The goal of this presentation is to provide an introductory look at the main issues related to manure management from production of manure to land application to its role in providing nutrients for crop production. Also included is an overview of environmental challenges, a look at uses for manure and how to find technical assistance for manure issues.
The material in these slides will follow this general outline. At different points in the presentation the notes section may suggest questions to ask or reference an activity for students to complete.
You can ask students to list benefits or challenges (advantages/disadvantages or pros/cons) prior to showing this slide or Ask students to identify additional benefits or challenges they have whether real or perceived about manure production and use.
References: The Soil Scientist: Manure Management. University of Minnesota http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/components/7401_02.html
This slide is optional. The goal of this presentation is to discuss manure from animal productions systems where manure can be collected and redistributed for further use such as a crop nutrient source. This slide on pasture-based animals is included only to remind the audience that manure production from pasture-based animals can be a water quality concern. Additional Resources Include: eXtension: Pasture Management on Small Farms http://www.extension.org/pages/8894/pasture-management-on-small-farms
Goat Numbers are from independent data, all other info comes from Source: MWPS-18 Section 1, 2000. Table 6. Daily manure production and characteristics , as excreted. The number in ( ) behind the species represents the weight of the animal for the manure production volumes shown. So for example a 1,100 lb horse, excretes about 50 lbs of manure per day or about 9 tons per year. The amount of manure produced is dependent on the size of the animal and how much feed is supplied. It should be noted that for certain types of productions systems, rarely will all manure nutrients be captured due to physical loss ( inability to collect all manure) or loss due to volatilization (nitrogen), leaching or runoff of nutrients. See Exercise 1. Calculating Manure Production Follow-up discussion: Q. How much manure is produced on my farm? What resources are available to calculate production volume? How would I calculate this volume without book references? Examples for small farm: Collect daily or weekly manure, weigh the manure and calculate how much is produced. Determine capacity of manure hauling equipment, i.e. spreader and count how many loads are removed yearly. What practices on my farm will influence manure production?
Certain production systems have bedding added to manure to absorb moisture, provide animal comfort, or to keep animals clean. Once bedding is added and co-mingled with the manure it becomes additional volume to the manure source that must be removed and land applied. It is important to take into consideration the amount of bedding used so that you can easily calculate how much additional storage you may need for manure/bedding or how much additional manure/bedding you will have to land- apply.
References: Midwest Plan Service MWPS-18 Section 1 Manure CharacteristicsSolid: Manure with 20% solids or more can be handled as a solid. It can be stacked and picked up with a fork, bucket loader. To handle manure with a solids content of less than 15-20%, as a solid, the liquids must be drained, or the manure dried or have bedding added. Semi-solid: 10-20% solids. Manure at this range of solids can be difficult to handle, too thick to pump and too thin to scoop.Slurry: Manure with 4% to 10% solids can be handled as a slurry but may require special pumps.Liquid : Manure with up to 4% solids content can be handled as a liquid with irrigation equipment. Liquids that have had the larger solids removed or manure with dilution water added may contain 4% or less solids.
The size of equipment needs to be scaled to size of operation to easily accommodate the amount and form of manure to be collected and to accommodate the amount of time that can be devoted to collection. If equipment is too small, it will take extra time for collection and handling which can cause frustration and lead to poor management. If equipment is too big, it may not fit into smaller housing units or be under-utilized. Another thing to consider is how many times do you want to handle manure as you remove it from animal housing to storage to land-application.Ask students to list pieces of equipment that can be used to collect, handle or transfer manure on farms.
