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Department of Agricultural and Biosystems EngineeringImpacts of Swine Manure & Aqua-ammoniaNitrogen Application Timing on ...
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringGoals• Investigate the impacts of aqua-ammonia and liquid swine manure...
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringLocation
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringPlot Sampling Layout125 ft50 ftPerforated border tile -drains to remot...
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringFlow and sampling set-up at Gilmore City site
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringGilmore City Treatments 2001-2004Treatment name NitrogenApplication Ra...
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringPrecipitation2001 2002 2003 20042001-04averagelong termaverage[a]Month...
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringTiming of Drainage2001 2002 2003 20042001-04averageMonth drainage (mm)...
Monthly NitrateConcentration
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringMonthly Nitrate Concentration
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringFlow-weighted Annual Nitrate-NConcentrations2001 2002 2003 2004Average...
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringNitrate-N Loss2001 2002 2003 2004Average(2001-04)Treatment NO3-N loss ...
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringCorn Yield2001 2002 2003 2004Average(2001-04)Treatment yield (kg ha-1)...
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringSoybean Yield2001 2002 2003 2004Average(2001-04)Treatment yield (kg ha...
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringImpact of Nitrogen Application Rate
Impact of Nitrogen Application Rate
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringSummary• Fall or spring application of ammonia or manureresulted in si...
Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringSource• Lawlor, P.A., M.J. Helmers, J.L. Baker, S.W.Melvin, and D.W. L...
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems EngineeringQuestions and CommentsContact info:Matt Helmers219B Davidson HallIowa...
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Impacts of Swine Manure & Aqua-Ammonia Nitrogen Application Timing on Subsurface Drainage Water Quality

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For more: http://www.extension.org/67600 In Iowa and many other Midwestern states, excess water is removed artificially through subsurface drainage systems. While these drainage systems are vital for crop production, nitrogen (N) added as manure or commercial fertilizer, or derived from soil organic matter, can be carried as nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) to downstream water bodies. A five-year, five-replication, field study was conducted in north-central Iowa with the objective to determine the influence of seasonal N application as ammonia or liquid swine manure on flow-weighted NO3-N concentrations and losses in subsurface drainage water and crop yields in a corn-soybean rotation. Four aqua-ammonia N treatments (150 or 225 lb-N/acre applied for corn in late fall or as an early season side-dress) and three manure treatments (200 lb-N/acre for corn in late fall or spring or 150 lb-N/acre in the fall for both corn and soybean) were imposed on subsurface drained, continuous-flow-monitored plots. Four-year average flow-weighted NO3-N concentrations measured in drainage water were ranked: spring aqua-ammonia 225 (23 ppm) = fall manure 150 every year (23 ppm) > fall aqua-ammonia 225 (19ppm) = spring manure 200 (18 ppm) = fall manure 200 (17 ppm) > spring aqua-ammonia 150 (15 ppm) = fall aqua-ammonia 150 (14 ppm). Corn yields were significantly greater (p=0.05) for the spring and fall manure-200 rates than for non-manure treatments. Soybean yields were significantly greater (p=0.05) for the treatments with a spring nitrogen application to the previous corn crop.

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Impacts of Swine Manure & Aqua-Ammonia Nitrogen Application Timing on Subsurface Drainage Water Quality

