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Using manure to reduce the cost of growing canola as a biodiesel feedstock

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Using manure to reduce the cost of growing canola as a biodiesel feedstock

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Proceedings available at: http://www.extension.org/67581

A review of the literature indicated that good quality biodiesel can be used in farm equipment at concentrations from 20% (B20) to 100% (B100) depending on air temperature and the design of the engine. Using biodiesel reduces emissions of carbon monoxide, sulfur containing pollutants that contribute to acid rain, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulates. Using B100 in a diesel engine can reduce fuel efficiency by about 8%, but had no other negative impacts when operated during warm weather. Using B20 to B50 has been shown to be sufficient to make loss of fuel efficiency inconsequential and allows operation of tractors in cold weather. The objectives of this study were to compare the use of soybeans and canola as a fuel crop for on-farm biodiesel production, and to determine the benefits of using animal manure as a source of fertilizer for on-farm fuel crop production

Proceedings available at: http://www.extension.org/67581

A review of the literature indicated that good quality biodiesel can be used in farm equipment at concentrations from 20% (B20) to 100% (B100) depending on air temperature and the design of the engine. Using biodiesel reduces emissions of carbon monoxide, sulfur containing pollutants that contribute to acid rain, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulates. Using B100 in a diesel engine can reduce fuel efficiency by about 8%, but had no other negative impacts when operated during warm weather. Using B20 to B50 has been shown to be sufficient to make loss of fuel efficiency inconsequential and allows operation of tractors in cold weather. The objectives of this study were to compare the use of soybeans and canola as a fuel crop for on-farm biodiesel production, and to determine the benefits of using animal manure as a source of fertilizer for on-farm fuel crop production

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Using manure to reduce the cost of growing canola as a biodiesel feedstock