Additional References include:Midwest Plan Service MWPS-18 Section 2 Manure Storages
Manure storage is an important component of the over-all manure system and is sometimes over-looked when livestock and poultry operations expand animal production and do not expand storage. Storage needs to be designed to adequately hold a minimum of 6 months of manure plus any bedding. This is a requirement for most states. Check with you local regulatory agency to determine storage requirements in your state. Manure storage requirements may also be dictated by specific design standards if obtaining financial assistance from USDA or local cost-share dollars or if you are contracting with an integrator to raise animals. Storage is sometime in a pit or bunker below the housing where animals are kept such as chicken or deep-pit swine or beef barns. Storage can also be a facility that located elsewhere from where the animals are housed. Storage can also occur off-site such as a stockpile in a field. Storage can take many size, shapes and forms from formed concrete pits to earthen basins or lagoons. Several examples of storage practices and pros and cons will be discussed in the upcoming slides. Covered storage can help to prevent addition of rainfall or run-on water which will help to protect nutrients by not diluting the manure with additions of water. Covered storage can also help reduce odors. Storage can also provide “treatment” of manure. For example, lagoons are sized such that large volumes of dilution water are added. This allows for loss of nitrogen to the atmosphere (volatilization).When planning new facilities make sure you know your storage options and if treatment or conservation of nutrients is critical to your farming operation.
Benefits Can help “conserve” nutrients* = and some storage structures are designed for treatment or to help facilitate losses of nutrients, ie lagoons facilitate loss of nitrogen via volatilization.
MWPS-18 Section 2 Manure StoragesChapter 1.Things that influence the type of manure storage needs are:Type of livestock/speciesCollection of manureTransport of manureNutrient retentionTreatmentLand Application Nutrient UtilizationTerminology used for types of manure storages differs by state, geographical region and in other situations. The instructor should use local terminology where needed.
Slide 15 through 25 can be used if adequate time or could be used as part of a self-study program. Materials are adapted from MWPS-18 Section 2, Manure Storages. Table 1-2. Students could be asked to add to the list of advantages or disadvantages based on local climatic conditions, regulations and animal production systems. These are only some examples of types of manure storage structures.
Photo Credit: Iowa State University
Bedded packs may be used in buildings and sometimes outside in open-fronted barns or sheltered areas.
Photo Credit: Iowa State University
Photo Credit: Iowa State University
Photo Credit: NERC Northeast Recycling Council https://www.nerc.org/manure_management.html
Photo Credit: Iowa State University
Photo courtesy of USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Typical animal waste lagoon in North Carolina.
Photo Credits: Iowa State University University Of Wisconsin Methods Of Manure Application: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A_uvY2FFnmA Bazooka Farmstar Manure Drag Hose Systems: http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=Manure+Application+Video&mid=1986CCB56C1B6E173DDF1986CCB56C1B6E173DDF&view=detail&FORM=VIRE1 Dengelman M34 Manure Spreader:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nP9fHgK6Rbo&feature=related There are many manure videos on the web that show different types of application and different pieces of equipment. The examples above are provided as examples of liquid and solid manure application and neither endorsement of companies, individuals or their services mentioned is intended, nor is criticism implied of similar companies, individuals or their services not mentioned.
Instructor should investigate local, state or federal requirements for setbacks or separation distances and discuss with class.
Photo: Chris Henry, formerly University of Nebraska, LPELC. Disposal through trash service is not recommended but it is an option in some areas.
We have spent time in this presentation looking at the core components related to manure issues, production, collection, storage, land application. Now we will take some time to look at the issues related to manure from an environmental perspective. Generally speaking, if manure is managed from a whole farm nutrient balance standpoint, we should not see many environmental issues related to water or soil quality. Manure is considered a nutrient resource and is treated as such and not as a waste product. The nutrients produced are supplied back to crops at the right rate,at the right time, and in the right place. (3 of the 4 R’s in the 4R Nutrient Stewardship concept). In turn the crops are grown for feed, the feed is fed to the animals, and the animals produce the manure and the manure fertilizes the crops. And so the whole cycle starts again. Q. Have you noticed anything in this presentation that suggests the concept of the nutrient cycle?A. What about the logo on the bottom of each slide? It represents a cycle. Environmental concerns about water quality and soil quality come into play when too many nutrients are applied, when nutrients are not applied to maximize potential use by crops, and when nutrients move off-site to water sources. Management is key to maximizing the use of the nutrients for crop production, while minimizing potential harmful impacts on soil and water quality resources.
