Engineering Guideline 26 Description Hybrid beacons are used to improve non-motorized crossings of major streets. A hybrid beacon consists of a signal-head with two red lenses over a single yellow lens on the major street, and a pedestrian signal head for the crosswalk Crossing Beacons Push button actuation Hybrid Beacon W11-15 Should be installed at least 100 feet from side streets or driveways that are controlled by STOP or YIELD signs
  29. 29. E-28 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 27 Shared Roadways On shared roadways, bicyclists and motor vehicles use the same roadway space. These facilities are typically used on roads with low speeds and traffic volumes, however they can be used on higher volume roads with wide outside lanes or shoulders. A motor vehicle driver will usually have to cross over into the adjacent travel lane to pass a bicyclist, unless a wide outside lane or shoulder is provided. Shared roadways employ a large variety of treatments from simple signage and shared lane markings to more complex treatments including directional signage, traffic diverters, chicanes, chokers, and /or other traffic calming devices to reduce vehicle speeds or volumes. Bicycle boulevards Bicycle boulevards are a special class of shared roadways designed for a broad spectrum of bicyclists. They are low-volume local streets where motorists and bicyclists share the same travel lane. Treatments for bicycle boulevards are selected as necessary to create appropri- ate automobile volumes and speeds, and to provide safe crossing opportunities of busy streets. Bicycle boulevards are not covered in detail in this guide. This section includes: • Bike Routes • Shared Lane Markings Shared Lane Markings Bike Routes
  30. 30. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-29 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 28 Guidance Lane width varies depending on roadway configuration. SCDOT recommends an outside travel lane width of 14 feet. Roads with additional width should be striped as a separated bikeway. Bicycle Route signage (D11-1) should be applied at intervals frequent enough to keep bicyclists informed of changes in route direction and to remind motorists of the presence of bicyclists. Commonly, this includes placement at: • Beginning or end of Bicycle Route • At major changes in direction or at intersections with other bicycle routes • At intervals along bicycle routes not to exceed ½ mile Description Bike routes are streets shared with motor vehicles. They are typically used on roads with low speeds and traffic volumes, however can be used on higher volume roads with wide outside lanes or shoulders. A motor vehicle driver will usually have to cross over into the adjacent travel lane to pass a bicyclist, unless a wide outside lane or shoulder is provided. Additional References and Guidelines AASHTO. (1999). Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. SCDOT. (2005). Traffic Engineering Guideline 8 SCDOT. (2011). Traffic Engineering Guideline 24 Materials and Maintenance Maintenance needs for bicycle wayfinding signs are similar to other signs, and will need periodic replacement due to wear. Discussion Bike routes serve either to provide continuity with other bicycle facilities (usually bike lanes) or to designate preferred routes through high-demand corridors. Shared Roadways Signed Shared Roadway Bike Routes MUTCD D11-1 (optional) 14’recommended minimum width Consider increased travel lane width on roads with >5% grade
  31. 31. E-30 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 29 Guidance • In constrained conditions, preferred placement is in the center of the travel lane to minimize wear and promote single file travel. • Minimum placement of SLM marking centerline is 11 feet from edge of curb where on-street parking is present, 4 feet from edge of curb with no parking. If parking lane is wider than 7.5 feet, the SLM should be moved further out accordingly. Description Shared lane markings (SLM) are used in a shared roadway environment to encourage bicycle travel and proper positioning within the lane. In constrained conditions, the SLMs are placed to discour- age unsafe passing by motor vehicles. On a wide outside lane, the SLMs can be used to promote bicycle travel to the right of motor vehicles. In all conditions, SLMs should be placed outside of the door zone of parked cars. Additional References and Guidelines AASHTO. (1999). Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. NACTO. (2011). Urban Bikeway Design Guide. SCDOT. (2011). Traffic Engineering Guideline 24 Materials and Maintenance Placing the SLM markings between vehicle tire tracks will increase the life of the markings and minimize the long-term cost of the treatment. Discussion Bike lanes should be considered on roadways with outside travel lanes wider than 14 feet, or where other lane narrow- ing or removal strategies may provide adequate road space. Shared Lane Markings shall not be used on shoulders, in designated bicycle lanes, or to designate bicycle detection at signalized intersections. (MUTCD 9C.07 03) Shared Roadways Shared Lane Markings Shared Lane Markings When placed adjacent to parking, SLM should be outside of the“Door Zone”. Minimum placement is 11’from curb Consider modifications to signal timing to induce a bicycle-friendly travel speed for all users Placement in center of travel lane is preferred in constrained conditions MUTCD D11-1 (optional)
  32. 32. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-31 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 30 Designated exclusively for bicycle travel, separated bikeways are segregated from vehicle travel lanes by striping, and can include pavement stencils and other treatments. Separated bikeways are most appropriate on arterial and collector streets where higher traffic volumes and speeds warrant greater separation. Separated bikeways can increase safety and promote proper riding by: • Defining road space for bicyclists and motorists, reducing the possibility that motorists will stray into the bicyclists’path. • Discouraging bicyclists from riding on the sidewalk. • Reducing the incidence of wrong way riding. • Reminding motorists that bicyclists have a right to the road. This section includes: Paved Shoulder Conventional Bike Lanes • Bike Lane With No On-Street Parking • Bike Lane Next to Parallel Parking • Bike Lane Next to Diagonal Parking Enhanced Bike Lanes • Advisory Bike Lanes Paved Shoulder Separated Bikeways Advisory Bike Lanes Conventional Bicycle Lanes
  33. 33. E-32 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 31 Paved Shoulder Materials and Maintenance Paint can wear more quickly in high traffic areas or in winter climates. Shoulder bikeways should be cleared of snow through routine snow removal operations. Discussion A wide outside lane may be sufficient accommodation for bicyclists on streets with insufficient width for bike lanes but which do have space available to provide a wider (14’-16’) outside travel lane. Consider configuring as a marked shared roadway in these locations. Where feasible, roadway widening should be performed with pavement resurfacing jobs, but not exceeding desirable bike lane widths. Additional References and Guidelines AASHTO. (1999). Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. SCDOT. (2011). EDM 53: Installation of Rumble Strips Description Typically found in less-dense areas, paved shoulders are paved roadways with striped shoulders (4’+) wide enough for bicycle travel. Paved shoulders often, but not always, include signage alerting motorists to expect bicycle travel along the roadway. Paved shoulders should be considered a temporary treatment, with full bike lanes planned for construction when the roadway is widened or completed with curb and gutter. This type of treatment is not typical in urban areas and should only be used where constraints exist. Separated Bikeways Guidance • On rural sections (shoulder) with ADT greater than 500, bike lanes/paved shoulders should be a minimum of 4 feet wide in each direction to accommodate bicycle travel. • Where motor vehicle speeds exceed 50 mph or the percentage of trucks, buses, and recreational vehicles is greater than 5 percent consider providing a 6 foot minimum width. • If it is not possible to meet minimum bicycle lane dimensions, a reduced width paved shoulder can still improve conditions for bicyclists. MUTCD D11-1 (optional) 4’minimum width MUTCD R3-17 (optional) SCDOT may require installation of rumble strips. See SCDOT EDM 53 for considerations for bicyclists.
