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Particulate Matter Adjacent to Cattle Deep-Bedded Monoslope Facilities

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Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region. Many of these facilities add organic bedding material to the pens once or twice per week. Particulate matter concentrations and emissions from these facilities have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to quantify particulate matter concentration adjacent to a deep-bedded monoslope facility housing cattle and to compare the concentrations during normal operation and a bedding event.

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Particulate Matter Adjacent to Cattle Deep-Bedded Monoslope Facilities

  1. 1. Particulate matter adjacentto cattle deep-beddedmonoslope facilitiesMindy J. SpiehsApril 4, 2013Waste to WorthDenver, CO
  2. 2. Project Overview• Project is part of USDA AFRI Air Quality Grant– South Dakota State University– Iowa State University– Livestock Poultry and Environmental LearningCenter– USDA ARS• Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE• Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit,Lubbock, TX
  3. 3. Bedding and manure management• Producers managebedding/manure twoways:– Allow a bedded pack toaccumulate in center orpen– Scrape and haul all beddingand manure weekly• Manure may be storedunder roof in manure bayor in outdoor pile untilland applied• Fresh bedding added topack 1 – 2 times per week
  4. 4. Purpose of Air Quality Grant• Gather baseline emission data from beefconfinement barns• Evaluate 2 manure handling systemsWeekly Scrape and HaulSouth Dakota SitesBedpackIowa Sites
  5. 5. Monitoring Weather• On-site weatherstation measured– Wind direction– Wind speed– Ambient airtemperature– Relative humidity
  6. 6. Monitoring the Barns• Two barns in South Dakota andtwo barns in Iowa weremonitored– Two mobile instrument trailerswere rotated between the barns– Continuous gas measurementswere taken from each barn for onemonth each season for two years• Two air inlets on the south sideof the barn and six air inlets onthe north side of the barncontinuously collected airsamples to analyze for– Ammonia– Hydrogen sulfide– Methane– Carbon dioxide– Nitrous oxide• Particulate matter wasmonitored periodically
  7. 7. Monitoring Particulate Matter• South Dakota Sites– Measured using Minivols– Collected baselineemission data• Iowa Site– Measured using Lo-VolParticulate Air Samplers– Collected baselineemission data– Evaluated particulatematter concentrationrelative to managementevents
  8. 8. Objective• Compare particulate matter concentrationadjacent to a deep-bedded monoslope facilityduring normal operation and a bedding event.
  9. 9. Sampling procedure• Lo-Vol ParticulateSamplers– Three placed 4.6 m (15 ft)from the north side of thebuilding– Three placed 4.6 m (15 ft)from the south side of thebuilding– 36.6 m (120 ft) betweenthe samplers on each side• Average sampler flowrate was 16.7 L/min.
  10. 10. Sampling procedure• Each sampler contained pre-weighed filters• At the end of the sampling period, filters were collectedand sent to USDA ARS Cotton Production and ProcessingResearch Unit, Lubbock, TX to determine totalsuspended particles (TSP).• Samples were collected over two five-day periods– April 28 – May 5, 2011– June 24 – July 1, 2011• Each sample period included three 24-hr collectionsduring normal operation and two 3-hr collections duringa bedding event
  11. 11. Statistical Analysis• Data were analyzed using SAS PROC MIXED todetermine differences between sampling events(Bedding vs. Normal Operation) and samplingperiods (April – May vs. June – July)• No event by sampling period interaction wasdetected (P = 0.1794)• No significant difference between samplingperiods was detected (P = 0.1807)
  12. 12. Results
  13. 13. Bedding EventPrevailingSouth windBedding EventPrevailingNorth wind
  14. 14. Bedding EventSlight south windBedding EventWind changeddirection duringsampling
  15. 15. Average Concentrations• Average 24-hr TSP concentration on days ofnormal operation was 58.6 ± 3.9 µg/m3• Average 3-hr particulate matter concentrationduring a bedding event was 702.2 ± 266.1µg/m3• TSP significantly higher during bedding eventscompared to normal operations (P = 0.0040)
  16. 16. Conclusions• In general, particulate matter concentrationsadjacent to the deep-bedded monoslopefacility were lower than previously reportedfor open lot feedlots.• Concentrations of TSP were higher during the3-hr bedding event than during normaloperation but quickly return to baseline levelsfollowing bedding event.
  17. 17. Thank You!