Manure 101                                       Angela Rieck-Hinz, Iowa State UniversityBuilding Environmental Leaders in...
Outline   •   What is Manure?   •   Production of Manure   •   Forms of Manure   •   Collection/Handling/Storage/Applicati...
Benefits and Challenges to Manure           Production and UseBenefits                                   Challenges• Readi...
What is Manure?• Manure is a mixture of feces and urine and can  include other things such as bedding, spilled  feedstuffs...
Pasture-based Animals and Manure   • Do not overstock   • Collection is not necessary (usually)   • Even distribution migh...
Production of Manure                         Per Animal Per Day•   Horse (1,100)           50 lb/day                    9 ...
Manure plus Bedding• Primary use is to absorb moisture• Use only what is needed• Remove manure and dirty bedding• Make sur...
Forms of Manure• Solid    – With or without bedding/soil additions•   Semi-Solid•   Slurry•   Liquid•   Understanding and ...
Collection/Handling• Have access to equipment that fits your scale of  operationBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal A...
Manure StorageThe primary principles of manure storage are:• Store manure when land application is hampered byunsuitable w...
Storage• Sized to hold manure between periods of land  application• Sized to hold all manure during winter months• Extra s...
Storage StructuresBenefits                                   Challenges• Separation of manure from                • Might ...
Storage Location• Site storage locations near manure sources• Easy access for equipment and during bad weather• Locate in ...
Types of Storage Structures• Solid Manure Storage     – Bedded packs; poultry operations with litter;       separated soli...
Advantages and Disadvantages of     selected manure storage systemsThe following slides offer advantages and  disadvantage...
Solid Manure- Bedded PackBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Solid Manure –Bedded Pack• Advantages                                  • Disadvantages      No need to build storage     ...
Solid Manure- StockpilingBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Solid Manure-Stockpiling• Advantages                               • Disadvantages Will compost if managed               ...
Solid Manure –Stacking ShedBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Solid Manure -Stacking Shed• Advantages                                  • Disadvantages      Reduce or prevent addition ...
Liquid Manure- Below Building PitBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Liquid Manure - Below-Building Pit• Advantages                                   Disadvantages      Relatively high nutr...
Liquid Manure - LagoonBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Liquid Manure- Lagoon• Advantages                                  • Disadvantages      Provides biological treatment of ...
Other Storage Options• Generally for small volumes or daily  application     – Manure Spreader          • Short term for s...
Land ApplicationBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Application   • Determine application rate based on nutrient     needs of crops   • Adequate capacity of application equip...
Off-Site Transfer   • Possible solution if lack of storage or application     area   • Disposal through trash services?   ...
Manure and the Environment• Generally speaking, manure management  and environmental protection should not be  at odds• Th...
Manure and the Environment• Water Quality Issues for both Surface and  Ground Water Sources     – Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Or...
Manure and the Environment• Air Quality     – Emissions, odor and dust can be generated from       the animal production s...
Manure Uses•   Nutrient Resources for Crops•   Energy Production•   Feedstuffs•   Other Uses     – Asphalt     – Erosion c...
Nutrient Management Planning•   Inventory•   Sampling and Analysis•   Application•   Assessment or FeedbackBuilding Enviro...
Nutrient Management Planning• Inventory     – Animal Numbers     – Manure Nutrients Produced     – Crops to be Grown and Y...
Nutrient Management Planning cont.• Sampling and Analysis     – Take soil and manure samples     – Soil Analysis     – Man...
Nutrient Management Planning cont.• Application     – Prioritize fields based on crop nutrient needs and       risk to env...
Nutrient Management Planning cont.• Assessment or Feedback     – Evaluate soil P and K levels over time to       determine...
Manure Regulations• Determine governing body in your state• Determine how your livestock operation is  classified• Know ho...
Regulations• At the very least:     – Know setback distances for land application     – Keep manure and wastewater out of ...
Assistance• The following groups can offer technical  and/or financial assistance     – State/Federal regulatory agency   ...
The Scoop on Poop• There are many different types of  livestock, poultry and manure systems out  there      – If you want ...
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Manure 101

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This presentation is one of several materials developed for an educational module that introduces manure management.

