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Food waste and food processing waste for renewable energy production

Full proceedings at: http://www.extension.org/72790 This high efficient and low-cost eggshell catalyst could make the process of biodiesel production economic and fully ecologically friendly. The ecologically friendly and economic process could effectively reduce the processing cost of biodiesel, making it competitive with petroleum diesel.

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Food waste and food processing waste for renewable energy production

  1. 1. Food waste and food processing waste for renewable energy production Syu-Ruei Jhang, Yuan-Chung Lin*, Kang-Shin Chen, Chin-En Chen Po-Ming Yang, Shang-Cyuan Chen, I-Wei Wang Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University Kaohsiung , Taiwan 1
  2. 2. Introduction Outline 1 Experimental setup2 Results and discussion3 Conclusion4 2
  3. 3. Introduction  Due to the fossil fuel depletion and increasing global price, developing new alternative fuels has become a pressing issue nowadays.  More and more concern on the impact of environmental issues.  Biodiesel, a renewable biofuel has been considered as an alternative diesel fuel. 3 carbonyl compounds
  4. 4. Introduction 4 the advantages of heavy duty diesel engine (HDDE) high fuel efficiency high power output high fuel economy PM, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Odor
  5. 5. Introduction 5 What is biodiesel? • Biodegradable • Used in any compression ignition engine. • Usually done by base‐catalyzed transesterification of fats/oils.
  6. 6. Introduction 6  Commercial biodiesel is sold as a “blend” with regular ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD). Example: B2 (2% biodiesel, 98% petroleum diesel) (CPC corporation, Taiwan)  Pure biodiesel is known as B100 (100%) or neat biodiesel -Normally B100 is not used in vehicle engines due to engine warranty concerns.
  7. 7. Introduction 7  Why biodiesel is so advantage using as additive to use in engine?  The cetane number of biodiesel is higher than that of diesel which results in a shorter ignition delay time. (Raslavicius et al., 2010)  Biodiesel seems very promising because it can directly replace petroleum diesel and be used in diesel engines without any major modifications. (Rajasekar et al., 2010)  Biodiesel is used as an alternative fuel in diesel engines reduce emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxide (SO2), PM (particle matter), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). (Salamanca et al., 2012) 【US EPA, 2002】 1.Low sulfur content 2.Higher flash point 3.Higher oxygen content 4.Higher cetane number 5.Biodegradable 6.No PAH content 7.No Pb content 8.No halogens
  8. 8. Introduction Catalysts  The heterogeneous catalysts of alkaline earth metal oxides, have been investigated for biodiesel production (Carrero et al., 2011).  CaO have been shown to possess good performance (Khemthong et al., 2012).  Because of sources for the preparation of Ca-based catalysts are mainly commercial precursors, and hence would increase the cost of biodiesel production. 8  The major obstacle to biodiesel commercialization is its high cost.
  9. 9. Experimental section 9  In our work, we have investigated the transesterification of waste cooking oil and jatropha oil with methanol catalyzed by CaO derived from the food wastes of Eggshell and Oystershell. Our work Eggshell Oystershell
  10. 10. Experimental secti 10 TAIWANChiayi Dongshin Fishing Harbor  Dongshin fishing harbor includes pond fish culture , marine fish culture and oyster culture.
  11. 11. Experimental section 11 Oil Species:jatropha oil and Waste cooking oil Temperature:45  85 ℃ Methanol to oil molar ratios :7 : 1  11 : 1 Reaction time:120  210 (min) Catalytic: Calcined Egg shell and Oyster shell Amounts of catalyst: 3  7 wt % Experimental Parameters
