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Waste to Worth Conference
March 31, 2015
Errol Villegas
Program Manager – Strategies & Incentives
San Joaquin Valley Air P...
2
• 35 Air Quality Management Districts (AQMD) and
Air Pollution Control Districts (APCD) in California
• Implement and en...
3
San Joaquin Valley
•Hot, sunny summers
•VOC, NOx
•Ozone Problem
•Cool, foggy winters
•Particulate problem
• #1 Agricultural Region in Nation
• CA produces nearly half of US-
grown fruits, nuts and vegetables
• > 400 commodities
...
5
• Surrounding mountains
and meteorology create
ideal conditions for
trapping air pollution
• Economic challenges and
hig...
• District has adopted numerous attainment plans:
– Toughest air regulations in the nation
– Adopted over 600 stringent ru...
7
8
9
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020...
• PM10 and PM2.5. Generally: the smaller the
particle, the greater the health impact
10
NH3 SO2 NO Primary PM
H2SO4 HNO3
VOC
SOC
VOC = Volatile Organic Compounds (benzene, ethanol, formaldehyde, …)
SOC = semi-v...
12
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Ammonium Nitrate Carbon
Bakersfield
Fresno
Concentration(µg/m3)
13
14
15
• Major field study conducted in 1999-2001
• Multi-million dollar project funded by a
public/private partnership
• Provide...
17
18
Comparison of Ammonia and nitric acid concentrations measured at
Fresno urban site during winter 2000/2001 as part of C...
19
Comparison of Ammonia and nitric acid concentrations measured at
Angioloa rural site during winter 2000/2001 as part of...
• NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HONO, PAN, HNO3
• HNO3 + NH3 → NH4NO3
Direct Emissions Stable End Product
From Atmospheric
Chemistry...
21
Nighttime/Winter Nitrate Formation
O3 O3 H2O
NO → NO2 → NO3 → N2O5 → 2HNO3
• Main Oxidant is Ozone (O3); Favors low
sun...
Ammonium nitrate will not form when [NH3]*[HNO3] < Kp
12 17 22 27 32 37
Temperature (oC)
22
23
Source: Kleeman MJ, Ying Q,
Kaduwela A. Control strategies for the
reduction of airborne particulate nitrate
in California...
25
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
AmmoniumNitrate(ug/m3)
NOxEmissions...
Regulations
*Require businesses to reduce
emissions, and enforce through
permits and other mechanisms
Incentives
*Reduce e...
Contact Information:
Errol Villegas
559-230-5800
errol.villegas@valleyair.org
28
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Scientific Evidence Indicates that Reducing NOx Emissions is the Most Effective Strategy to Reduce Concentrations of Ammonium Nitrate, a Significant Contributor to PM2.5 Concentrations in California’s San Joaquin Valley

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The full proceedings paper is at: www.extension.org/72879

Recently there has been increased interest in regulating ammonia emissions to reduce PM2.5 ("fine" particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) concentrations. However, understanding the quantity of and interactions between ammonia and nitrogen oxide (NOx) is necessary in determining whether controlling ammonia is an effective strategy for reducing PM2.5 in a particular region. Research from the California Regional Particulate Air Quality Study and other studies has demonstrated the relative abundance of ammonia in comparison to the limited concentrations of the other key precursor, nitric acid formed by NOx emissions. As a result, NOx acts as the primary limiting precursor for the formation of secondary ammonium nitrate in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Modeling based on data from these studies also found that controlling NOx was the most effective strategy to reduce ammonium nitrate particulate in the SJV and controlling ammonia had little effect on PM2.5 concentrations.