  34. 34. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-33 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 32 Bike Lane with No On- Street Parking Separated Bikeways Conventional Bike Lane Configurations 6”white line 4’minimum ridable surface outside of gutter seam Guidance • 4 foot minimum width. The gutter pan is not to be included in the width of the bike lane. • 7 foot maximum width for use adjacent to arterials with high travel speeds. Greater widths may encour- age motor vehicle use of bike lane. See buffered bicycle lanes when a wider facility is desired. Description Bike lanes designate an exclusive space for bicyclists through the use of pavement markings and signage. The bike lane is typically located on the right side of the street, between the adjacent travel lane and curb, and is used in the same direction as motor vehicle traffic. A bike lane width of 7 feet makes it possible for bicyclists to ride side-by-side or pass each other without leaving the bike lane, thereby increasing the capacity of the lane. Materials and Maintenance Paint can wear more quickly in high traffic areas or in winter climates. Bicycle lanes should be cleared of snow through routine snow removal operations. Discussion Wider bicycle lanes are desirable in certain situations such as on higher speed arterials (45 mph+) where use of a wider bicycle lane would increase separation between passing vehicles and bicyclists. Appropriate signing and stenciling is important with wide bicycle lanes to ensure motorists do not mistake the lane for a vehicle lane or parking lane. Additional References and Guidelines AASHTO. (1999). Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. NACTO. (2011). Urban Bikeway Design Guide. MUTCD R3-17 (optional) MUTCD R3-17 (optional)
  35. 35. E-34 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 33 Guidance • 12 foot minimum from curb face to edge of bike lane. • 14.5 foot preferred from curb face to edge of bike lane. • 7 foot maximum for marked width of bike lane. Greater widths may encourage vehicle loading in bike lane. See buffered bicycle lanes when a wider facility is desired. Description Bike lanes designate an exclusive space for bicyclists through the use of pavement markings and signage. The bike lane is located adjacent to motor vehicle travel lanes and is used in the same direction as motor vehicle traffic. Bike lanes are typically on the right side of the street, between the adjacent travel lane and curb, road edge or parking lane. Many bicyclists, particularly less experienced riders, are more comfortable riding on a busy street if it has a striped and signed bikeway than if they are expected to share a lane with vehicles. Additional References and Guidelines AASHTO. (1999). Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. NACTO. (2011). Urban Bikeway Design Guide. Materials and Maintenance Paint can wear more quickly in high traffic areas or in winter climates. Bicycle lanes should be cleared of snow through routine snow removal operations. Discussion Bike lanes adjacent to on-street parallel parking require special treatment in order to avoid crashes caused by an open vehicle door. The bike lane should have sufficient width to allow bicyclists to stay out of the door zone while not encroaching into the adjacent vehicular lane. Parking stall markings, such as parking“Ts”and double white lines create a parking side buffer that encourages bicyclists to ride farther away from the door zone. Separated Bikeways Conventional Bike Lane Configurations MUTCD R3-17 (optional) 6”white line 4”white line or parking“Ts” Bike Lane Adjacent to On- Street Parallel Parking A marked separation can reduce door zone riding. See Buffered Bike Lanes
  36. 36. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-35 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 34 Bike Lanes and Diagonal Parking Additional References and Guidelines SCDOT. (2011). Traffic Engineering Guideline 24 Separated Bikeways Conventional Bike Lane Configurations 2’buffer space Materials and Maintenance Paint can wear more quickly in high traffic areas or in winter climates. Bicycle lanes should be cleared of snow through routine snow removal operations. Discussion Guidance Front-in Diagonal Parking • Shared lane markings are the preferred facililty with front-in diagonal parking Back-in Diagonal Parking • 5 foot minimum marked width of bike lane • Parking bays are sufficiently long to accommodate most vehicles (so vehicles do not block bike lane) Description In certain areas with high parking demand such as urban commercial areas, diagonal parking can be used to increase parking supply. Back-in diagonal parking improves sight distances between drivers and bicyclists when compared to conven- tional head-in diagonal parking. Back-in parking is best paired with a dedicated bicycle lane. Conventional front-in diagonal parking is not compatible or recommended with the provision of bike lanes, as drivers backing out of conventional diagonal parking have limited visibility of approaching bicyclists. Under these conditions, shared lane markings should be used to guide bicyclists away from reversing automobiles. Back-in Diagonal ParkingFront-in Diagonal Parking Center placed shared lane marking A 5’minimum pedestrian through zone should be maintained beyond any vehicle overhang over the sidewalk.
