Refining a Pork Production Carbon FootprintMitigation Tool: A Case Study of an IntegratedResearch/Extension/Education Proj...
InputsFeedAnimalsIrrigation and RainFertilizerSeedLegume NFarm ManagedOutputsMeat/Milk/EggsManureCrops/ForagesThe Foundati...
Project Rationale• Agriculture strives to increase productivity,decrease costs and minimize environmentalimpacts.• Climate...
Project Goals and Objectives• Project Goal:– To produce a fully integrated process-based systems analysis and decisionsupp...
Roles of Contributing University PIs• University of Arkansas:– Model development; nitrogen reduction study; manuretreatmen...
Expected Benefits of Project Efforts• Create a decision support tool for farmers andconsultants.• Assist in determination ...
This Project Builds On• Based on LCA and CFmodel– University of Arkansas– National Pork Board• Released at 2011 WorldPork ...
Overview of the Model• The model lists GHG emissions by type and sourceto enable comparisons of variations in facilities a...
Model Information FlowInputs• Location• Size of Operation• # pigs• Culling• Marketing• Barn characteristics• Type of Manur...
LCA–LCC Modeling Overview• Conduct differential cost analyses ($ per kg GHG reduction)– Estimate the cost of reducing GHG ...
DNDC Model Overview• DNDC consists of two components:– Component one involves three sub-models and converts primarydrivers...
Nitrogen Mitigation StudiesOverview• Maximizing crystalline amino acid use and reducing dietary crudeprotein in swine diet...
Health Status Overview• Our working hypothesis is that immune activation, from clinical andsubclinical disease, reduces gr...
Animal Physiological ModelOverview• Prediction of GHG emissions from swine manure requiresknowledge of N and volatile soli...
Algal Turf Scrubber Overview• Algal biomass offers many advantages over traditionalenergy crops:– Generates higher yields ...
Solids Separation Overview• Focal points:– Quantify the effect of various solid separation approaches on thechemical compo...
Thermo-Chemical ConversionOverview• An auger gasification system developed in the Universityof Arkansas, Bioenergy Laborat...
Extension Overview• Focal points:– Deliver project yielded developments and outputs through sustainedindependent/collabora...
Research Experience forUndergrads Program Overview• Focal points:– This project’s REU program is a 10 week summer research...
Refining a Pork Production Carbon FootprintMitigation Tool: A Case Study of an IntegratedResearch/Extension/Education Proj...
Refining a Pork Production Carbon FootprintMitigation Tool: A Case Study of an IntegratedResearch/Extension/Education Proj...
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Refining a Pork Production Carbon Footprint Mitigation Tool: A Case Study of an Integrated Research/Extension/Education Project

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Swine production systems in the U.S. have long been guided by efforts to increase productivity, decrease costs of production and minimize environmental impacts. Public policy is currently considering the impacts of these production systems on regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on global climate change. There is a gap between our understanding of these impacts and our ability to make informed decisions to guide changes in breeding, feeding, waste management and other production practices. Therefore, a USDA NIFA project was funded to experimentally evaluate mitigation technologies to support development of a robust and accurate process-based Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) model of GHG emission from swine production systems; to couple this model with Life Cycle Cost Analysis; and utilize this model as an education and outreach tool for evaluating the environmental footprint of swine production facilities. The project objectives are:

Perform experimental validation of the effectiveness of selected mitigation strategies, including dietary feeding strategies (reduced nitrogen, growth enhancers), health status, barn and manure management options (solids separation, algal nutrient removal, gasification).
Integrate process models of swine production with coupled LCA and economic model to create a decision support tool to identify economical swine production system options which minimize GHG emissions and increase sustainability of swine production systems.
Develop and implement education and outreach programs utilizing the interaction between climate and swine science to introduce life cycle thinking and systems analysis into the national sustainable agriculture conversation.

http://www.extension.org/pages/67626/refining-a-pork-production-carbon-footprint-mitigation-tool:-a-case-study-of-an-integrated-researchex

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Refining a Pork Production Carbon Footprint Mitigation Tool: A Case Study of an Integrated Research/Extension/Education Project

