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Small scale poultry

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Small scale poultry

  1. 1. Small-Scale Livestock Production Raising Poultry for Profit This program was funded by the USDA National Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program (BFRDP) under award #2009-49400-05871.
  2. 2. What you need to know before you get started…
  3. 3. New marketing opportunities Environmental stewardship Production practices Safe product handling Business licensing Zoning restrictions
  4. 4. New Marketing Opportunities • Leveraging flock management • Certification programs • Evaluating program costs & benefits
  5. 5. Certification and Marketing • Consumers are interested in how livestock are raised, handled & processed • Certification may allow you to secure a premium for product or expand market reach – Such as specialty food stores and restaurants that require that their animal products be sourced from humanely raised animals • How you manage your flock (your stewardship practices) can influence your marketing opportunities
  6. 6. Animal Welfare Certification Programs • Distinguish livestock products as coming from humanely treated animals • Certified production systems often are more expensive than non-certified • Be sure to keep in mind the production costs and marketing benefits of following a certification program Animal American Global United USDA Food Welfare Humane Animal Egg Organic Alliance Partnership Approved Certified Producers
  7. 7. Possible Program Specifications for Flock Management Space Litter Outdoor allowances management & access (roosting & ammonia levels range) Sleep period Catching birds requirement for transport
  8. 8. Evaluating Certification Programs Goals • Make sure program goals align with yours • Understand the certification process & animals Certification covered Fees • Understand the program’s fee structure • Calculate the time required to achieve & Time Commitment maintain certification • Estimate how your production costs may Production Costs change under certification
  9. 9. Evaluating Certification Benefits Ability to connect Access to new Possibility of with customers markets that seek charging higher based on their certified products prices for products values Access to marketing Certifier may help materials and support grower improve safe from certifying production and organization handling techniques
  10. 10. Evaluating Certification Costs More ranging or living area may be required for each bird enrolled in the certification program  You may need more land Changes to poultry health care  You may need to remove from your program sick birds that you vaccinate or medically treat Changes to poultry feeding  You may need to use feed from specific sources or follow certain ingredient guidelines Changes to poultry housing  You may need to build additional facilities to allow more space per bird More detailed record-keeping on poultry health and raising  You may need to allow more time or hire someone to do this
  11. 11. Linking Production & Marketing Decisions • Choose a breed that is appropriate for the products you want to produce (meat vs eggs) • If you are producing meat animals, do you have a slaughter and processing facility that will work with your level of production? • Know who will buy your product before you produce it • Take a course in Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) – To understand how to prevent or reduce contamination of your products throughout production, processing and sales – Obtaining GAPs certification is also a good marketing strategy
  12. 12. Environmental Stewardship To be a good neighbor and food producer: • Manage manure properly • Monitor storm water runoff • Dispose of mortalities safely
  13. 13. Good Stewardship Leads to Better Business Management Minimizing: Using best Leads to a: •Animal and management •Cleaner manure odors practices to: production •Dust •Dispose of operation •Insects & dead birds •Healthier herd predators •Mitigate runoff •Good neighbor relationships
  14. 14. Manage Manure Properly Control unpleasant odors and dust Know the nutrient content of your manure, apply based on nutrient/fertilizer value, and keep records Spread manure away from wells, springs, and watercourses When possible, till in fall-applied manure Keep piles of manure, spent bedding and spoiled feed away from watercourses
  15. 15. Monitor Storm Water Runoff Conduct annual tests for bacteria and nitrates in well water Locate poultry operations away from wellheads; protect wellheads in pastures (consult local/state wellhead protection laws) Use buffers and setbacks to protect surface waters from direct contact with animal waste and process waste water Divert clean water (run-on) around production and waste storage areas using berms, ditches grassy swales, roof gutters
  16. 16. Dispose of Dead Birds Safely Abide by state/local laws Render within 48 hours, where service is available (dead animals used to create a new, usable product) Compost in pile or bin, at high temperature (130o-150oF) Bury on farm, at least 300 feet away from a watercourse and 3-ft deep, above the wet season high watertable Bury/dispose at a licensed landfill
  17. 17. Production Practices • Maintaining a healthy flock • Managing sick birds • Growing your flock
  18. 18. Animal Welfare Preventing disease among your flock involves good stewardship and management