Photo Credit: Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Please note beef feedlot in background and the manure/water flowpath coming off the feedlot. eXtension Environmental Impacts and Benefits of Manure: Phosphorus and Surface Water Protection http://www.extension.org/pages/19859/environmental-impacts-and-benefits-of-manure:-phosphorous-and-surface-water-protectionFact Sheet: Impacts of Nutrients on Ground and Surface Water http://create.extension.org/sites/default/files/Section%203%20Fact%20Sheet%20Ground%20and%20Surface%20Water.pdfWater Quality and Air Quality are discussed in this publication from Virginia Cooperative Extension http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/442/442-309/442-309.html
Emissions can includeNH3= ammoniaH2S = hydrogen sulfideGHG = Greenhouse gasesDust and OdorEducational Materials related to Air Quality can be found at: http://www.extension.org/pages/15538/air-quality-in-animal-agricultureBELAA Module on Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture: http://create.extension.org/node/92041
The primary use of manure is still as a nutrient resource for crop production. Crops may include row-crops, small grains, alfalfa- all things fed to animals, but crops may also include horticultural crops and trees. Manure can also be used as a nutrient source for turf grass, forests and other plants. Examples of Using Manure for Energy Production:Methane DigestionBurning ManurePyrolysisCo-firingGasificationResources: Texas Cooperative Extension, The Texas A&M University System Value of Manure as an Energy Source: http://www.extension.org/pages/17155/value-of-manure-as-an-energy-sourceFeedstuffs: Manure sources can provide valuable mineral resources for animal feed.
Watch the Video: The Value of Manure Nutrients: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BqCrG8eoD5k&feature=relmfu
Photo Credit: Iowa State University Because manure is still primarily used as a nutrient resource, the next few slides will cover some basic nutrient management planning principles, but please refer to the BELAA Module on Nutrient Management for more details. Complete Exercise 3. BELAA Nutrient Management Planning Fact Sheethttp://create.extension.org/sites/default/files/Section%201%20Fact%20Sheet%20Nutrient%20Management%20Planning.pdfLPES Lesson 2 Whole Farm Nutrient Planning: http://www.extension.org/sites/default/files/w/f/f3/LES_02.pdfManure Nutrient Management Educational and Informational Resources: http://www.extension.org/pages/8938/manure-nutrient-management-educational-and-informational-resources
Photo Credit: Iowa State University ISU Video- Sampling Liquid Manure from Deep-Pit Storage http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=Q-m4FCYqHck&NR=1ISU Video- Sampling Dry Manure from an Open Feedlot: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QoRscP6sDog&feature=relmfuISU Video- Sampling Stockpiled and Composted Manure: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8V0LVY8EhGk&feature=relmfuISU Video- Manure Sample Analysis: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SHZ_lUJy01w&list=UUsQIxjljgWdg59nSrual_4A&index=8&feature=plcp
Additional Manure Application information resources can be found in the BELAA module Nutrient Management Manure Application Fact Sheet: http://create.extension.org/sites/default/files/Section%206%20Fact%20Sheet%20Manure%20Application.pdfSpreader Calibration Fact Sheet: http://create.extension.org/sites/default/files/Section%207%20Manure%20Spreader%20Calibration.pdfOther Video Resources: Iowa State University Manure Management and Conservation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W0lUC3LzXGI&lr=1Iowa State University Poultry Manure Application: http://vimeo.com/21400796
Each state has federal and state regulations that impact manure management and animal feeding operations. Some states also have regulation regarding air quality issues on farms. And, some states have county or township regulations. It is important to know how the regulations in your state may impact your livestock/poultry operation. The majority of all regulations that pertain to manure are really about protecting water resources. The instructor should have basic knowledge of the agencies responsible for manure regulations in their state. The instructor may wish to invite in local agency folks who can talk to the audience about local regulations. Water Quality is discussed in other modules of the BELAA program.Water Quality Regulations and Animal Agriculture http://create.extension.org/node/88627
Because there are so many agencies involved in regulations or providing technical or financial assistance it important that you know the agencies in your state that offer assistance to livestock and poultry farms. In addition the private sector offers engineers, crop consultants, feed dealers, nutritionists, agronomists and others that can assist with manure management issues. Links to EPA’s Animal Feeding Operations Virtual Information Center State Regulations:http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/afo/afoinfo.cfm?view=category&link_cat=23EPA Animal Feeding Operation State Web Sites, Permits and Other Publicationshttp://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/afo/afoinfo.cfm?view=category&link_cat=24