  1. 1. Refining a Pork Production Carbon FootprintMitigation Tool: A Case Study of an IntegratedResearch/Extension/Education Project• A Research, Extension, and Class RoomTeaching Project– Builds on previous carbon footprint model• University Of Arkansas• National Pork Board– To improve• Farm-level educational tool• Decision aid tool– Incorporates concerns• Environmental• Production• EconomicFor additional information:• www.extension.orgsearch “swine carbon footprint”• Karl VanDevenderkvan@uaex.edu
  2. 2. InputsFeedAnimalsIrrigation and RainFertilizerSeedLegume NFarm ManagedOutputsMeat/Milk/EggsManureCrops/ForagesThe Foundational Concept OfGHG Modeling & Education
  3. 3. Project Rationale• Agriculture strives to increase productivity,decrease costs and minimize environmentalimpacts.• Climate change is a complex issue with largecost/benefit uncertainties.• Climate change has highly uncertain impacts• The livestock revolution – global increasedemand for animal protein.• Gaps in understanding exist, impairing ourability to make fully informed decisions.
  4. 4. Project Goals and Objectives• Project Goal:– To produce a fully integrated process-based systems analysis and decisionsupport tool (LCA and LCC) for on-farm use, education, outreach, and policysupport.• Objectives:1. Experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of select strategies:– Dietary (reduced nitrogen, growth enhancers).– Health status (viral exposure).– Manure management (solids separation, algal nutrient removal, thermo-conversion).2. Expand and enhance LCA model providing a tool to identifyeconomic production options which minimize GHG emissions andincrease sustainability.3. Implement education and outreach programs linking life cycleanalysis, climate and swine science, to foster life cycle thinking inagriculture: understanding the system.
  5. 5. Roles of Contributing University PIs• University of Arkansas:– Model development; nitrogen reduction study; manuretreatment technologies (ATS, gasification, separation); REUhome; extension coordination• Virginia Tech:– Health status experimental work; manure treatmentsimulation; animal physiology modeling (with UA)• Purdue University:– Full scale, fully instrumented experimental trials on nitrogenreduction• DNDC Applications, Research and Training:– DNDC development and integration (with UA)• Livestock Poultry Environmental Learning Center:– Multi-state extension and education.
  6. 6. Expected Benefits of Project Efforts• Create a decision support tool for farmers andconsultants.• Assist in determination of economic andenvironmental effects of alternate managementscenarios.– Help analyze cost optimization of GHG mitigationstrategies.– Help produce benchmark reductions in GHG emissions,including comparative economic evaluation.• Create a research, education and policy support tool– Economic projection may guide policymakers andfarmers in driving adoption rates of new technology.
  7. 7. This Project Builds On• Based on LCA and CFmodel– University of Arkansas– National Pork Board• Released at 2011 WorldPork Expo• Available atwww.pork.org
  8. 8. Overview of the Model• The model lists GHG emissions by type and sourceto enable comparisons of variations in facilities andoperations.• For use by the producer and consultants usingknown or easily determined inputs.• A “predictive model”, to estimate how much feed,electricity, gas, and propane are used and howmuch manure is produced.• Model improvements supported by this project– Updating the GHG emissions model (LCA).– Adding an Economic evaluation portion (LCC).– Integration with DeNitrification and DeComposition(DNDC) Model.
  9. 9. Model Information FlowInputs• Location• Size of Operation• # pigs• Culling• Marketing• Barn characteristics• Type of Manure System• Treatment• Spreading• Types of Feed• Heating/Cooling System• Water ConsumptionFarm Model Predicts• Pig Population Profile• Age• Weight• Farrowing• Feed Consumed• Manure Produced• Electricity Used• Fuel UsedGHG Model Calculates• Emissions• CO2• N2O• CH4• By Farm Source• Feed• Animal• Manure• Fuel/ElectricityCost of ReducedEmissions in units of$/kg CO2e
  10. 10. LCA–LCC Modeling Overview• Conduct differential cost analyses ($ per kg GHG reduction)– Estimate the cost of reducing GHG emissions associated withmultiple potions of barn and farms simultaneously.• Focal Points:– Linking of economic analytical tools with GHG emissions model to identifycosts and benefits of adopting swine management practices that reduceGHGs.– Use optimization models and sensitivity analyses to search for productionmanagement practices that minimize GHG emissions and production costs.– Evaluate how volatility in input costs can impact estimates of costs, andbenefits of adopting different management practices.
  11. 11. DNDC Model Overview• DNDC consists of two components:– Component one involves three sub-models and converts primarydrivers (i.e., climate, soil, vegetation and anthropogenic activity) to soilenvironmental factors (i.e., temperature, moisture, pH, Eh andsubstrate concentration gradient).– Component two consists of nitrification, denitrification andfermentation sub-models.• simulates production/consumption of N2O, NO, N2, NH3 and CH4 driven bythe modeled soil environmental conditions.• Focal Points:– Perform model validation for each mitigation option within the scope of theLCA-LCC model.
