Software For Evaluating the Environmental Impact of Dairy and Beef Production Systems

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For more: http://www.extension.org/67689 Quantifying the long term environmental impacts of dairy and beef production is complex due to the many interactions among the physical and biological components of farms that affect the amount and type of emissions that occur. Emissions are influenced by climate and soil characteristics as well as internal management practices. Software models are needed to perform an integrated and comprehensive assessment of all important environmental and economic effects of farm management and mitigation strategies.

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Software For Evaluating the Environmental Impact of Dairy and Beef Production Systems

  1. 1. Software for Evaluating theEnvironmental Impact of Dairyand Beef Production SystemsUSDA, Agricultural Research ServiceUniversity Park, PennsylvaniaC. Alan Rotz
  2. 2.  Economic concerns Environmental concerns Social concerns
  3. 3.  Production costs continue to increase morerapidly than the value of farm produce This is forcing our farms to become moreefficient and often larger Larger farms tend to exacerbateenvironmental concerns
  4. 4.  Groundwater Surface water Air quality
  5. 5.  Process-level simulation providesan effective tool Relatively rapid, inexpensive,and comprehensive evaluations Supported with fielddata, provides the bestassessment possible
  6. 6.  Life Cycle Assessment: an environmentalaccounting program Process-based model: a simulation of theproduction system Combined simulation and LCA:Simulation is used to provide theparameters for the LCA
  7. 7.  Integrated Farm SystemsModel, IFSM Dairy Greenhouse GasModel, DairyGHG Dairy Gas EmissionsModel, DairyGEM
  8. 8. Integrated Farm System Model
  9. 9. Process-Level Farm SimulationSoilEstablishCrop HarvestStorageAnimalManureGrazingVolatile lossExported manurePurchased feed,bedding, etc.Feed soldVolatile lossFixednutrientsVolatile lossPurchasedfertilizerRunoff &Leaching lossMilk andanimalsEngine exhaust
  10. 10.  Crop yields and quality Feeds produced Feeds bought and sold Milk or meat produced Manure produced Labor, fuel and equipment use
  11. 11.  Annual production costs (cropproduction, harvest, storage, feeding,etc.) Annual income from milk, animals, andfeed sold Net return or profitability
  12. 12.  Ammonia emission Hydrogen sulfide emission Denitrification N loss Leached N and N concentration in groundwater Erosion, soluble and sediment P runoff losses Greenhouse gas emissions N, P, K and C balance
  13. 13.  Carbon emission Energy use Water use Reactive nitrogen loss
  14. 14. Feed ProductionAnimal ProductionManure HandlingResource inputsFuelElectricityFertilizerPesticidePlasticMachineryOff-farm heifersPurchased feedImported manureMilk soldAnimals soldFeed soldExported manureDirect Sinks and SourcesFixed CO2 CO2 N2O CH4 CO2 CH4 CO2 N2OFarmPre-chain SourcesCO2 CH4 N2OEmissionsallocated toother farmproducts(Cradle-to-farm gate)
  15. 15.  A research tool for evaluating and comparingthe economic and environmentalsustainability of crop, dairy and beefproduction systems An educational tool for individual, workshopand classroom evaluation of productionsystems Limited value as a decisionsupport tool
  16. 16. Dairy Gas Emission ModelSoilEstablishCrop HarvestStorageAnimalManureGrazingVolatile lossExported manurePurchased feed,bedding, etc.Feed soldVolatile lossFixednutrientsVolatile lossPurchasedfertilizerRunoff &Leaching lossMilk andanimalsEngine exhaust
  17. 17.  A simpler tool with fewer inputs and moregraphical output Primarily developed as an educational aidfor individual, workshop and classroomevaluation of dairy production systems Can be used as a decisionsupport tool, but cautionis advised
  18. 18.  Verification of components Process-level evaluation Farm level evaluation
  19. 19. 0204060801001201400 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700Day of yearAmmoniaemission,g/cow-dayMeasuredSimulated
  20. 20. Storage type Anaerobic digesterIncorporation
  21. 21.  Herd of 1100 cows plus 925 replacement heifersproducing 26,000 lb of milk (3.5% fat) per cow 2500 acres of shallow loam soil (840 acresalfalfa, 1200 acres corn, 200 acres wheat, 120 acresoybean, and 150 acres grass) Manure handling includes anaerobicdigestion, liquid/solid separation, rapidincorporation, export of 12% of manure solids Simulated for 25 years of Syracuse, NY weather
  22. 22.  Slurry storage, surface application, and no-tillcrop establishment with no manure incorporation Liquid/solid separation, recycling of solids forbedding, open storage, rapid incorporation ofstored liquid following surface application, exportof 12% of manure solids Same as 2, except manure storage is enclosed anda flare is used to burn the biogas produced Same as 2, except an anaerobic digester is usedprior to separation and storage
  23. 23. 0300600900lb/ac/yrOpen Enclosed AnaerobicSlurry storage storage digesterNo-till Liquid/solid separation, tillage incorp.
  24. 24. 0.00.20.40.6 DissolvedSedimentlb/ac/yrOpen Enclosed AnaerobicSlurry storage storage digesterNo-till Liquid/solid separation, tillage incorp.
  25. 25. Nitrogen Loss020406080100VolatilizationLeachingDenitirficationlb/ac/yrOpen Enclosed AnaerobicSlurry storage storage digesterNo-till Liquid/solid separation, tillage incorp.
  26. 26. 0.0000.0020.0040.0060.008lb CO2e/lb FPCMOpen Enclosed AnaerobicSlurry storage storage digesterNo-till Liquid/solid separation, tillage incorp.
  27. 27. Greenhouse Gas Emissions024681012 SecondaryFuelManureAnimalt CO2e/cow/yrOpen Enclosed AnaerobicSlurry storage storage digesterNo-till Liquid/solid separation, tillage incorp.
  28. 28. 0.00.20.40.60.8lb CO2e/lb FPCMOpen Enclosed AnaerobicSlurry storage storage digesterNo-till Liquid/solid separation, tillage incorp.
  29. 29. 0.00.20.40.60.81.0mBtu/lb FPCMOpen Enclosed AnaerobicSlurry storage storage digesterNo-till Liquid/solid separation, tillage incorp.
  30. 30. 0500100015002000250030003500Milk haulingEnergyPurchased feedLivestockCroppingMachineryFacilitiesLaborLand$/cow/yrOpen Enclosed AnaerobicSlurry storage storage digesterNo-till Liquid/solid separation, tillage incorp.
  31. 31. 100011001200130014001500$/cow/yrOpen Enclosed AnaerobicSlurry storage storage digesterNo-till Liquid/solid separation, tillage incorp.
  32. 32. Provides similar results for: Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nitrousoxide and carbon dioxide emissions Carbon, energy and water footprints0.00.20.40.60.81.0mBtu/lbFPCM0.00.20.40.60.8lbCO2e/lbFPCM024681012tCO2e/cow/yr0102030405060lb/ac/yr
  33. 33.  The Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM)provides a research tool for evaluating theenvironmental impacts and economics of farmingsystems The Dairy Gas Emissions Model (DairyGEM)provides an educational aid for studying theeffects of farm management and mitigationstrategies on air emissions and related footprints
  34. 34. USDAPasture Systems and WatershedManagement Research UnitUniversity Park, PennsylvaniaAgricultural Research Service

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