ENVIRONMENTAND NATURALRESOURCESSOCIALSYSTEMSECONOMIESLPOs
MODELING MANURE FLOWS IN THE TEXASPANHANDLE IN RESPONSE TO FERTILIZERPRICES, BIOFUEL DEMAND, AND OTHEREXTERNALITIESGary Ma...
Project BackgroundWTAMU Systems I class project:Initial Q: Evaluate the economicfeasibility of a manure-fueled cornethanol...
Integrated System Layers ofDynamic ModelingMassEnergyEnvironmentMarketsPolicy
Mass & Energy Layers• Manure• Distillers Grains• Water• Natural Gas• Corn• Ash
Conceptual Model SchematicMass & Energy FlowsFEEDYARDLANDMANAGEMENTUNITPANDAETHANOLPLANTmanureashnaturalgaswaterCORNDISTIL...
System Manure Flow• Time of Year• Storage capacity• Collection radius• Price of fossil fuel• Manure production rate• Price...
Distillers Grains Effects on Manure• Increases concentration of phosphorous May increase land requirements, traveldistanc...
Environment Layer• Regulatory Nutrient Limits• Soil• Water• Air Quality• Nitrogen Thresholds (Rocky Mtn. Natl. Park)• Perm...
Markets Layer• Valuing Manure• Fertilizer Value• Fuel Value• Transaction modeling• Buyer vs. Seller• Market Structures• Ma...
Valuing Manure as Fertilizer(Massey 2006)Commercial Fertilizer• Guaranteed Analysis• Concentrated• Selectable nutrient rat...
Average U.S. Farm Pricesof Selected Fertilizers01002003004005006007008009001975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010Dollars/...
Marginal Nutrient ValueMV ipAR ptMV inAR ntMV maxMARGINALNUTRIENTVALUE($/tonas-is)APPLICATION RATE (tons as-is / acre)IIIIII
Valuing Manure as Fuel Source• HHV of manure determined by…• Ash Content• Moisture• DDGS inclusion (Buttrey et al., 2012)•...
Heating Value of Manure0%20%40%60%80%0% 20% 40% 60% 80%MaximumMoistureContent(wb)Ash Fraction (db)MinimumAcceptable HV = 2...
Natural Gas vs. Ammonia(1985-2006)
Manure Value CalculatorINPUTS:N & P conc. of manure N & P crop requirementsPrice of inorganic N & P Hauling distanceHaulin...
Transaction Probability ModelPWA(PB, P(PB)) (PA, P(PA))PWPPB PAXactionProbabilityatPriceXaction PriceBUYERSELLER
Market Structures• Prior to markets operating, a hypothesis can be usedto simulate potential markets• Local market conditi...
Market SimulatorMarketTypeNeed toReduceVolume?StorageRemaining?ManureValueCalculatorTransactionModel
Market SimulatorProgramming Flowchart
Explicit Model• Database information• Manure fertilizer value modules• Manure fuel value modules• Transaction Models• Dyna...
System BoundaryPanda• Feedlots• Dairies• Manure collection radius of30 miles from proposedPanda plant 41 feedlots3,000 – ...
Satellite ImageryPanda• Feedlots• Dairies• DOQ’s from Texas NaturalResources Information System(TNRIS) added to the projec...
Irrigated Land• DOQ’s from Texas NaturalResources Information System(TNRIS) added to the project• Irrigated land calculate...
Grid Overlay• Grid constructed to addressspatial aspects of project 1,023 cells 3 mi x 3 mi• Cells assigned cropcomposit...
Simple Optimization Model(MS Excel)A B C D E G12345788910CAFOS (feedlots & dairies)LMUCells… n=62n=1,023…
Solution-Based Model(MS Excel)Information relating each CAFOto each LMU cell
CAFO Attributes• Feedlot or Dairy• Annual manure production capacity• As-collected manure production• Nutrient concentrati...