  37. 37. E-36 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 35 The ability to navigate through a city is informed by landmarks, natural features and other visual cues. Signs throughout the city should indicate to bicyclists: • Direction of travel • Location of destinations • Travel time/distance to those destinations These signs will increase users’comfort and accessibility to the bicycle systems. Signage can serve both wayfinding and safety purposes including: • Helping to familiarize users with the bicycle network • Helping users identify the best routes to destinations • Helping to address misperceptions about time and distance • Helping overcome a“barrier to entry”for people who are not frequent bicyclists (e.g.,“interested but concerned”bicyclists) A community-wide bicycle wayfinding signage plan would identify: • Sign locations • Sign type – what information should be included and design features • Destinations to be highlighted on each sign – key destinations for bicyclists • Approximate distance and travel time to each destina- tion Bicycle wayfinding signs also visually cue motorists that they are driving along a bicycle route and should use caution. Signs are typically placed at key locations leading to and along bicycle routes, including the intersection of multiple routes. Too many road signs tend to clutter the right-of-way, and it is recommended that these signs be posted at a level most visible to bicyclists rather than per vehicle signage standards. Bikeway Signing This section includes: • Wayfinding Sign Types • Wayfinding Sign Placement Bikeway Sign Types Wayfinding Sign Placement
  38. 38. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-37 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 36 Bikeway Sign Types Materials and Maintenance Maintenance needs for bicycle wayfinding signs are similar to other signs and will need periodic replacement due to wear. Discussion SCDOT Traffic Engineering is to be involved regarding the coordination of route numbers statewide. There is no standard color for bicycle wayfinding signage. Section 1A.12 of the MUTCD establishes the general meaning for signage colors. Green is the color used for directional guidance and is the most common color of bicycle wayfinding signage in the US, including those in the MUTCD. Additional References and Guidelines FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. NACTO. (2011). Urban Bikeway Design Guide. SCDOT. (2008). Traffic Engineering Guideline 18 Description A bikeway signing system consists of comprehensive signing and/or pavement markings to guide bicyclists to their destinations along preferred bicycle routes. There are two types of bikeway signs: Bike Route Signs Indicate to bicyclists that they are on a designated bikeway. Make motorists aware of the bicycle route. Can include destinations and distance/time. Do not include arrows. Bike Guide Signs Indicate where a bikeway turns from one street onto another street. Can be used with pavement markings. Include destinations and arrows. Bikeway Signing
  39. 39. E-38 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 37 Wayfinding Sign Placement Materials and Maintenance Maintenance needs for bicycle wayfinding signs are similar to other signs and will need periodic replacement due to wear. Discussion It can be useful to classify a list of destinations for inclusion on the signs based on their relative importance to users throughout the area. A particular destination’s ranking in the hierarchy can be used to determine the physical distance from which the locations are signed. On SCDOT highways these type of signs would be established by the city or county and should be secondary and not interfere with standard signs for motorists.  If the municipality is interested in this, it would be subject to approval by SCDOT Traffic Engineering. Additional References and Guidelines FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. NACTO. (2011). Urban Bikeway Design Guide. SCDOT. (2008). Traffic Engineering Guideline 18 Guidance Signs are typically placed at decision points along bicycle routes – typically at the intersection of two or more bikeways and at other key locations leading to and along bicycle routes. See Chapter 9 of MUTCD for Traffic Control for Bicycle Facilities.  