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Manure 101

  1. 1. Manure 101 Angela Rieck-Hinz, Iowa State UniversityBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  2. 2. Outline • What is Manure? • Production of Manure • Forms of Manure • Collection/Handling/Storage/Application • Manure and Environment • Manure Uses • Regulations • AssistanceBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  3. 3. Benefits and Challenges to Manure Production and UseBenefits Challenges• Readily available nutrient • Odor source• All nutrients are supplied for • Flies crop/forage/horticultural • Storage production• Increase water-holding • Handling capacity/infiltration/organic • Lack of available matter of soils• Could be sold or exchanged application area for goods/profit • Not easy to balance• Reduces commercial fertilizer nutrients inputs • It can be hard workBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  4. 4. What is Manure?• Manure is a mixture of feces and urine and can include other things such as bedding, spilled feedstuffs, feathers, hair and soil• It may also include wash-water from milking parlors or egg-wash facilities, and run-on water.• Manure can be used as fertilizer source, soil amendment, feedstuff, bedding and energy source• Manure from any source can cause water quality pollution if not managed properlyBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  5. 5. Pasture-based Animals and Manure • Do not overstock • Collection is not necessary (usually) • Even distribution might be needed – Rotational grazing – Move feed and water stations – Collection of manure and re-distribution • Keep animals out streams and ponds • Do not overgraze – Erosion, compaction, runoffBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  6. 6. Production of Manure Per Animal Per Day• Horse (1,100) 50 lb/day 9 ton/year• Dairy (1,400) 148 lb/day 27 ton/year• Beef (1,000) 80 lb/day 14 ton/year• Swine (150) 9.5 lb/day 1.73 ton/year• Sheep (100) 4 lb/day 0.73 ton/year• Goat (63) 3.5lb/day 0.64 ton /year• Broiler (2) 0.18lb/day 0.03 tons/year• Layer (4) 0.26 lb/day 0.05 tons/year• Turkey (20) 0.90 lb/day 0.16 tons/yearBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  7. 7. Manure plus Bedding• Primary use is to absorb moisture• Use only what is needed• Remove manure and dirty bedding• Make sure your bedding source is compatible with your manure handling, storage and land application methods• Make sure you include bedding volume when calculating storage volume neededBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  8. 8. Forms of Manure• Solid – With or without bedding/soil additions• Semi-Solid• Slurry• Liquid• Understanding and recognizing forms of manure can help identify manure collection/handling/storage and land application equipment.Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  9. 9. Collection/Handling• Have access to equipment that fits your scale of operationBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  10. 10. Manure StorageThe primary principles of manure storage are:• Store manure when land application is hampered byunsuitable weather/soil conditions• Land-apply manure at times suitable for crop use• Better match producer’s time and labor supply• To protect nearby water sources• Depending on system, can control or reduce odorsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  11. 11. Storage• Sized to hold manure between periods of land application• Sized to hold all manure during winter months• Extra storage is always recommended• Storage requirements may be dictated by – State regulations – Design standards if seeking financial assistance – Integrator design standardsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  12. 12. Storage StructuresBenefits Challenges• Separation of manure from • Might need to handle animals manure more than once• Easier collection • Cost of building and• Can reduce contact with maintaining structures outside water sources • Odor• Can provide storage during inclement weather • Location and sometimes type and size of storage• Can help “conserve” nutrients* must take into account state or federal setbacks.• Can hide manure/aestheticsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  13. 13. Storage Location• Site storage locations near manure sources• Easy access for equipment and during bad weather• Locate in a place where storage can be expanded if necessary• Keep away from low areas, streams, floodplains, or other places water flows• Downwind from neighbors• Use “aesthetics” to hide storage facilitiesBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  14. 14. Types of Storage Structures• Solid Manure Storage – Bedded packs; poultry operations with litter; separated solids; stockpiling and stacking sheds.• Slurry Storage – Under floor pits; earthen basins; roofed or unroofed concrete or steel tanks;• Liquid Storage – Treatment lagoons; open lot runoff holding pondsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  15. 15. Advantages and Disadvantages of selected manure storage systemsThe following slides offer advantages and disadvantages of certain storage systems.Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  16. 16. Solid Manure- Bedded PackBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  17. 17. Solid Manure –Bedded Pack• Advantages • Disadvantages  No need to build storage  Need bedding source  Pack can generate heat for  Animals in constant animals contact with manure and dirty bedding- can lead to  Depending on cleaning some health concerns frequency- less bedding needed  Infrequent removal can require more work  No rainfall additions  Flies/Odor  Little to no runoff  High nutrient densityBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  18. 18. Solid Manure- StockpilingBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  19. 19. Solid Manure-Stockpiling• Advantages • Disadvantages Will compost if managed  Handle manure twice correctly  Odors if not managed properly Temporary storage option  Flies/Rodents Reduces animal contact with  Can absorb water dirty bedding and manure  RegulationsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  20. 20. Solid Manure –Stacking ShedBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  21. 