LMU Cell Attributes• Acreage characterization and allocation(irrigated,dryland, rangeland/municipal)• Nitrogen and phospho...
Array Calculations/Switches• Tons of manure required to fulfill nitrogen andphosphorus requirements• Fulfill nitrogen or p...
Model Assumptions & Constraints• One year time horizon• Manure to satisfy nitrogen requirements• No antecedent nutrients• ...
Model Runs• Model run #1 – Manure from all 62 CAFOsallocated to LMU• Model run #2 – Manure from closest feedlotsallocated ...
Subscription RatioA B C D E G12345788910CAFOS (feedlots & dairies)LMUCells… n=62n=431…RATIO 3.2 0.9 10.5 6.5 1.5 0.25RANK ...
Subscription Ratio (i=1)A B C D E G123457891011CAFOS (feedlots & dairies)LMUCells… n=62n=431…RATIO 3.2 0.9 10.5 6.5 1.5 0....
Subscription Ratio (i=2)A B C D E G123457891011CAFOS (feedlots & dairies)LMUCells… n=62n=431…RATIO 3.2 0.9 1.0 6.5 1.5 0.2...
Subscription Ratio (i=2)A B C D E G123457891011CAFOS (feedlots & dairies)LMUCells… n=62n=431…RATIO 3.2 0.9 1.0 6.5 1.5 0.2...
Ranking LMU Cells within a CAFO• NPA for manure to NPA for commercialfertilizer ratio Assumed Co-Op at a distance of 10 m...
CAFOs with Unallocated Manure• Model forced CAFOs to allocate all manureproduced• Taking off point for transaction modelin...
ResultsRun #1232 total cellsAvg. price per acre(197 common cells)$52.86Avg. hauling distance8.38 miles33 66 99 132 165 198...
ResultsRun #2221 total cells11 fewer cellsAvg. price per acre(197 common cells)$56.38Avg. hauling distance9.3 miles33 66 9...
Developing a Modeling Framework to Characterize Manure Flows in Texas
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Developing a Modeling Framework to Characterize Manure Flows in Texas

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Proceedings available at: www.extension.org/67646

In recent years, sharply rising costs of inorganic fertilizers have contributed to an increased demand for manure and compost in crop production acreage, transforming cattle manure from a valueless waste to a viable alternative to commercial fertilizer. If additional demand for manure as a bio-fuel were to arise manure could take on two distinct values, a fertilizer value and a fuel value. This potential “dual” value of manure begs several questions. What would the fertilizer and fuel markets of manure look like? Is there enough manure supply for the markets to operate independently? If not, which market would prevail? In essence, how, if at all, would manure’s potential value as a bio-fuel distort the traditional Panhandle manure market? A modeling framework was developed to assess the potential impacts of a manure-fired ethanol plant on the existing Texas Panhandle manure fertilizer market. Two manure-allocation runs were performed using a spreadsheet model. Run #1 allocated all available manure from dairies and feedlots to cropland as manure fertilizer; run #2 first allocated fuel manure to the ethanol plant and then allocated the remaining manure to cropland. Both model runs assumed a time horizon of one year and no antecedent nutrients in cropland soils. Other constraints included only irrigated acreages received manure and no supplemental fertilizer was used. The model revealed a 6.4% increase in cost per acre of fertilizing with manure for fields whose nutrient requirements were fully satisfied in both runs. The increase in cost per acre was likely due to an increase in hauling distances attributed to fewer CAFOs available for fertilizer manure. The model is not presented as a dynamic, systems model, but rather a static model with the potential to be incorporated into a more dynamic systems-based modeling environment. Suggestions for further model development and expansion including GAMS integration are presented.

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  • Introduce this question as a researchable question as we drill down into the quantitative level. We are first exploring the manure flow stream because we are manure guys.
  • This body of work originated as a systems I class project. The original project question posed was “Is it economically feasible to use manure as a fuel for ethanol production?” In order to answer that question, one would have to be presented a set of conditions and the answer “yes” or “no. This is not a systems question. A better question would be… ”under what conditions is it economically feasible to use manure as a fuel source for ethanol production?” In fact, why would we consider manure in the first place? …We’ll get to that.