Manure 101 Angela Rieck-Hinz, Iowa State UniversityBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Outline • What is Manure? • Production of Manure • Forms of Manure • Collection/Handling/Storage/Application • Manure and Environment • Manure Uses • Regulations • AssistanceBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Benefits and Challenges to Manure Production and UseBenefits Challenges• Readily available nutrient • Odor source• All nutrients are supplied for • Flies crop/forage/horticultural • Storage production• Increase water-holding • Handling capacity/infiltration/organic • Lack of available matter of soils• Could be sold or exchanged application area for goods/profit • Not easy to balance• Reduces commercial fertilizer nutrients inputs • It can be hard workBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
What is Manure?• Manure is a mixture of feces and urine and can include other things such as bedding, spilled feedstuffs, feathers, hair and soil• It may also include wash-water from milking parlors or egg-wash facilities, and run-on water.• Manure can be used as fertilizer source, soil amendment, feedstuff, bedding and energy source• Manure from any source can cause water quality pollution if not managed properlyBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Pasture-based Animals and Manure • Do not overstock • Collection is not necessary (usually) • Even distribution might be needed – Rotational grazing – Move feed and water stations – Collection of manure and re-distribution • Keep animals out streams and ponds • Do not overgraze – Erosion, compaction, runoffBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Manure plus Bedding• Primary use is to absorb moisture• Use only what is needed• Remove manure and dirty bedding• Make sure your bedding source is compatible with your manure handling, storage and land application methods• Make sure you include bedding volume when calculating storage volume neededBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Forms of Manure• Solid – With or without bedding/soil additions• Semi-Solid• Slurry• Liquid• Understanding and recognizing forms of manure can help identify manure collection/handling/storage and land application equipment.Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Collection/Handling• Have access to equipment that fits your scale of operationBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Manure StorageThe primary principles of manure storage are:• Store manure when land application is hampered byunsuitable weather/soil conditions• Land-apply manure at times suitable for crop use• Better match producer’s time and labor supply• To protect nearby water sources• Depending on system, can control or reduce odorsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Storage• Sized to hold manure between periods of land application• Sized to hold all manure during winter months• Extra storage is always recommended• Storage requirements may be dictated by – State regulations – Design standards if seeking financial assistance – Integrator design standardsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Storage StructuresBenefits Challenges• Separation of manure from • Might need to handle animals manure more than once• Easier collection • Cost of building and• Can reduce contact with maintaining structures outside water sources • Odor• Can provide storage during inclement weather • Location and sometimes type and size of storage• Can help “conserve” nutrients* must take into account state or federal setbacks.• Can hide manure/aestheticsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Storage Location• Site storage locations near manure sources• Easy access for equipment and during bad weather• Locate in a place where storage can be expanded if necessary• Keep away from low areas, streams, floodplains, or other places water flows• Downwind from neighbors• Use “aesthetics” to hide storage facilitiesBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Types of Storage Structures• Solid Manure Storage – Bedded packs; poultry operations with litter; separated solids; stockpiling and stacking sheds.• Slurry Storage – Under floor pits; earthen basins; roofed or unroofed concrete or steel tanks;• Liquid Storage – Treatment lagoons; open lot runoff holding pondsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Advantages and Disadvantages of selected manure storage systemsThe following slides offer advantages and disadvantages of certain storage systems.Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Solid Manure –Bedded Pack• Advantages • Disadvantages No need to build storage Need bedding source Pack can generate heat for Animals in constant animals contact with manure and dirty bedding- can lead to Depending on cleaning some health concerns frequency- less bedding needed Infrequent removal can require more work No rainfall additions Flies/Odor Little to no runoff High nutrient densityBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Solid Manure- StockpilingBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Solid Manure-Stockpiling• Advantages • Disadvantages Will compost if managed Handle manure twice correctly Odors if not managed properly Temporary storage option Flies/Rodents Reduces animal contact with Can absorb water dirty bedding and manure RegulationsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Solid Manure -Stacking Shed• Advantages • Disadvantages Reduce or prevent addition of Cost to build storage water Equipment Used as a push wall to help Odors collect manure Flies Hide manure/aesthetics Handle twiceBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Liquid Manure- Below Building PitBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Liquid Manure - Below-Building Pit• Advantages Disadvantages Relatively high nutrient Cost density