21. Solid Manure -Stacking Shed• Advantages • Disadvantages  Reduce or prevent addition of  Cost to build storage water  Equipment  Used as a push wall to help  Odors collect manure  Flies  Hide manure/aesthetics  Handle twiceBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  22. 22. Liquid Manure- Below Building PitBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  23. 23. Liquid Manure - Below-Building Pit• Advantages  Disadvantages  Relatively high nutrient  Cost density  May have more odor  Low/moderate nutrient loss  May require ventilation  No rainfall effects  Animal/worker health  May only need to handle issues from prolonged manure during land exposure to gases application  May not be appropriate for areas with high water tables or geologic concerns  May be difficult to remove solids from liquid pitsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  24. 24. Liquid Manure - LagoonBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  25. 25. Liquid Manure- Lagoon• Advantages • Disadvantages  Provides biological treatment of  Possible odors manure  High loss of nitrogen due  Can be used as source of to volatilization irrigation water  Hard to remove solids  Can provide long-term storage  Phosphorus may build up in solids  Difficult to agitate  May not be appropriate for areas with high water tables or geologic concernsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  26. 26. Other Storage Options• Generally for small volumes or daily application – Manure Spreader • Short term for small amounts, or • Daily scrape and haul systems – Garbage cans/wood or metal binsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  27. 27. Land ApplicationBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  28. 28. Application • Determine application rate based on nutrient needs of crops • Adequate capacity of application equipment • Calibrate manure application equipment • Achieve uniform distribution • Avoid repeated application in same area • Do not apply manure in the winter • Follow all setbacks or land application separation distancesBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  29. 29. Off-Site Transfer • Possible solution if lack of storage or application area • Disposal through trash services? • Use in garden/horticultural venues • Distribute to crop farmers • Be aware – Regulations – Transportation Issues – LiabilityBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  30. 30. Manure and the Environment• Generally speaking, manure management and environmental protection should not be at odds• The concept of the nutrient cycle should be the basis for nutrient use.• However, concerns include water quality, soil quality and air quality issuesBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  31. 31. Manure and the Environment• Water Quality Issues for both Surface and Ground Water Sources – Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Organic Matter, Pathogens – Too much of anything in the wrong place can be a bad thingBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  32. 32. Manure and the Environment• Air Quality – Emissions, odor and dust can be generated from the animal production system, the manure collection and storage system and the land application system. – Concerns arise over animal and human health issues and property valuesBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  33. 33. Manure Uses• Nutrient Resources for Crops• Energy Production• Feedstuffs• Other Uses – Asphalt – Erosion control materials – Building productsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  34. 34. Nutrient Management Planning• Inventory• Sampling and Analysis• Application• Assessment or FeedbackBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  35. 35. Nutrient Management Planning• Inventory – Animal Numbers – Manure Nutrients Produced – Crops to be Grown and Yields – Acres Available for Nutrients – Other Nutrient SourcesBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  36. 36. Nutrient Management Planning cont.• Sampling and Analysis – Take soil and manure samples – Soil Analysis – Manure Analysis • Nitrogen • Phosphorous • Potassium • pH • Moisture ContentBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  37. 37. Nutrient Management Planning cont.• Application – Prioritize fields based on crop nutrient needs and risk to environment – Apply the right rate – Apply an uniform rate – Apply manure in the right place in the fieldBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  38. 38. Nutrient Management Planning cont.• Assessment or Feedback – Evaluate soil P and K levels over time to determine how manure application affects soil test levels – Use appropriate tests to determine N supply to crops • Examples include the Late Spring Nitrate Test and the Cornstalk N Test – Adjust and refine the process as neededBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  39. 39. Manure Regulations• Determine governing body in your state• Determine how your livestock operation is classified• Know how many animals and what animal types are represented on your farm and how those numbers fit into state and federal regulationsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  40. 40. Regulations• At the very least: – Know setback distances for land application – Keep manure and wastewater out of surface waters – Apply manure according to a manure or nutrient management plan – Know and follow air quality regulations if they apply in your state – Keep good recordsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  41. 41. Assistance• The following groups can offer technical and/or financial assistance – State/Federal regulatory agency – NRCS – Local watershed groups – Extension Service – Consulting Engineers, Crop Consultants, Feed Dealers, Local AgronomistsBuilding Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
  42. 42. The Scoop on Poop• There are many different types of livestock, poultry and manure systems out there – If you want to start a new operation or expand an existing operation take time to visit different systems and talk to owners about what works and what does not work – Pencil it out to make sure it works – Find trusted advisers who can offer sound advice – Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture questionsBuilding Never stop learning or asking(BELAA)

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