Wayfinding Signs Near-side of intersections in advance of a junction with another bicycle route. Along a route to indicate a nearby destination. Bikeway Signing Bike Route Signs Every ¼ to ½ mile on off-street facilities and every 2 to 3 blocks along on-street bicycle facilities, unless another type of sign is used (e.g., within 150 ft of a bike guide sign). Should be placed soon after turns to confirm destination(s). Pavement markings can also act as confirmation that a bicyclist is on a preferred route. Bike Guide Signs Near-side of intersections where bike routes turn (e.g., where the street ceases to be a bicycle route or does not go through). Pavement markings can also indicate the need to turn to the bicyclist. Library Elementary School City Park BIKE ROUTE Bike Route SignR BIKE ROUTE Elementary School Library City Park 0.3 miles 2 min 0.7 miles 5 min 1.5 miles 12 min River Trail 0.9 miles 8 min Wayfinding SignW Bike Guide SignG R R G G G R R W W W Bike Route BikeRoute Library Elementary School City Park BIKE ROUTE Bike Route SignR BIKE ROUTE Elementary School Library City Park 0.3 miles 2 min 0.7 miles 5 min 1.5 miles 12 min River Trail 0.9 miles 8 min Wayfinding SignW Bike Guide SignG R R G G G R R W W W Library Elementary School City Park BIKE ROUTE Bike Route SignR BIKE ROUTE Elementary School Library City Park 0.3 miles 2 min 0.7 miles 5 min 1.5 miles 12 min River Trail 0.9 miles 8 min Wayfinding SignW Bike Guide SignG R R G G G R R W W W
  40. 40. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-39 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 38 Bicycle Parking Bicyclists expect a safe, convenient place to secure their bicycle when they reach their destination. This may be short term parking for brief visitors and customers, or long-term parking for employees, students, residents, and commuters. Access to Transit Safe and easy access to bicycle parking facilities is necessary to encourage commuters to access transit via bicycle. Providing bicycle access to transit and space for bicycles on buses can increase the feasibility of transit in lower-density areas, where transit stops are beyond walking distance of many residences. People are often willing to walk only a quarter- to half-mile to a bus stop, while they might bike as much as two or more miles to reach a transit station. Roadway Construction and Repair Safety of all roadway users should be considered during road construction and repair. Wherever bicycles are allowed, measures should be taken to provide for the continuity of a bicyclist’s trip through a work zone area. Only in rare cases should pedestrians and bicyclists be detoured to another street when travel vehicle lanes remain open. Contractors performing work should be made aware of the needs of bicyclists and be properly trained in how to safely route bicyclists through or around work zones. This Section Includes: • Bicycle Parking • Bicycle Racks • Bicycle Lockers • Bicycle Access through Construction Areas • Bicycle Access to Transit Bicycle Parking Bicycle Support Facilities Access through Construction Areas Bicycle Access to Transit
  41. 41. E-40 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 39 Bicycle Racks Guidance • 2’minimum from the curb face to avoid‘dooring.’ • Close to destinations; 50’maximum distance from main building entrance. • Minimum clear distance of 6’should be provided between the bicycle rack and the property line. • Should be highly visible from adjacent bicycle routes and pedestrian traffic. • Locate racks in areas that cyclists are most likely to travel. Materials and Maintenance Use of proper anchors will prevent vandalism and theft. Racks and anchors should be regularly inspected for dam- age. Educate snow removal crews to avoid burying racks during winter months. Discussion Where the placement of racks on sidewalks is not possible (due to narrow sidewalk width, sidewalk obstructions, street trees, etc.), bicycle parking can be provided on curb extensions. Some types of bicycle racks may meet design criteria, but are discouraged except in limited situations. This includes undulating“wave”racks, schoolyard“wheel bender”racks, and spiral racks. Additional References and Guidelines APBP. (2010). Bicycle Parking Guide 2nd Edition. USDOJ. (2010). ADA Standards for Accessible Design. United States Access Board. (2007). Public Rights-of-Way Accessibil- ity Guidelines (PROWAG). Description Short-term bicycle parking is meant to accommodate visi- tors, customers, and others expected to depart within two hours. It should have an approved standard rack, appropri- ate location and placement, and weather protection. The Association for Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals (APBP) recommends selecting a bicycle track that: • Supports the bicycle in at least two places, preventing it from falling over. • Allows locking of the frame and one or both wheels with a U-lock. • Is securely anchored to ground. • Resists cutting, rusting and bending or deformation. Short Term Bicycle Parking A loop may be attached to retired parking meter posts to formalize the meter as bicycle parking. Avoid fire zones, loading zones, bus zones, etc. D4-3 Bicycle shelters consist of bicycle racks grouped together within structures with a roof that provides weather protection. 4’min 2’min 3’min Placement of bicycle racks should maintain an ADA compliant pedestrian through zone.