  12. 12. Experimental section 12 Mixture Methanol oil Catalyst Animal fats / Vegetable oils Filtering the oil removed some of its impurities WashingBiodieselDried Microwave SystemGC-FID was used to determine methyl ester content Oyster shell
  13. 13. Results and discussion 2-Theta-Scale 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Intensity,a.u. 2-Theta-Scale 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Intensity,a.u. Calcined Egg Shell Temperature: 1000 ℃ Calcined Time : 2 h 2θ = 32.3 (CaO) 2θ = 37.5 (CaO) 2θ = 54.0 (CaO) 2θ = 64.3 (CaO) 2θ = 67.6 (CaO) Calcined Egg shell Catalytic testing Uncalcined Egg Shell2θ = 29.6 (CaCO3) 2θ = 39.6 (CaCO3) 2θ = 47.6 (CaCO3) 2θ = 57.6 (CaCO3) Uncalcined Egg shell 13
  14. 14. Results and discussion 2-Theta-Scale 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Intensity,a.u. 2θ = 29.6 (CaCO3) 2θ = 39.6 (CaCO3) 2θ = 47.6 (CaCO3) 2θ = 48.7 (CaCO3) Uncalcined Oyster Shell 2-Theta-Scale 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Intensity,a.u. 2θ = 32.4 (CaO) 2θ = 37.6 (CaO) 2θ = 54.0 (CaO) 2θ = 64.3 (CaO) 2θ = 67.6 (CaO) Calcined Oyster Shell Temperature: 1000 ℃ Calcined Time : 2 h Calcined Oyster Shell Catalytic testing Uncalcined oyster shell 14
  15. 15. Results and discussion 15 Effects of amounts of catalyst 84.4 85.1 87.8 86.4 85.6 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 3 4 5 6 7 Yield(%) catalyst (wt%) Egg shell waste cooking oil Time :165 min Temperature: 65 ℃ Methanol:Oil : 9:1 85.5 89.1 91.7 87.4 86.8 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 3 4 5 6 7Yield(%) catalyst (wt%) Egg shell Jatropha oil Time :165 min Temperature: 65 ℃ Methanol:Oil : 9:1 • The yield increased with increasing amounts of catalyst from 3 wt% to 5 wt%, and then decreased from 6 wt% to 7 wt%. • We can find that when control the reaction temperature at 65 degree in the control condition the best yield of jatropha oil is 91.7%, compared with waste cooking oil the best yield of waste cooking oil is 87.8%.
  16. 16. Results and discussion 16 84.5 85.9 86.1 87.3 86.9 75 80 85 90 95 100 3 4 5 6 7 Yield(%) catalyst (wt%) Oyster shell waste cooking oil Time :180 min Temperature: 65 ℃ Methanol:Oil : 9:1 Effects of amounts of catalyst  We can find that when control the reaction temperature at 65 degree in the control condition the best yield of jatropha oil is 91.1%, compared with waste cooking oil the best yield of waste cooking oil is 87.8%.  The yield increased with increasing amounts of catalyst from 3 wt% to 6 wt%, and then decreased at 7 wt%. 83.3 86.6 89.1 91.1 88.5 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 3 4 5 6 7 Yield(%) catalyst (wt%) Oyster shell Jatropha oil Time :180 min Temperature: 65 ℃ Methanol:Oil : 9:1
  17. 17. Results and discussion 17 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 Yield(%) Time (min) 5wt% Egg shell 6wt% Oyster shell Jatropha oil Temperature: 65 ℃ Methanol:Oil : 9:1 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210Yield(%) Time (min) 5wt% Egg shell 6wt% Oyster shell Waste cooking oil Temperature: 65 ℃ Methanol:Oil : 9:1 Effects of reaction time  CaO derived from the food wastes of Eggshell have best performance at a reaction time of 165min.  CaO derived from the food wastes of oyster shell have best performance at a reaction time of 180min.  The saponification lead to reduce in biodiesel yields, with the increasing of reaction time.
  18. 18. Results and discussion 18 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 45 55 65 75 85 Yield(%) Temperature (℃) 5wt% Egg shell 6wt% Oyster shell Jatropha oil Egg shell Time: 165 min Oyster shell Time: 180 min Methanol:Oil : 9:1 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 45 55 65 75 85 Yield(%) Temperature (℃) 5wt% Egg shell 6wt% Oyster shell Waste cooking oil Egg shell Time: 165 min Oyster shell Time: 180 min Methanol:Oil : 9:1 Effects of temperature  The process of transesterification, 65 degree had best yield of both oil and different wt% of catalyst.  High temperatures can reduce the viscosity of the oil but it may cause a large amount bubbles from vaporize of methanol, lead to reduce in biodiesel yields.