  19. 19. Managing for Healthy Birds Includes Providing Adequate space & ventilation Clean housing & bedding material Access to water at all times Nutritionally complete food Protection from predators Protection from extreme temperatures
  20. 20. Managing Sick Birds Includes • Having a local avian veterinarian who understands your flock management program • Establishing a plan for: – Any unknown disease – Avian Influenza & Exotic Newcastle (cause significant morbidity in flocks) • In case of disease outbreak, having a plan for cleaning and disinfecting vehicles & equipment, and protecting your employees • Developing a quarantine procedure for sick birds • Developing a disposal plan for dead birds
  21. 21. Growing Your Flock • Look for hatcheries participating in Voluntary National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) – Certifies that poultry breeding stock and hatcheries are free from certain diseases • Avoid poultry swaps or other unverified sources • Quarantine new birds before integrating into your flock • Keep in mind local regulations for numbers of birds allowable in your area
  22. 22. Safe Handling • Eggs • Meat • Live birds
  23. 23. Eggs: Safe Handling for Small Flocks • Keep nests clean Gathering • Gather eggs 3 times/day to keep clean • Use unscented, food-grade detergent + rinse water Washing • Keep water temperature between 110°F and 120°F • Dip in 120°F water and bleach at 100-200 ppm Sanitizing chlorine (1oz bleach per 1 gallon water) • Discard meat spots, blood spots and cracked egg Candling shells Drying • Dry on racks before putting in cartons Refrigerating • Store between 33°F and 41°F • Must be clean Transporting • Maintain refrigeration
  24. 24. Eggs: Safe Handling for Large Flocks (3,000 or more laying hens) • Register with FDA under the Egg Rule • In your facility: – Buy chicks and young hens only from suppliers who monitor for Salmonella bacteria – Establish rodent, pest control, and biosecurity measures to prevent spread of bacteria throughout the farm by people and equipment – Conduct testing in the poultry house for Salmonella • Refrigerate: Eggs must be refrigerated at 45° F, within 36 hours of when they are laid • Pasteurization • Have a written egg safety plan to prevent foodborne illness outbreaks. See FDA’s new egg rule
  25. 25. Meat: Safe Handling • Handle all raw poultry carefully to prevent cross- contamination. • Chill to 40°F or less within a specified time after slaughter. Keep poultry products cold (40°F or below) or frozen (0°F or below) during transport. • The term ‘fresh’ may only be placed on poultry that has never been below 26°F. • Raw poultry held at temperature of 0°F or below must be labeled with a “keep frozen” handling statement. • Raw poultry has a very short refrigerator shelf life and should be frozen or cooked within two days of purchase.
  26. 26. Live Birds: Safe Handling • Live baby poultry (chicks, ducklings, gosling and turkey poults) may carry Salmonella • Bacteria may be in their droppings, feathers, feet, or beaks • After handling baby poultry: – Wash your hands thoroughly • After handling any livestock – Wash hands thoroughly & change shoes before entering a food production or handling area
  27. 27. Business licensing Which licenses you need depends on: – Whether you are selling eggs or meat – Where you plan to sell your product – The scale of production you are considering
  28. 28. Getting Permission to do Business • County, municipal & Homeowners Association or Neighborhood/Unincorporated Community Covenants • Business Registration (typically from your state’s Secretary of State, although some cities & counties also require business registration) • IRS Employer Identification Number (EIN, if you have employees) • State taxes (sales tax, income tax, workers’ compensation, unemployment insurance) • City/County sales tax license • Other business licenses (depending on your sales outlet and product(s) offered for sale) To check on your state’s tax and licensing requirements: //
  29. 29. How Many Hens Do You Plan to Have? • Flocks under 3000 laying hens are USDA grade exempt and fall under < 3000 state law Image: James Bowe @ / Creative Commons licensed • Flocks of 3000 and over > =3000 laying hens require business registration with Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) through the FDA
  30. 30. Where Do You Plan to Sell Eggs? • State licensing can vary depending on where you plan to sell your product • From place of production? • Licensing may be easier if you plan to sell direct • Farmers’ to consumers from your Image: James Bowe @ / Creative Commons licensed market(s)? home or place of production • Through retail • However, check with the stores? market or retailer for any licenses or food safety audits they may require
  31. 31. Licensing for Retail & Wholesale Meat Sales To sell packaged • Must use state or federally inspected poultry direct to slaughter and processing facility (see the consumer exemption for custom processing) • Must use state or federally inspected To sell packaged slaughter and processing facility (see poultry to retail small flock exemption) buyers, wholesale • Required: Labeling – i.e., Net Weight or farmers’ market using Standard Weights and Measures* • Optional: Grading *Note that your processor can help guide you through the packaging and labeling process.