  1. 1. Department of Agricultural and Biosystems EngineeringImpacts of Swine Manure & Aqua-ammoniaNitrogen Application Timing on SubsurfaceDrainage Water QualityMatthew Helmers, Bob Zhou, and Carl PedersonDept. of Agricultural and Biosystems EngineeringIowa State University
  2. 2. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringGoals• Investigate the impacts of aqua-ammonia and liquid swine manureapplication timing on nitrate-nitrogen concentrations insubsurface drainage and theimpacts on crop production
  3. 3. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringLocation
  4. 4. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringPlot Sampling Layout125 ft50 ftPerforated border tile -drains to remote outletFlow monitoring sump(three drain lines in each sump)Treatment plot
  5. 5. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringFlow and sampling set-up at Gilmore City site
  6. 6. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringGilmore City Treatments 2001-2004Treatment name NitrogenApplication Rate(kg-N/ha)NotesFall Ammonia 168 168 Fall Application – Late Oct.-Mid-NovSpring Ammonia 168 168 Spring Application – Late May – EarlyJuneFall Manure 218*Spring Manure 218*Fall Manure C&S 168* Manure at 168 kg-N/ha rate wasapplied to both corn and soybeansFall Ammonia 252 252Spring Ammonia 252 252Note: * Application rates assume 100% nitrogen availability for manure.
  7. 7. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringPrecipitation2001 2002 2003 20042001-04averagelong termaverage[a]Month precipitation (mm)Mar. 16 7 28 97 37 55Apr. 89 65 79 80 78 81May 143 77 109 168 124 99Jun. 68 51 218 98 109 116Jul. 90 77 147 80 99 110Aug. 72 262 42 13 97 111Sep. 40 30 0 88 40 78Oct. 42 87 0 14 36 57Nov. 54 1 0 68 31 46Drainage season (Mar-Nov)precipitation614 657 623 706 650 753Annual precipitation 702 680 689 767 710 821
  8. 8. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringTiming of Drainage2001 2002 2003 20042001-04averageMonth drainage (mm)Apr. 44 10 34 36 31May 168 59 91 121 110Jun. 44 28 142 103 79Jul. 0 0 91 4 24Aug. 1 92 0 5 24Sep. 0 13 0 0 3Oct. 0 13 0 0 3Nov. 0 0 0 0 0~69% of the annual drainage in May and June
  9. 9. Monthly NitrateConcentration
  10. 10. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringMonthly Nitrate Concentration
  11. 11. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringFlow-weighted Annual Nitrate-NConcentrations2001 2002 2003 2004Average(2001-04)Treatment NO3-N concentration (mg L-1) [a]Fall 168 - Ammonia 14.8d 11.7c 14.7b 15.7c 14.2cSpring 168 - Ammonia 18.0bcd 10.9c 15.0b 15.8c 14.9cFall 252 - Ammonia 19.5bcd 17.4ab 19.7ab 19.9ab 19.0bSpring 252 - Ammonia 28.7a 19.3ab 23.0a 21.9a 23.2aFall Manure 218 17.0cd 15.6bc 18.6ab 16.0bc 16.8bcSpring Manure 218 24.6abc 18.7ab 15.0b 15.1c 18.4bFall Manure 168 every year 26.3ab 22.5a 20.2ab 23.0a 23.0aLSD0.05 8.4 5.3 6.3 4.1 3.0[a]means within years and on average with the same letter are not significantly different at p = 0.05
  12. 12. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringNitrate-N Loss2001 2002 2003 2004Average(2001-04)Treatment NO3-N loss (kg-N ha-1) [a]Fall 168 - Ammonia 32c 27a 44a 41a 36bSpring 168 - Ammonia 37bc 25a 49a 58a 42bFall 252 - Ammonia 53bc 33a 64a 49a 49abSpring 252 - Ammonia 86a 47a 74a 49a 64aFall Manure 218 38bc 33a 49a 48a 41bSpring Manure 218 70ab 37a 46a 45a 50abFall Manure 168 every year 58abc 36a 50a 56a 50abLSD0.05 33 24 43 50 17[a]means within years and on average with the same letter are not significantly different at p = 0.05
  13. 13. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringCorn Yield2001 2002 2003 2004Average(2001-04)Treatment yield (kg ha-1) [a]Fall 168 - Ammonia 8199c 8707b 8293ab 10182c 8845cdSpring 168 - Ammonia 8871bc 8364b 7477b 10273bc 8740dFall 252 - Ammonia 8277c 7973b 7945b 10283bc 8619dSpring 252 - Ammonia 8967bc 8474b 8450ab 11147ab 9302cFall Manure 218 10338a 10906a 9232a 11949a 10607aSpring Manure 218 10060a 10609a 9227a 11813a 10427aFall Manure 168 every year 9562ab 10359a 7864b 11570a 9854bLSD0.05 958 1006 981 901 488Pocahontas County average 8485 10046 10542 12260 10333[a]means within years and on average with the same letter are not significantly different at p = 0.05
  14. 14. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringSoybean Yield2001 2002 2003 2004Average(2001-04)Treatment yield (kg ha-1) [a]Fall 168 - Ammonia 2895c 2829bc 2020ab 2913c 2683dSpring 168 - Ammonia3530ab 3459ab 2222ab 3082abc 3073bFall 252 - Ammonia3006c 2580c 1874b 2890c 2625dSpring 252 - Ammonia 3670ab 3362ab 2287ab 3254abc 3143abFall Manure 2183175bc 2916bc 1881b 3025bc 2765cdSpring Manure 218 3804a 3620a 2506a 3688a 3393aFall Manure 168 every year 3193bc 3216abc 2012ab 3563ab 2996bcLSD0.05 499 653 582 612 274Pocahontas County average 2856 3286 2251 3084 2869[a]means within years and on average with the same letter are not significantly different at p = 0.05
  15. 15. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringImpact of Nitrogen Application Rate
  16. 16. Impact of Nitrogen Application Rate
  17. 17. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringSummary• Fall or spring application of ammonia or manureresulted in similar nitrate-N concentrations insubsurface drainage• Manure application every year in a corn-soybeanrotation increased nitrate-N concentrations insubsurface drainage• Similar nitrate-N concentrations in subsurface drainagebetween liquid swine manure and ammonia• Use of liquid swine manure increase corn yield• Nitrogen application rate is a critical factor relative todrainage water quality
  18. 18. Department of Agricultural andBiosystems EngineeringSource• Lawlor, P.A., M.J. Helmers, J.L. Baker, S.W.Melvin, and D.W. Lemke. 2011. Comparison ofliquid swine manure and ammonia nitrogenapplication timing on subsurface drainage waterquality in Iowa. Trans. ASABE 54(3): 973-981.Funding• Funding for this project was provided by theIowa Department of Agriculture and LandStewardship through the Ag. Management Fund
  19. 19. Department of Agricultural and Biosystems EngineeringQuestions and CommentsContact info:Matt Helmers219B Davidson HallIowa State UniversityAmes, IA 50011515-294-6717mhelmers@iastate.edu

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