  19. 19. Results and discussion 19 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 Yield(%) Methanol:Oil 5wt% Egg shell 6wt% Oyster shell Jatropha oil Egg shell Time: 165 min Oyster shell Time: 180 min Temperature :65 ℃ 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 Yield(%) Methanol:Oil 5wt% Egg shell 6wt% Oyster shell Waste cooking oil Egg shell Time: 165 min Oyster shell Time: 180 min Temperature :65 ℃ Effects of molar ratio of methanol/oil 7:1 8:1 9:1 10:1 11:1 7:1 8:1 9:1 10:1 11:1  The optimal methanol to oil molar ratios was 9:1.  A high methanol to oil ratio interferes with the separation of glycerol because of an increase in solubility.
  20. 20. Results and discussion Logo Feedstock Operating conditions Yield (%) Reference Waste cooking oil CaO/ZrO2 (10 wt%) reaction time = 2 h temperature = 65 ℃ Methanol:Oil =30:1 92.1 Asghar and Mohammad, 2012 Waste cooking oil snail shell(CaO) (2 wt%) reaction time = 7 hr temperature = 60 ℃ Methanol:Oil = 6.03:1 87.3 Birla et al., 2012 Waste cooking oil Ba/CaO (3 wt%) reaction time = 3 h temperature = 65 ℃ Methanol:Oil = 9:1 88.0 Balakrishnan et al., 2013 Waste cooking oil Sr / ZrO2(2.7wt%) reaction time = 87 min temperature = 115.5 °C Methanol:Oil = 29:1 79.7 Wan Omar and Amin, 2011 Waste cooking oil Egg shell(5wt%) reaction time = 165 min temperature =65℃ Methanol:Oil =9:1 87.8 This study Feedstock Operating conditions Yield (%) Reference Jatropha oil CaO/MgO (3wt%) temperature =120℃ reaction time = 3 h Methanol:Oil =25:1 90.0 Taufiq-Yap et al., 2011 Jatropha oil CaO(1.5wt%) reaction time = 150 min temperature =70℃ Methanol:Oil =9:1 93.0 Zhu et al., 2006 Jatropha oil KNO3/CaO(6 wt%) temperature =70 ℃ reaction time = 6 h Methanol:Oil =12:1 84.0 Vyas et al., 2009 Jatropha oil KNO3/Al2O3(6 wt%) reaction time = 6 h temperature =70℃ Methanol:Oil =12:1 87.0 Vyas et al., 2009 Jatropha oil Egg shell(5wt%) reaction time = 165 min temperature =65℃ Methanol:Oil =9:1 91.7 This study
  21. 21. Conclusion 20  The amount of eggshell at 5 wt%, jatropha oil had best yield of biodiesel production.  The amount of oystershell at 6 wt%, jatropha oil had best yield of biodiesel production.  Due to the more residual from waste cooking oil, it’s caused the yield of biodiesel is lower than jatropha oil .  The high potential food wastes uses as biodiesel synthesis catalysts can be a green biodiesel process due to their eco-friendly characteristics and cheap cost.  The best yield of waste cooking oil and jatropha oil were 87.3% and 91.1%, respectivity.
  22. 22. What have we learned  This highly efficient and low cost eggshell catalyst could make the process of biodiesel production economically.  In the future, the ecologically and economically friendly process could effectively reduce the processing cost of biodiesel, making it competitive with petroleum diesel.  We can learn from waste to worth is very important. Logo
  23. 23. Thanks for your attention TEL : +886-7-5252000 ext. 4412 E-mail :yclin@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw 21

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Full proceedings at: http://www.extension.org/72790 This high efficient and low-cost eggshell catalyst could make the process of biodiesel production economic and fully ecologically friendly. The ecologically friendly and economic process could effectively reduce the processing cost of biodiesel, making it competitive with petroleum diesel.

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