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Waste of WorthApril, 2013Denver, COCharles A. Shapiro, Sagor Biswas, David D. Tarkalson, William L.Kranz, David P. Shelton...
Funding provided by US-EPA -2007programBeef and dairyPoultrylitterPoultrybroilerBeef, dairy, poultry and swine
 96% of CAFO cattleuse implants CONCERN: Potential fornatural and syntheticsteroid hormones inlivestock waste to reachgr...
 Endogenous (natural) Estrodiol Estrone Testosterone Androstenedione Progesterone Exogenous (synthetic) Trenbolone...
RalgroTM Implant active ingredient
 Increase average daily gain (ADG) 5 - 25 % Improve feed efficiency (G/F) 5 - 18 % Improve lean tissue deposition 5 ...
1) Quantify hormones in various stages of the manurepathway in cattle feedlots.2) Determine the effects of different handl...
8MeatMarketHormone supplements:36 mg α-zearalanol,140 mg of TBA and 14 mgof 17β-estradiol (after 35 days)0.45 mg of MGA (d...
 96 heifers split between six pens Half receive implants /feedsupplement Surface samples, feces and urinespots collecte...
 Low concentrations of steroid hormonesdetected in feeding pen run-off Steroids detected in ≥ 80% of treated and control...
11MeatMarketLivestock(Heifers)Hormone Supplements:36 mg α-zearalanol,140 mg of TBA and 14 mg of 17β-estradiol (after 35 da...
 Feedlot study initiated June Waste handling study initiated October Manure fromtreated anduntreated cattleplaced incom...
Androgens Mycotoxins Estrogens ProgestagensManure4-androstenedioneAndrosteroneα-zearalenolβ-zearalenolα-zearalanol17α-estr...
 To evaluate the effects of: precipitation (simulation at 1 DAT and 30 DAT) manure handling (composting vs stockpiling,...
 Study area: HaskellAgricultural Laboratory,Concord Soil: Nora silty clay loam(28% sand, 48% silt and24% clay) Slope: 8...
 Manure application rate: 193 Mg ha-1 stockpiled 159 Mg ha-1 composted N availability factor: 0.15 N requirement: 170...
17
18Results (2008):b b bcba03060901201 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DATTimetorunoffinitiation(min)(A) Tillage Treatment
19Results (2008):abaabb0204060801001201 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DATTimetorunoffinitiation(min)(B) Manure Treatment
20Results:abaaab04812161 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DATRunoff(mm)(A) Tillage Treatment
051015202530Disk Plow No-tillFrequencyofdetection(%)1 DAT 30 DAT051015202530Compost Stockpile Treated UntreatedFrequencyof...
 Lack of detection in the 2008 Ensure sufficient concentrations todetect effect of treatments Not used or released by b...
 Manure application 193 Mg ha-1 N availability factor:0.15 170 kg-N ha-1 Nrequirements Application rate of 7.5mg m-2...
24Runoffinitiationtime (min)TotalPrecipitation(mm)Pr>FTreatmentTillage 0.27 0.10Manure 0.19 0.24EE2 0.86 0.81MeanNT 53 100...
Flow WeightedAverage Concentration(ng L-1)Masstransport(mg ha-1)Treatment Pr>FTillage 0.0003 0.003Manure 0.05 0.11Tillage*...
 Little steroid remains inmanure after feedlot Minor benefit fromcomposting Runoff from fields affected bytillage and t...
Effect of Manure Handling and Incorporation on Steroid Movement In Agricultural Fields Fertilized With Beef Cattle Manure
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Effect of Manure Handling and Incorporation on Steroid Movement In Agricultural Fields Fertilized With Beef Cattle Manure

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Proceedings available at: http://www.extension.org/67695

Manure generated from concentrated animal feeding operations may serve as a source of steroids in surface water and adversely impact the development of aquatic ecosystems. The objectives of this research were to determine the amount of steroids and metabolites in manure from beef cattle production pens, and runoff from crop production fields.

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Effect of Manure Handling and Incorporation on Steroid Movement In Agricultural Fields Fertilized With Beef Cattle Manure