  • This body of work originated as a systems I class project. The original project question posed was “Is it economically feasible to use manure as a fuel for ethanol production?” In order to answer that question, one would have to be presented a set of conditions and the answer “yes” or “no. This is not a systems question. A better question would be… ”under what conditions is it economically feasible to use manure as a fuel source for ethanol production?” In fact, why would we consider manure in the first place? …We’ll get to that.
  • This body of work originated as a systems I class project. The original project question posed was “Is it economically feasible to use manure as a fuel for ethanol production?” In order to answer that question, one would have to be presented a set of conditions and the answer “yes” or “no. This is not a systems question. A better question would be… ”under what conditions is it economically feasible to use manure as a fuel source for ethanol production?” In fact, why would we consider manure in the first place? …We’ll get to that.
  • MNV for the area of concern. Discus the nutrient thresholds and associated diminishing returns with application beyond them.
  • Explain that HHV of manure is a function of ash and moisture content. We as researchers spent a lot of time figuring out how to manage for low ash, high BTU manure.
  • Introduce our manure value calculator model. List main assumptions: 1) fertilizer values are for one growing season – crop requirements are determined by soil test. 2) assumes landfill will accept ash fraction from EtOH plant, etc. Mention that most of the model parameters are adjustable variables. Notice we have no flow associated with the model, this is a calculation module that will provide data for flow direction.
  • Generic conceptual transaction model. We are not sure of the “shape” of the area between PB and PA.
  • Introduce market structures according to Zering
  • Market structure flow chart, explain how storage or regulatory pressure may lead to expedited manure removal.
  • Market structure flow chart, explain how storage or regulatory pressure may lead to expedited manure removal.
  • Developing a Modeling Framework to Characterize Manure Flows in Texas

    1. 1. ENVIRONMENTAND NATURALRESOURCESSOCIALSYSTEMSECONOMIESLPOs
    2. 2. MODELING MANURE FLOWS IN THE TEXASPANHANDLE IN RESPONSE TO FERTILIZERPRICES, BIOFUEL DEMAND, AND OTHEREXTERNALITIESGary Marek, Ph. D.Research EngineerUSDA-ARS, Bushland, TXPhoto courtesy of Emalee Buttrey
    3. 3. Project BackgroundWTAMU Systems I class project:Initial Q: Evaluate the economicfeasibility of a manure-fueled cornethanol plant in the Texas PanhandleRevised Q: Under what conditions is iteconomically feasible to fuel an EtOHplant with manure in the Panhandle?
    4. 4. Integrated System Layers ofDynamic ModelingMassEnergyEnvironmentMarketsPolicy
    5. 5. Mass & Energy Layers• Manure• Distillers Grains• Water• Natural Gas• Corn• Ash
    6. 6. Conceptual Model SchematicMass & Energy FlowsFEEDYARDLANDMANAGEMENTUNITPANDAETHANOLPLANTmanureashnaturalgaswaterCORNDISTILLERS GRAINSSEEDAdapted from image by Sharon Preece
    7. 7. System Manure Flow• Time of Year• Storage capacity• Collection radius• Price of fossil fuel• Manure production rate• Price of chemical fertilizer• Fertilizer Value• Fuel Value• Agronomic Rate• HHV Demand• NPK Demand
    8. 8. Distillers Grains Effects on Manure• Increases concentration of phosphorous May increase land requirements, traveldistances, and management practices• Decreases Higher Heating Value (HHV) (Buttrey et al.,2012)
    9. 9. Environment Layer• Regulatory Nutrient Limits• Soil• Water• Air Quality• Nitrogen Thresholds (Rocky Mtn. Natl. Park)• Permit Storage Limits (CAFOs & Panda)• Declining Aquifer Capacity - Droughts• Effects on crop composition & yield• Jevons Paradox
    10. 10. Markets Layer• Valuing Manure• Fertilizer Value• Fuel Value• Transaction modeling• Buyer vs. Seller• Market Structures• Market Simulator
    11. 11. Valuing Manure as Fertilizer(Massey 2006)Commercial Fertilizer• Guaranteed Analysis• Concentrated• Selectable nutrient ratios• Accurate ApplicationSystems• Relatively LowHauling/Application Costs• ExpensiveManure & Compost• Inconsistent Nutrient Conc.• Highly Variable ApplicationMethods• Expensive Hauling Costs• Weed Seed• Foreign Debris• Salts• Organic Matter
    12. 12. Average U.S. Farm Pricesof Selected Fertilizers01002003004005006007008009001975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010Dollars/tonofnutrientYearNitrogenphosphatepotassiumSource: Agricultural Prices, National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA.