  1. 1. Production of Fuel Crops to MakeProduction of Fuel Crops to Make Biodiesel Using Animal ManureBiodiesel Using Animal Manure John P. Chastain, Ph.D.John P. Chastain, Ph.D. Professor and Agricultural Extension EngineerProfessor and Agricultural Extension Engineer Wilder Ferreira, Extension EconomistWilder Ferreira, Extension Economist School of Agricultural, Forest and Environmental SciencesSchool of Agricultural, Forest and Environmental Sciences Waste to Worth Conference, Denver, ColoradoWaste to Worth Conference, Denver, Colorado Grand Hyatt Hotel • April 1-5, 2013Grand Hyatt Hotel • April 1-5, 2013
  2. 2. Motivating Factors for Biofuels  Increase in fuel prices.  Desire to reduce energy costs to produce crops.  Desire to reduce exhaust emissions that pollute the air.  Concern over green house gases.
  3. 3. Objectives  To compare soybeans and canola as potential biofuel crops for on-farm production of biodiesel.  To determine the cost savings related to using animal manure as the nutrient source for on-farm biodiesel production.
  4. 4. Is using vegetable oil for fuel in a diesel engine a new idea?  No.  Dr. Rudolph Diesel demonstrated his new invention at the World Exhibition in 1900.  The fuel he used was pure peanut oil.  He planned for farmers to grow their own fuel!  The original engine was later modified to use petroleum diesel.
  5. 5. Biodiesel can be made from…  Vegetable oils  Animal fats  Most any biodegradable oil
  6. 6. Biodiesel is a product of transesterification  Mix methanol and sodium hydroxide (or KOH)  Mix this chemical solution, at the proper amount, with oil/fat.  Add heat and mix to allow the reaction to occur to form methyl esters (known as “biodiesel”)  Settle the mix into two layers – biodiesel and glycerin.  Separate and wash the biodiesel.  Sell the glycerin for making soap and other products. – Currently has no real value!
  7. 7. Biodiesel PropertiesBiodiesel Properties  Biodegradable  Renewable  Chemical properties similar to diesel fuels  An exceptional lubricant. Contributes to longevity and cleanliness of diesel engines  Smells better.  Will clean an old engine.
  8. 8. But what about the energy required for making biodiesel?  We must remember that making fuel from a crop takes energy.  Fuel for tractors  Fertilizers and pesticides all require substantial amounts of energy also.  Using waste oil/fat is better but is a limited resource.
  9. 9. Energy Ratio for Soybean Biodiesel  In 1998 USDOE calculated that the energy ratio including by-products was 3.2.  Ethanol can be as high as 1.5.  New study (2008) by USDA-OCE, ARS, and University of Idaho revised the calculation based on efficiency improvements (ag & proc.) and found it to be 3.9.
  10. 10. How does the energy ratio of soybean biodiesel compare with petroleum diesel?  Soy biodiesel w/out BP = 1.50  Soy biodiesel w BP = 3.9 (3.2, 1998)  Petroleum diesel = 0.83 (DOE, 1998)
  11. 11. So why don’t we have everyone producing biodiesel?  Energy ratio is not what controls the market price.  Supply and demand does.  If I can produce enough of a product at a profit then I can build a business around it.  Comparing ERs to $$$ is like comparing apples to oranges.
  12. 12. The market reflects the ethical choice.  If we used all of the US soybean crop for biodiesel we could only replace 6% of current diesel usage! (U of MN 2010)  Do we grow food for hungry people or grow crops to feed cars?
  13. 13. Clearly we can’t look at biodiesel as a fuel for most vehicles. Should farmers look at making biodiesel for their own use?
  14. 14. Maybe.  Need to take into account the market value of the crop and cost of production.  It cost $1.00 to $2.00 per gal to make biodiesel if the oil is free.  If you can get waste oil you can make biodiesel for around $1.50/ gal.  Is there an oil crop that we can grow?
  15. 15. Would soybeans be a good crop for on-farm biodiesel production?  One bushel of soybeans yields about 1.5 gal of biodiesel (19% oil)  Price of soybeans has ranged from $10 to $14 per bu.  The fuel value of 1 bu would range from $6.67 to $9.33 per gallon of BD.  If diesel cost = $4.20 it would be like selling soybeans for $6.30/bu.  Not a good idea!
  16. 16. Canola
  17. 17. Would canola be a good crop for on-farm biodiesel production?  One bushel of canola yields about 2.8 gal of biodiesel (40% oil)  Price of canola has increased from $5 to over $10 per bu.  If diesel cost = $4.20 it would be like selling canola for $11.76/bu.  In South Carolina and many other Southern states there are few places to market canola.
  18. 18. Difference in properties of Soybean BD and Canola BD  Canola BD has a cetane no. of 55  Soy BD has a cetane no. of 47  Petro D has a cetane no. of 43  Canola BD has a lower cloud point than soy BD so it can operate as B100 at lower temperatures.
  19. 19. Canola may be a possibility  Grown in fall/winter like wheat.  Will work in with many common rotations and can be double-cropped with soybeans.  Takes more N and S, but animal producers have that in manure!  In the Southeastern US we can get yields from 30 to 70 bu per acre depending on soil conditions and rain.
  20. 20. Additional considerations  A farmer could make 112 to 140 gal BD/ac from canola  Both would require that an on-farm or near-by cooperative plant for seed crushing (no solvents) and biodiesel production.
  21. 21. Canola requires more N than wheat  Canola needs about 120 lb N/ac  About 45 lb P2O5/ac  About 60 lb K2O/ac (Potash)  About 10 to 25 lb S/ac (based on soil test)  Can work as a second crop following soybeans in the Southeast or plant in rotation prior to soybeans in other parts of the country.
  22. 22. Estimate of Cost of Production  Based on info from Ag Economists at Clemson University and North Carolina State University  Fertilizer cost used: $0.71/lb of N, $0.61/lb of P2O5, $0.55/lb of K2O.  Included costs from wheat budget for lime, herbicides, pesticides, application, planting, harvesting, hauling, labor, interest on operating capital.  Also includes cost of petro diesel.
  23. 23. Cost to produce canola with and without animal manure - $/acre Fert. Manure Seed $20.00 $20.00 N $85.20 -- P2O5 $24.40 -- K2O $33.00 -- Lime, Pest, Herb, Fung. $57.25 $57.25 All Labor & Mach. $81.00 $81.00 Interest on Op. Cap. $11.29 $11.29 Total VC $312.14 $173.54 Cost Per Bu (50 bu/ac) $6.24 $3.47
  24. 24. What is the canola cost per gallon of BD?  Get 2.8 gal BD/bu of canola  With purchased fertilizer canola cost is $2.23/gal biodiesel.  If animal manure is used as sole fertilizer canola cost is $1.24/gal biodiesel.  Using manure reduces canola cost by 44.4%.
  25. 25. What is the cost to make a gal of canola BD?  Current prices range from $1.00 to $2.00 per gallon.  Depends on cost of methanol, sodium hydroxide, and equipment capacity utilization.
  26. 26. Cost to produce canola BD with and without animal manure Fert. Manure Canola Cost ($/gal) $2.23 $1.24 Cost to make the BD + Canola Low ($1.00/gal) $3.23 $2.24 Medium ($1.50/gal) $3.73 $2.74 High ($2.00/gal) $4.23 $3.24 Note that these values do not include the value of meal or glycerol.
  27. 27. Value of Canola Meal  Price of canola meal used as cattle feed was assumed to be $234/ton.  Will yield about 0.75 ton meal per acre with a value of $175.50/ac.  At 140 gal BD/ac this would be equal to a $1.25/gal BD credit.
  28. 28. Cost to produce canola Biodiesel including meal value as a credit. Fert. Manure Canola Cost ($/gal) $2.23 $1.24 Meal credit ($/gal) - $1.25 - $1.25 Cost to make the BD + Canola Low ($1.00/gal) $1.98 $0.99 Medium ($1.50/gal) $2.36 $1.49 High ($2.00/gal) $2.98 $1.99 Does not include costs for ASTM quality testing or taxes if sold.
  29. 29. How many acres are needed to make 1000 gal of canola biodiesel? At 35 bu/ac – 10.2 ac At 40 bu/ac – 8.93 ac At 50 bu/ac – 7.14 ac At 60 bu/ac – 5.95 ac
  30. 30. Should farmers look at making biodiesel for their own use? 1. If they do not have animal manure – Maybe not. 2. Animal producers have the advantage in that they produce the needed fertilizer. 3. Need to sharpen the pencil, manage costs and market meal.
  31. 31. Agricultural Mechanization & Business School of Agricultural, Forest, and Environmental Sciences Contact: Christi Leard 864.656.3250

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