May have more odor Low/moderate nutrient loss May require ventilation No rainfall effects Animal/worker health May only need to handle issues from prolonged manure during land exposure to gases application May not be appropriate for areas with high water tables or geologic concerns May be difficult to remove solids from liquid pitsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Liquid Manure- Lagoon• Advantages • Disadvantages Provides biological treatment of Possible odors manure High loss of nitrogen due Can be used as source of to volatilization irrigation water Hard to remove solids Can provide long-term storage Phosphorus may build up in solids Difficult to agitate May not be appropriate for areas with high water tables or geologic concernsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Other Storage Options• Generally for small volumes or daily application – Manure Spreader • Short term for small amounts, or • Daily scrape and haul systems – Garbage cans/wood or metal binsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Land ApplicationBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Application • Determine application rate based on nutrient needs of crops • Adequate capacity of application equipment • Calibrate manure application equipment • Achieve uniform distribution • Avoid repeated application in same area • Do not apply manure in the winter • Follow all setbacks or land application separation distancesBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Off-Site Transfer • Possible solution if lack of storage or application area • Disposal through trash services? • Use in garden/horticultural venues • Distribute to crop farmers • Be aware – Regulations – Transportation Issues – LiabilityBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Manure and the Environment• Generally speaking, manure management and environmental protection should not be at odds• The concept of the nutrient cycle should be the basis for nutrient use.• However, concerns include water quality, soil quality and air quality issuesBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Manure and the Environment• Water Quality Issues for both Surface and Ground Water Sources – Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Organic Matter, Pathogens – Too much of anything in the wrong place can be a bad thingBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Manure and the Environment• Air Quality – Emissions, odor and dust can be generated from the animal production system, the manure collection and storage system and the land application system. – Concerns arise over animal and human health issues and property valuesBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Manure Uses• Nutrient Resources for Crops• Energy Production• Feedstuffs• Other Uses – Asphalt – Erosion control materials – Building productsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Nutrient Management Planning• Inventory• Sampling and Analysis• Application• Assessment or FeedbackBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Nutrient Management Planning• Inventory – Animal Numbers – Manure Nutrients Produced – Crops to be Grown and Yields – Acres Available for Nutrients – Other Nutrient SourcesBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Nutrient Management Planning cont.• Sampling and Analysis – Take soil and manure samples – Soil Analysis – Manure Analysis • Nitrogen • Phosphorous • Potassium • pH • Moisture ContentBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Nutrient Management Planning cont.• Application – Prioritize fields based on crop nutrient needs and risk to environment – Apply the right rate – Apply an uniform rate – Apply manure in the right place in the fieldBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Nutrient Management Planning cont.• Assessment or Feedback – Evaluate soil P and K levels over time to determine how manure application affects soil test levels – Use appropriate tests to determine N supply to crops • Examples include the Late Spring Nitrate Test and the Cornstalk N Test – Adjust and refine the process as neededBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Manure Regulations• Determine governing body in your state• Determine how your livestock operation is classified• Know how many animals and what animal types are represented on your farm and how those numbers fit into state and federal regulationsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Regulations• At the very least: – Know setback distances for land application – Keep manure and wastewater out of surface waters – Apply manure according to a manure or nutrient management plan – Know and follow air quality regulations if they apply in your state – Keep good recordsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Assistance• The following groups can offer technical and/or financial assistance – State/Federal regulatory agency – NRCS – Local watershed groups – Extension Service – Consulting Engineers, Crop Consultants, Feed Dealers, Local AgronomistsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
The Scoop on Poop• There are many different types of livestock, poultry and manure systems out there – If you want to start a new operation or expand an existing operation take time to visit different systems and talk to owners about what works and what does not work – Pencil it out to make sure it works – Find trusted advisers who can offer sound advice – Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture questionsBuilding Never stop learning or asking(BELAA)