    13. 13. Marginal Nutrient ValueMV ipAR ptMV inAR ntMV maxMARGINALNUTRIENTVALUE($/tonas-is)APPLICATION RATE (tons as-is / acre)IIIIII
    14. 14. Valuing Manure as Fuel Source• HHV of manure determined by…• Ash Content• Moisture• DDGS inclusion (Buttrey et al., 2012)• Manure Handling Practices• Affect on ash content• Weather• Point-of-Use Comparison• Natural Gas Price Trends
    15. 15. Heating Value of Manure0%20%40%60%80%0% 20% 40% 60% 80%MaximumMoistureContent(wb)Ash Fraction (db)MinimumAcceptable HV = 2,758 BTU/lbArbitrary Target HHV = 3,500 BTU/lbArbitrary Target HHV = 4,500 BTU/lb
    16. 16. Natural Gas vs. Ammonia(1985-2006)
    17. 17. Manure Value CalculatorINPUTS:N & P conc. of manure N & P crop requirementsPrice of inorganic N & P Hauling distanceHauling costs Price of natural gasLandfill disposal costsOUTPUTS:Manure value as N & P fertilizerManure value as an energy sourceNet values after transportation
    18. 18. Transaction Probability ModelPWA(PB, P(PB)) (PA, P(PA))PWPPB PAXactionProbabilityatPriceXaction PriceBUYERSELLER
    19. 19. Market Structures• Prior to markets operating, a hypothesis can be usedto simulate potential markets• Local market conditions determine the type ofmarket (Zering 2010)A. Sufficient # of buyers & sellers, prices adjust frequentlyto clear the marketB. Single seller, multiple buyers (monopoly), seller setspriceC. Single buyer, multiple sellers (monopsony), buyer setspriceD. Few buyers & sellers, potential for “hold up”, whoevercan survive the longest without the other sets price
    20. 20. Market SimulatorMarketTypeNeed toReduceVolume?StorageRemaining?ManureValueCalculatorTransactionModel
    21. 21. Market SimulatorProgramming Flowchart
    22. 22. Explicit Model• Database information• Manure fertilizer value modules• Manure fuel value modules• Transaction Models• Dynamically linked system layersHow do we synthesize all of this information?