  12. 12. Nitrogen Mitigation StudiesOverview• Maximizing crystalline amino acid use and reducing dietary crudeprotein in swine diets has been shown to dramatically reducenitrogen excretion in both nursery and growing/finishing swine.• Focal Points:– The wean-to-finish facilities are housing a 3 phase nursery, and a 5phase grow/finish feeding program (U of A).• Feed trials consist of a Ractopamine supplement during the final 3-weekphase.– Identify diets that maximize use of crystalline amino acids.– Minimize crude protein without negatively impacting gain, carcass compositionor quality.
  13. 13. Health Status Overview• Our working hypothesis is that immune activation, from clinical andsubclinical disease, reduces growth performance, increasesnutrient excretion, and increases GHG emissions from manuremanagement.• Focal Points:– Test the effect of vaccination on pig growth and GHG emissionsthrough conducting full-scale trials at the Swine EnvironmentalResearch Building (SERB) at Purdue University.– Validate results of pilot studies at Arkansas and Virginia Tech.– Evaluate the impact of low CP, amino acid supplemented diets onGHG emissions;– Evaluate the effects of health status on GHG emissions
  14. 14. Animal Physiological ModelOverview• Prediction of GHG emissions from swine manure requiresknowledge of N and volatile solids content.• Focal Points:– Enhance the NRC swine model (1998) with equations to predict fecalflow of volatile solids and N and urinary N output.– Enhance the NRC Growth and N retention models through inclusionof results from this project’s concurrent studies on Ractopamine(U of A); and health status effects on growth and rates of excretion(Purdue).
  15. 15. Algal Turf Scrubber Overview• Algal biomass offers many advantages over traditionalenergy crops:– Generates higher yields and requires smaller land area than other energycrops.– Algal growth systems can also act as tertiary treatment systems forwastewater.• Dramatically reduce nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater.• Focal Points:– Wastewater Treatment Process: Removal of Nutrients– Biomass Energy Feedstock Production: Reduce Carbon Footprint.
  16. 16. Solids Separation Overview• Focal points:– Quantify the effect of various solid separation approaches on thechemical composition of the manure generated by the feed trials(U of A).– Generate the necessary manure solids for the thermo-chemicalconversion.– Determine overall characteristics for the feed trial manure samples toprovide additional validation data for the animal physiology sub-model.
  17. 17. Thermo-Chemical ConversionOverview• An auger gasification system developed in the Universityof Arkansas, Bioenergy Laboratory at the Rice Researchand Extension Center (RREC), may help to simplify theair gasification process for this type of biomass.– Algal biomass was gasified using the auger system duringpreliminary tests, bringing about system improvements to ensuresmooth operation.• Focal Points:– To provide technology to convertswine manure and/or algal biomassto biofuel via a continuous gasificationprocess.
  18. 18. Extension Overview• Focal points:– Deliver project yielded developments and outputs through sustainedindependent/collaborative information dissemination andeducational/outreach efforts.• Arkansas Extension Technician coordinates with project PIs to translateresearch outputs into lay terminology.• Convey the resulting products to LPELC for posting in the appropriatevenues.– LPELC developed web-pages with cross links to eXtension sites.– Project Web-page overseen by University of Arkansas.– Two state-level Extension efforts:• Arkansas• Indiana– Additional Activities:• Regional professional meetings• World Pork Expos.
  19. 19. Research Experience forUndergrads Program Overview• Focal points:– This project’s REU program is a 10 week summer research programfor undergraduate students, with a research focus on carbon footprintmitigation from agriculture.• Ongoing for the duration of this project.• The expected outcomes include:– Inspiring students to continue their education through graduate school.– Fostering an interest and competency in agricultural research.• REU Program Features:– Participating in skills development workshops.– Conducting project assignments with guidance from U of A faculty mentors.– Reporting of project results in dynamic presentation format.– Dorm-living– Extracurricular Activities» Trips and Outings
  20. 20. Refining a Pork Production Carbon FootprintMitigation Tool: A Case Study of an IntegratedResearch/Extension/Education Project• A Research, Extension, and Class RoomTeaching Project– Builds on previous carbon footprint model• University Of Arkansas• National Pork Board– To improve• Farm-level educational tool• Decision aid tool– Incorporates concerns• Environmental• Production• EconomicFor additional information:• www.extension.orgsearch “swine carbon footprint”• Karl VanDevenderkvan@uaex.edu
  21. 21. Refining a Pork Production Carbon FootprintMitigation Tool: A Case Study of an IntegratedResearch/Extension/Education ProjectThis project is part of the program “Climate ChangeMitigation and Adaptation in Agriculture,” and issupported by Agriculture and Food Research InitiativeCompetitive Grant no. 2011-68002-30208 from theUSDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture.Project website: http://www.agroclimate.org/seclimate/.The project team is comprised of faculty, staff, andstudents from the following: University of Arkansas,Purdue University, Virginia Tech, the University ofNebraska, and Applied GeoSolutions, LLCFor additional information:• www.extension.orgsearch “swine carbon footprint”• Karl VanDevenderkvan@uaex.edu

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