Process for Recovery of phosphorus (P) from solid manure


Published on Land application of manure in regions with intense confined livestock and poultry production is an environmental concern when land is limiting because it promotes soil phosphorus (P) surplus and potential pollution of water resources. A net accumulation of soil P results from the disproportion between lower nitrogen (N) and P ratio (N:P) in animal manure and the higher N:P ratio in harvested crops. Although manure can be moved off the farm, its transportation becomes less economical with increasing distances from the source. Thus, management alternatives to land application are needed to resolve agronomic P imbalances for more effective recycling of manure P.

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Process for Recovery of phosphorus (P) from solid manure

  1. 1. Process for Recovery of Phosphorusfrom Solid ManureAriel Szogi, Matias Vanotti, Patrick HuntUSDA-ARS, Coastal Plain Soil, Water,& PlantResearch CenterFlorence, SC
  2. 2. Overview• Why phosphorus recovery?• What did we do?• What we have learned?• Future plans
  3. 3. Environmental Issues• N:P ratio - Animal Waste vs. Crop Plants• Accumulation of manure P in soil• Limited mineral phosphate reservesWhy phosphorus recovery?
  4. 4. N:P Ratio & Soil P AccumulationManure N:P = 2:1Nutrient UptakePlant N:P > 4.0Soil P surplus RunoffLeaching
  5. 5. Recoverable Manure P• Quantity of the nutrient available for land application or utilization for otherpurposes• Mass of nutrient per ton of manure remaining after nutrient losses duringmanure collection, transfer, storage, and treatment• Total U.S. annual production of recoverable P2O5 = 650,000 MtSource: USDA-NRCS (Kellogg et al. 2000)18%17%8%19%38%CattleDairyOtherSwinePoultry
  6. 6. ARS-QuickWash ProcessPhosphorusRecovery ProcessWashedSolid ResidueSelectiveP extractionManureSolidsP precipitationP precipitationenhancementRecovered PLiquid123U.S. Patent PendingLicensed byRenewable Nutrients LLCPinehurst, NCWhat did we do?
  7. 7. Animal WasteHigh in PhosphorusWashedSolidResidueSTEP 2LimeDewateredConcentratedPhosphorusSolidsDecanted Liquid+ SolublePhosphorusEffluentSTEP 3FlocculantDewateredLow PManureSolidsSTEP 1AcidDDQuick Wash Process
  8. 8. Quick Wash Pilot Treatment Unit
  9. 9. Quick Wash – Poultry Litter• Step 1: Acidification: pH 3 – 5Mineral or organic acids (e.g. sulfuric, hydrochloric, citric,oxalic, EDTA)• Step 2: P precipitation: LimingpH 10 with hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide)• Step 3: P precipitation enhancementAnionic polymer (PAM)
  10. 10. Quick Wash - Poultry Litter• Washed solid residueLow P product – Step 1• Recovered PhosphorusConcentrated P – Steps 2&3
  11. 11. Quick Wash – Poultry LitterStep 1 – P Selective ExtractionpH 8.1 pH 4.5
  12. 12. Quick Wash – Poultry LitterStep 1 – P Selective ExtractionpH 8.1 pH 4.5
  13. 13. Quick Wash – Poultry LitterStep 1 – P Selective ExtractionpH 8.1 pH 4.5Control TreatmentN:P 1.8:1 5.8:1
  14. 14. Quick Wash – Poultry LitterStep 2 & 3 – P RecoveryLime addition02004006008000 2 4 6 8 10 12 14pHTotalPinLiquidExtract(mg/L)020406080100TotalPRemovedfromLiquidExtract(%)
  15. 15. P removalLime additionpH 9 - 10P enhancementFlocculant addition(PAM -)Quick Wash – Poultry LitterPilot UnitStep 2 Step 3
  16. 16. Phosphorus ConcentrationDry Weight BasisSource Total P P2O5% %Raw broiler litter 2.0 4.6Recovered broiler litter 5.9 13.5
  17. 17. Elemental Composition of RecoveredP Material from Poultry LitterConstituent Mean%Phosphorus 5.9*Calcium 13.4Carbon 23.8Nitrogen 2.4Magnesium 1.0Potassium 1.1Sodium 0.3*Recovered P material > 90% plantavailable P (citrate-soluble)
  18. 18. Quick Wash – Tested Applications• Poultry waste: Broiler and Turkey litter,Laying hen manure• Animal waste: Swine manure• Municipal biosolids
  19. 19. Use of Recovered P as FertilizerGreenhouse Study•Annual ryegrass•P Sources: 1) recovered P,2) raw broiler litter,3) TSP4) unfertilized - control•Soil with very low content of plantavailable P
  20. 20. Use of Recovered P as FertilizerRESULTS:• There was significant dry matter production for all P sources with respectto a unfertilized control• Differences in dry matter production were not significantamong P sources except at very high application rates of commercial TSPThe recovered P is suited for its use as a source of P fertilizerGreenhouse Study•Annual ryegrass•P Sources: 1) recovered P,2) raw broiler litter,3) TSP4) unfertilized - control•Soil with very low content of plantavailable P
  21. 21. Challenges & Opportunities• Increasing price of fertilizers• Policies on manure management• Incentives to adopt new technology• Treatment costs (manure type, % Premoval target, equipment)
  22. 22. Opportunities• Recovery of P from manure can help to reduce manureP application to soils already high in P.• The aspect of P recovery and reuse is important for theglobal cycling of P. Unlike N, world reserves of highquality mineral P are limited.• Centralized treatment facilities have been proposed torecover P in areas with high density of animalproduction• Potential economic benefits from water quality creditsprograms
  23. 23. Publications• Szogi, A.A., Vanotti, M.B., and Hunt, P.G. Phosphorus recovery frompoultry litter. Trans. ASABE 51(5):1727-1734. 2008.• Szogi, A.A., and Vanotti, M.B. Prospects for phosphorus recovery frompoultry litter. Bioresour. Technol. 100(22):5461-5465. 2009.• Szogi, A.A., Bauer, P.J., and Vanotti, M.B. Fertilizer effectiveness ofphosphorus recovered from broiler litter. Agron. J. 102(2):723-727. 2010.• Szogi, A.A., Bauer, P.J., and Vanotti, M.B. Vertical distribution ofphosphorus in a sandy soil fertilized with recovered manure phosphates. J.Soils Sediments 12(3):334-340. 2012.