  1. 1. Waste of WorthApril, 2013Denver, COCharles A. Shapiro, Sagor Biswas, David D. Tarkalson, William L.Kranz, David P. Shelton, Terry L. Mader, Daniel D. Snow, Simon J. vanDonk, Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt, and Tian C. ZhangTechnical assistance: Leslie Johnson and Mike MainzUniversity of Nebraska-LincolnEmail: cshapiro@unl.edu
  2. 2. Funding provided by US-EPA -2007programBeef and dairyPoultrylitterPoultrybroilerBeef, dairy, poultry and swine
  3. 3.  96% of CAFO cattleuse implants CONCERN: Potential fornatural and syntheticsteroid hormones inlivestock waste to reachgroundwater andsurface waters?
  4. 4.  Endogenous (natural) Estrodiol Estrone Testosterone Androstenedione Progesterone Exogenous (synthetic) Trenbolone Zearalonol Melengestrol Acetate17 -estradiolestroneTestosterone Progesterone-zearalonolMelengestrol acetate17 -trenbolone
  5. 5. RalgroTM Implant active ingredient
  6. 6.  Increase average daily gain (ADG) 5 - 25 % Improve feed efficiency (G/F) 5 - 18 % Improve lean tissue deposition 5 - 12 %
  7. 7. 1) Quantify hormones in various stages of the manurepathway in cattle feedlots.2) Determine the effects of different handling practices ofcattle feedlot wastes on the stability and availability ofhormones.3) Determine the effects of different land applicationstrategies on the fate and transport of hormones in runoffand vadose zone soils.4) Determine if grasses grown in conservation buffersassimilate hormones.
  8. 8. 8MeatMarketHormone supplements:36 mg α-zearalanol,140 mg of TBA and 14 mgof 17β-estradiol (after 35 days)0.45 mg of MGA (daily feed, 145 days)Fresh Manure ~25kg/day~0.5 mg/day excretion~ 20 ug/kg maximumCompost StockpileRunoff HoldingPondLandApplicationOverlandrunoffSoil WaterMovementPlant UptakeStreams, LakesVadose zone,Ground waterAnimalIngestion
  9. 9.  96 heifers split between six pens Half receive implants /feedsupplement Surface samples, feces and urinespots collected and analyzed(7, 45, 125 days) Feed lot run-off from natural rainfallevents collected using tipping bucketsampler Pens scraped and waste stockpiledor composted Feeding pen study conducted 2007and 2008
  10. 10.  Low concentrations of steroid hormonesdetected in feeding pen run-off Steroids detected in ≥ 80% of treated and controlsamples Synthetic steroids only detected in runoff fromtreated groups Mostly endogenous steroids and possibly mycotoxinsdetected in dissolved fraction Large proportion held in feed-lot surfaces Seasonal variation observed in metabolites andconcentrations
  11. 11. 11MeatMarketLivestock(Heifers)Hormone Supplements:36 mg α-zearalanol,140 mg of TBA and 14 mg of 17β-estradiol (after 35 days)0.45 mg of MGA (daily feed)ManureCompost StockpileRunoff HoldingPondLandApplicationOverlandrunoffSoil WaterMovementPlant UptakeStreams, LakesVadosezone, GroundwaterAnimalIngestion
  12. 12.  Feedlot study initiated June Waste handling study initiated October Manure fromtreated anduntreated cattleplaced incompost pilesand anaerobicstockpiles Piles turnedthrough Spring
  13. 13. Androgens Mycotoxins Estrogens ProgestagensManure4-androstenedioneAndrosteroneα-zearalenolβ-zearalenolα-zearalanol17α-estradiol17β-estradiolEstriolEstroneMelengesterolacetateProgesterone17α-hydroxyprogesteroneTotalConcentrationng g-1CU 1.8 ND ND ND ND ND ND 2.0 5.1 <0.5 0.9 ND 9.8CT 3.3 3.5 ND ND 1.0 <0.5 <0.5 ND 5.4 <0.5 0.7 <0.5 13.9SU 6.8 ND ND 8.8 0.8 ND <0.5 ND 4.3 ND 4.0 ND 24.7ST 5.3 ND 1.9 11.4 ND <0.5 ND ND 3.7 <0.5 4.1 <0.5 26.413Detection limit: 0.5 ng g-1CU= Compost untreated, CT= Compost treated, SU= Stockpile untreated, ST=Stockpile treated, ND= Non-detectableAverage steroid concentration in manure sample from April 2008
  14. 14.  To evaluate the effects of: precipitation (simulation at 1 DAT and 30 DAT) manure handling (composting vs stockpiling,treated vs untreated) tillage (disk, plow and no-till)-on the presence of steroid hormones in overlandrunoff14
  15. 15.  Study area: HaskellAgricultural Laboratory,Concord Soil: Nora silty clay loam(28% sand, 48% silt and24% clay) Slope: 8% Average annualprecipitation: 672 mm(26 in) Average annualtemperature: 8 C (47 F)15Feedlot
  16. 16.  Manure application rate: 193 Mg ha-1 stockpiled 159 Mg ha-1 composted N availability factor: 0.15 N requirement: 170 kg-Nha-1 for dryland corn Rainfall intensity:75 mm hr-1 6 runoff samplescollected at 5 minsinterval after runoffinitiation16Experimental Design
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18Results (2008):b b bcba03060901201 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DATTimetorunoffinitiation(min)(A) Tillage Treatment
  19. 19. 19Results (2008):abaabb0204060801001201 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DATTimetorunoffinitiation(min)(B) Manure Treatment
  20. 20. 20Results:abaaab04812161 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DAT 1 DAT 30 DATRunoff(mm)(A) Tillage Treatment
  21. 21. 051015202530Disk Plow No-tillFrequencyofdetection(%)1 DAT 30 DAT051015202530Compost Stockpile Treated UntreatedFrequencyofdetection(%)1 DAT 30 DAT
  22. 22.  Lack of detection in the 2008 Ensure sufficient concentrations todetect effect of treatments Not used or released by beef cattle 17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2)22
  23. 23.  Manure application 193 Mg ha-1 N availability factor:0.15 170 kg-N ha-1 Nrequirements Application rate of 7.5mg m-2 Using a backpack sprayerwith a 3 m boom RCB with threereplications 23
  24. 24. 24Runoffinitiationtime (min)TotalPrecipitation(mm)Pr>FTreatmentTillage 0.27 0.10Manure 0.19 0.24EE2 0.86 0.81MeanNT 53 100T 81 133
  25. 25. Flow WeightedAverage Concentration(ng L-1)Masstransport(mg ha-1)Treatment Pr>FTillage 0.0003 0.003Manure 0.05 0.11Tillage*Manure 0.83 0.90MeanNT-EE2 with Manure 1765 a 110 aT-EE2 with Manure 62 b 3 b
  26. 26.  Little steroid remains inmanure after feedlot Minor benefit fromcomposting Runoff from fields affected bytillage and timing Interaction between time fromtillage to rainfall affects erosionand hence, Size of storm to produce similarpotential losses varies Little leaching, held in soil(data not shown)Livestock(Heifers)ManureCompost StockpileLandApplicationOverlandrunoffStreams,Lakes

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