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Scientific Evidence Indicates that Reducing NOx Emissions is the Most Effective Strategy to Reduce Concentrations of Ammonium Nitrate, a Significant Contributor to PM2.5 Concentrations in California’s San Joaquin Valley

  1. 1. Waste to Worth Conference March 31, 2015 Errol Villegas Program Manager – Strategies & Incentives San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District 1
  2. 2. 2 • 35 Air Quality Management Districts (AQMD) and Air Pollution Control Districts (APCD) in California • Implement and enforce federal, state, and local air quality regulations for Stationary Sources • Regulations vary between air districts, and generally are more stringent in areas with greater air quality challenges • San Joaquin Valley APCD largest air district in California – approximately 25,000 square miles
  3. 3. 3 San Joaquin Valley •Hot, sunny summers •VOC, NOx •Ozone Problem •Cool, foggy winters •Particulate problem
  4. 4. • #1 Agricultural Region in Nation • CA produces nearly half of US- grown fruits, nuts and vegetables • > 400 commodities • 2013 CA Agricultural Production - $46.4 billion • 2013 CA Agricultural Exports - $21.24 billion • Top Commodities: Milk/Dairy Products, Almonds, Grapes 4
  5. 5. 5 • Surrounding mountains and meteorology create ideal conditions for trapping air pollution • Economic challenges and high unemployment rates • High rate of population growth • I-5 and HWY 99 (Major transportation highways)
  6. 6. • District has adopted numerous attainment plans: – Toughest air regulations in the nation – Adopted over 600 stringent rules and regulations – Groundbreaking rules serve as model for others – Over 80% reduction in stationary source emissions • Strong incentive programs ($1 billion in public and private investment reducing 100,000+ tons of emissions) • Public education and participation: – Build public support for tough measures adopted – Urge air friendly behavior by the public 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 NOxEmissions(tonsperday) TOTAL STATIONARY TOTAL MOBILE TOTAL AREAWIDE
  10. 10. • PM10 and PM2.5. Generally: the smaller the particle, the greater the health impact 10
  11. 11. NH3 SO2 NO Primary PM H2SO4 HNO3 VOC SOC VOC = Volatile Organic Compounds (benzene, ethanol, formaldehyde, …) SOC = semi-volatile organic compounds (mostly unknown) Primary PM = particulate matter emitted directly from sources (trace metals – aluminum, silicon, iron, nickel, etc, elemental carbon, organic carbon) Emitted as Gases Emitted as Particles 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Ammonium Nitrate Carbon Bakersfield Fresno Concentration(µg/m3) 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. • Major field study conducted in 1999-2001 • Multi-million dollar project funded by a public/private partnership • Provided the fundamental science behind the District’s PM2.5 plans • Provided the most comprehensive data and science in the country on understanding the origin and fate of PM2.5 • Continues to be a cornerstone of PM2.5 research 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18 Comparison of Ammonia and nitric acid concentrations measured at Fresno urban site during winter 2000/2001 as part of CRPAQS
  19. 19. 19 Comparison of Ammonia and nitric acid concentrations measured at Angioloa rural site during winter 2000/2001 as part of CRPAQS
  20. 20. • NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HONO, PAN, HNO3 • HNO3 + NH3 → NH4NO3 Direct Emissions Stable End Product From Atmospheric Chemistry Reactive Intermediate Products Particle Phase Nitrate Direct Emissions 20
  21. 21. 21 Nighttime/Winter Nitrate Formation O3 O3 H2O NO → NO2 → NO3 → N2O5 → 2HNO3 • Main Oxidant is Ozone (O3); Favors low sunlight intensity, wet conditions
  22. 22. Ammonium nitrate will not form when [NH3]*[HNO3] < Kp 12 17 22 27 32 37 Temperature (oC) 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. Source: Kleeman MJ, Ying Q, Kaduwela A. Control strategies for the reduction of airborne particulate nitrate in California's San Joaquin Valley. Atmospheric Environment 39: 5325- 5341, 2005. 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 AmmoniumNitrate(ug/m3) NOxEmissions(tons/day) NOx Emissions Ammonium Nitrate (Fresno) 26
  27. 27. Regulations *Require businesses to reduce emissions, and enforce through permits and other mechanisms Incentives *Reduce emissions through voluntary incentive programs *Most cost-effective emissions reductions available *Critical to continue securing additional funding Technology Advancement *New technology needed to meet increasingly difficult federal air quality standards *Promote advancement of new technologies through incentives and other efforts Outreach and Policy Efforts *Outreach to residents and businesses to assist with rule compliance and encourage voluntary efforts to reduce emissions *Adopt and pursue policy positions through legislative and other avenues Health Risk Reduction Strategy 27
  28. 28. Contact Information: Errol Villegas 559-230-5800 errol.villegas@valleyair.org 28

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