  32. 32. Exemptions to USDA slaughter and processing requirements Exemption #1 for freezer meats Sold before Labeled slaughter to new NOT FOR SALE owner AND OR Processed for Processed for non- household use AND paying guests
  33. 33. Exemptions to USDA slaughter and processing requirements Exemption #2 for poultry, but not recognized in all states Producer-grower Producer-grower 1,000 bird per year 20,000 bird per year limit limit FOR FOR On-farm sales Retail sales
  34. 34. Your County Health Department May Require A retail food establishment license for product sales. For example in Colorado: • Colorado Dept. of Public Health & 1. Environment Plan Review • County Health Department Application 2. • Inspection (possible) 3. • Estimated fee: $115 4. • Annual fee, but will be renewed unless revoked
  35. 35. One More Thing About Meat & Egg Sales… Many farmers’ markets require vendors to carry their own liability insurance policy For more info on licensing and regulations check with your local Extension office or state Department of Agriculture
  36. 36. Zoning restrictions • Zoning is a restriction on the way land can be used • Zoning regulations may include where you can (or can’t) raise animals • Zoning may also define the number of birds you raise on your property
  37. 37. County & Municipal Zoning Regulations • Present your plans early―your local planning and zoning board may have ideas to make your business more viable or to protect your resource base • Once you are in operation, remember to consult local officials before making any changes to your business (to structures or to products you sell)
  38. 38. County & Municipal Zoning Regulations • Livestock allowances are usually outlined in land use codes • Large livestock are typically Always verify the prohibited in non-agriculturally number birds zoned county or municipal districts legally allowed • Many municipalities allow private on your property ownership/production of a small before starting number of fowl, although many exclude roosters and limit the your business density of confinement • Your Homeowners’ Association may also have restrictions on poultry
  39. 39. Regulations in Districts Where Commercial Poultry Production is Permitted may Include: Size and type of Commercial or animal agricultural Permit fee often structures; permit required location on your requirements property Minimum space requirement per Limited or no chicken; Standards for allowable restrictions on odor, dust, noise slaughter on roosters premises
  40. 40. Building a Profitable Business Involves Building Building Building Business Customers Community Processes through through through Good resource Research & Marketing & flock compliance stewardship with regulations Good and Safe handling certifications neighbor practices relations that lead to a sustainable business!
  41. 41. Questions? Photo credit: Aprilskiver 6351632089
  42. 42. Acknowledgments • Blake Angelo, Colorado State University Extension, Urban Agriculture • Dr. Jack Avens, CSU Food Science and Human Nutrition • Thomas Bass, Montana State University Extension, Livestock Environment Associate Specialist • Dr. Marisa Bunning, CSU Food Science and Human Nutrition • Emily Lockard, CSU Extension, Livestock • Dea Sloan, CSU Agricultural and Resource Economics • Martha Sullins, CSU Extension, Agriculture and Business Management • Dr. Dawn Thilmany, CSU Agricultural and Resource Economics • Heather Watts, CSU Agricultural and Resource Economics • Wendy White, Colorado Department of Agriculture • David Weiss, CSU Agricultural and Resource Economics
  43. 43. Photo Credits – All photos used under the Creative Commons License James Bowe 7177637421 Aprilskiver 6351632089

Editor's Notes

  • There are unique production and marketing opportunities available to smaller-scale poultry producers; however, before you get started, you need to consider…
  • Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Handling Practices (GHP): New food safety requirements published by the FDA regarding egg safety and reduction of Salmonella became effective on July 9, 2010. The compliance date for the egg rule was July 9, 2010 for producers with 50,000 or more laying hens, and it went into effect as of July 9, 2012 for medium-sized producers (those with fewer than 50,000 but at least 3,000 laying hens). Producers with fewer than 3,000 laying hens and those that sell all of their eggs directly to consumers are exempt from the egg rule. Under the FDA rule, egg producers whose shell eggs are not processed with a treatment, such as pasteurization, must:Buy chicks and young hens only from suppliers who monitor for Salmonella bacteriaEstablish rodent, pest control, and biosecurity measures to prevent spread of bacteria throughout the farm by people and equipmentConduct testing in the poultry house for Salmonella. If the tests find presence of the bacterium, then a representative sample of the eggs must be tested over an eight-week time period (four tests at two-week intervals). If any of the four egg tests is positive, the producer must further process the eggs to destroy the bacteria, or divert the eggs to a non-food useClean and disinfect poultry houses that have tested positive for SalmonellaRefrigerate eggs at 45 degrees F during storage and transportation no later than 36 hours after the eggs are laid (this requirement also applies to egg producers whose eggs receive a treatment, such as pasteurization).To ensure compliance, egg producers must maintain a written Salmonella Enteritidis prevention plan and records documenting their compliance. Egg producers covered by this rule must also register with the FDA. The FDA will develop guidance and enforcement plans to help egg producers comply with the rule. Please consult the new egg rule for more information.;blobheader=application%2Fpdf&amp;blobheadername1=Content-Disposition&amp;blobheadername2=MDT-Type&amp;blobheadervalue1=inline%3B+filename%3D516%2F404%2FGuidelines+for+washing+eggs+for+small+flock+owners.pdf&amp;blobheadervalue2=abinary%3B+charset%3DUTF-8&amp;blobkey=id&amp;blobtable=MungoBlobs&amp;blobwhere=1239162327841&amp;ssbinary=true