  42. 42. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-41 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 40 Bicycle Lockers Guidance • Minimum dimensions: width (opening) 2.5’; height 4’; depth 6’. • 4 foot side clearance and 6 foot end clearance • 7 foot minimum distance between facing lockers • Locker designs that allow visibility and inspection of contents are recommended for increased security. • Access is controlled by a key or access code. Materials and Maintenance Regularly inspect the functioning of moving parts and enclosures. Change keys and access codes periodically to prevent access to unapproved users. Discussion Long-term parking facilities are more expensive to provide than short-term facilities, but are also significantly more secure. Although many bicycle commuters would be willing to pay a nominal fee to guarantee the safety of their bicycle, long-term bicycle parking should be free wherever automobile parking is free. Potential locations for long-term bicycle parking include transit stations, large employers, and institutions where people use their bikes for commuting and not consistently throughout the day. Additional References and Guidelines APBP. (2010). Bicycle Parking Guide 2nd Edition. USDOJ. (2010). ADA Standards for Accessible Design. United States Access Board. (2007). Public Rights-of-Way Accessibil- ity Guidelines (PROWAG). Description Bicycle lockers are intended to provide long-term bicycle storage for employees, students, residents, commuters, and others expected to park more than two hours. Long-term facilities protect the entire bicycle, its components and accessories against theft and against inclement weather, including snow and wind-driven rain. Bicycle lockers provide space to store a few accessories or rain gear in addition to containing the bicycle. Some lockers allow access to two users - a partition separating the two bicycles can help users feel their bike is secure. Lockers can also be stacked, reducing the footprint of the area, although that makes them more difficult to use. Long Term Bicycle Parking 4’side clearance 7’between facing lockers D4-3 Placement of bicycle lockers should maintain an ADA compliant pedestrian through zone.
  43. 43. E-42 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 41 Secure Parking Areas (SPA) Guidance Key features may include: • Closed-circuit television monitoring • Double high racks & cargo bike spaces • Bike repair station with bench • Bike tube and maintenance item vending machine • Bike lock“hitching post”– allows people to leave bike locks • Secure access for users Materials and Maintenance Regularly inspect the functioning of moving parts and enclosures. Change keys and access codes periodically to prevent access to unapproved users. Discussion Long-term parking facilities are more expensive to provide than short-term facilities, but are also significantly more secure. Although many bicycle commuters would be willing to pay a nominal fee to guarantee the safety of their bicycle, long-term bicycle parking should be free wherever automobile parking is free. BikeSPAs are ideal for transit centers, airports, train stations, or wherever large numbers of people might arrive by bicycle and need a secure place to park while away. Additional References and Guidelines APBP. (2010). Bicycle Parking Guide 2nd Edition. Description A Secure Parking Area for bicycles, also known as a BikeSPA or Bike & Ride (when located at transit stations), is a semi-enclosed space that offers a higher level of security than ordinary bike racks. Accessible via key-card, combination locks, or keys, BikeSPAs provide high-ca- pacity parking for 10 to 100 or more bicycles. Increased security measures create an additional transportation option for those whose biggest concern is theft and vulnerability. Long Term Bicycle Parking In the space formerly used for seven cars, a BikeSPA can comfortably park 80 bikes with room for future expansion. Double-height racks help take advantage of the vertical space, further maximizing the parking capacity.
  44. 44. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-43 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 42 Bicycle Access Through Construction Areas Guidance Construction Signage • Place in a location that does not obstruct the path of bicyclists or pedestrians. • Detour and closure signs related to bicycle travel may be included on all bikeways where construction activities occur. Signage should also be provided on all other roadways. Bicycle Travel around Steel Grates • Require temporary asphalt (cold mix) around plates to create a smooth transition. • Use steel plates only as a temporary measure during construction, not for extended periods. • Use warning signs where steel plates are in use. • Require both temporary and final repaving to provide a smooth surface without abrupt edges. Materials and Maintenance Debris should be swept to maintain a reasonably clean riding surface in the outer 5 - 6 ft of roadway. Discussion Plates used to cover trenches tend to not be flush with pavement and have a 1”-2”vertical transition on the edges. This can puncture a hole in a bicycle tire and cause a bicyclist to lose control. Although it is common to use steel plates during non-construction hours, these plates can be dangerously slippery, particularly when wet. Contractors performing work should be made aware of the needs of bicyclists and be properly trained in how to safely route bicyclists through or around work zones. Additional References and Guidelines FHWA. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. FHWA. (2006). Federal Highway Administration University Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation. Lesson 21: Bicycle and Pedestrian Accommodation in Work Zones Description Wherever bicycles are allowed, measures should be taken to provide for the continuity of a bicyclist’s trip through a work zone area. Bicyclists should not be led into conflicts with work site vehicles, equipment, moving vehicles, open trenches, or temporary construction signage. Efforts should be made to re-create a bike lane (if one exists) to the left of the construction zone. If this is impossible, then a standard-width travel lane should be considered. Street Construction and Repair Use asphalt lip on edges greater than .275” Preferred sign placement in sidewalk furnishing zone Sign placement when no furnishing zone is present
  45. 45. E-44 | Appendix E: Design Guidelines LOWER SAVANNAH COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS | SOUTH CAROLINA Design Guidelines LSCOG | 43 Bicycle Access to Transit Guidance Access • Provide direct and convenient access to transit stations and stops from the bicycle and pedestrian networks. • Provide maps at major stops and stations showing nearby bicycle routes. • Provide wayfinding signage and pavement markings from the bicycle network to transit stations. • Ensure that connecting bikeways offer proper bicycle actuation and detection. Bicycle Parking • The route from bicycle parking locations to station/ stop platforms should be well-lit and visible. • Signing should note the location of bicycle parking, rules for use, and instructions as needed. • Provide safe and secure long term parking such as bicycle lockers at transit hubs. Parking should be easy to use and well maintained. Materials and Maintenance Regularly inspect the functioning of long-term parking moving parts and enclosures. Change keys and access codes periodically to prevent access to unapproved users. Discussion Providing bicycle routes to transit helps combine the long-distance coverage of bus travel with the door-to-door service of bicycle riding. Transit use can overcome large obstacles to bicycling, including distance, hills, riding on busy streets, night riding, inclement weather, and breakdowns. High-visibility crosswalks and mid-block crossings are often appropri- ate treatments to provide safer bicycle and pedestrian access to bus stops, particularly at high-usage transit stops. If a bus stop is located mid-block, adequate crossing treatments should be provided, based on the level of traffic on the roadway. All transit riders will need to cross the street to access or leave the bus stop. Additional References and Guidelines APBP. (2010). Bicycle Parking Guide 2nd Edition. FHWA. (2006). Federal Highway Administration University Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation. Lesson 18: Bicycle and Pedestrian Connections to Transit Description Safe and easy access transit stations and secure bicycle parking facilities is necessary to encourage commuters to access transit via bicycle. Bicycling to transit reduces the need to provide expensive and space consuming car parking spaces. Many people who ride to a transit stop will want to bring their bicycle with them on the transit portion of their trip, so buses and other transit vehicles should be equipped accordingly. Support Facilities Map of bicycle routes Long Term bicycle parking On vehicle bicycle rack
  46. 46. Appendix E: Design Guidelines | E-45 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN REGIONAL PLAN | 2012 LSCOG Bike and Ped Regional Plan LSCOG | 44 Regular bicycle facility maintenance includes sweeping, maintaining a smooth roadway, ensuring that the gutter- to-pavement transition remains relatively flat, and install- ing bicycle-friendly drainage grates. Pavement overlays are a good opportunity to improve bicycle facilities. The following recommendations provide a menu of options to consider to enhance a maintenance regimen. This Section Includes: • Sweeping • Roadway Surface • Pavement Overlays • Drainage Grates • Gutter to Pavement Transition • Maintenance Management Plan Sweeping Drainage Grates Maintenance Management Plan Bikeway Maintenance Gutter to Pavement Transition Roadway Surface Recommended Walkway and Bikeway Maintenance Activities Maintenance Activity Frequency Inspections Seasonal – at beginning and end of Summer Pavement sweeping/ blowing As needed, with higher fre- quency in the early Spring and Fall Pavement sealing 5 - 15 years Pothole repair 1 week – 1 month after report Culvert and drainage grate inspection Before Winter and after major storms Pavement markings replacement As needed Signage replacement As needed Shoulder plant trimming (weeds, trees, brambles) Twice a year; middle of growing season and early Fall Tree and shrub plant- ings, trimming 1 – 3 years Major damage response (washouts, fallen trees, flooding) As soon as possible

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