    23. 23. System BoundaryPanda• Feedlots• Dairies• Manure collection radius of30 miles from proposedPanda plant 41 feedlots3,000 – 100,000 head 21 dairies250 - 5,000 head• CAFO capacities estimated byindustry and extensionpersonnel• System Boundary - Manuredispersion radius of 20 milesfrom each CAFO• Boundary encompasses4,172,815 acres
    24. 24. Satellite ImageryPanda• Feedlots• Dairies• DOQ’s from Texas NaturalResources Information System(TNRIS) added to the project• Used to estimateirrigated, dryland, rangeland,and municipal acreages
    25. 25. Irrigated Land• DOQ’s from Texas NaturalResources Information System(TNRIS) added to the project• Irrigated land calculated bydigitizing center pivot circles 4,935 circles 740,765 acres• Dryland acreage wascalculated by subtractingirrigated acreage from totalarable land 3,226,894 acres• Rangeland/Municipal Acreage 205,156 acres
    26. 26. Grid Overlay• Grid constructed to addressspatial aspects of project 1,023 cells 3 mi x 3 mi• Cells assigned cropcomposition and yield valuesbased on county NASS data• Road distance from centroidof every cell to each CAFOwas calculated using ArcGISNetwork Analyst algorithm
    27. 27. Simple Optimization Model(MS Excel)A B C D E G12345788910CAFOS (feedlots & dairies)LMUCells… n=62n=1,023…
    28. 28. Solution-Based Model(MS Excel)Information relating each CAFOto each LMU cell
    29. 29. CAFO Attributes• Feedlot or Dairy• Annual manure production capacity• As-collected manure production• Nutrient concentrations of CAFO manure
    30. 30. LMU Cell Attributes• Acreage characterization and allocation(irrigated,dryland, rangeland/municipal)• Nitrogen and phosphorus requirements(based on county NASS crop composition andaverage yield values)• Road distance to CAFO
    31. 31. Array Calculations/Switches• Tons of manure required to fulfill nitrogen andphosphorus requirements• Fulfill nitrogen or phosphorus demand• Net price per acre to fulfill nutrientrequirements
    32. 32. Model Assumptions & Constraints• One year time horizon• Manure to satisfy nitrogen requirements• No antecedent nutrients• Only irrigated acreage would receive manure• CAFOs and Panda operate at 100% capacity• All manure allocated to LMU (no storage)• No supplemental commercial fertilizer• Zero value for organic matter• Price of manure held constant ($2.50 per ton)• Hauling & spreading costs held constant ($0.24 per ton mile)
    33. 33. Model Runs• Model run #1 – Manure from all 62 CAFOsallocated to LMU• Model run #2 – Manure from closest feedlotsallocated to Panda. Manure from theremaining 55 CAFOs allocated to LMU
    34. 34. Subscription RatioA B C D E G12345788910CAFOS (feedlots & dairies)LMUCells… n=62n=431…RATIO 3.2 0.9 10.5 6.5 1.5 0.25RANK 3 5 1 2 4 6
    35. 35. Subscription Ratio (i=1)A B C D E G123457891011CAFOS (feedlots & dairies)LMUCells… n=62n=431…RATIO 3.2 0.9 10.5 6.5 1.5 0.25RANK 3 5 1 2 4 6
    36. 36. Subscription Ratio (i=2)A B C D E G123457891011CAFOS (feedlots & dairies)LMUCells… n=62n=431…RATIO 3.2 0.9 1.0 6.5 1.5 0.25RANK 2 4 N/A 1 3 5
    37. 37. Subscription Ratio (i=2)A B C D E G123457891011CAFOS (feedlots & dairies)LMUCells… n=62n=431…RATIO 3.2 0.9 1.0 6.5 1.5 0.25RANK 2 4 N/A 1 3 5
    38. 38. Ranking LMU Cells within a CAFO• NPA for manure to NPA for commercialfertilizer ratio Assumed Co-Op at a distance of 10 miles from every cell• Fields allocated until CAFO manure is depleted• Partially fulfilled fields returned to array withupdated nutrient and acreage requirements
    39. 39. CAFOs with Unallocated Manure• Model forced CAFOs to allocate all manureproduced• Taking off point for transaction modeling• To move manure, would likely have todiscount price
    40. 40. ResultsRun #1232 total cellsAvg. price per acre(197 common cells)$52.86Avg. hauling distance8.38 miles33 66 99 132 165 198 231 264 297 330 363 396 429 462 495 528 561 594 627 660 693 726 759 792 825 858 891 924 957 990 102332 65 98 131 164 197 230 263 296 329 362 395 428 461 494 527 560 593 626 659 692 725 758 791 824 857 890 923 956 989 102231 64 97 130 163 196 229 262 295 328 361 394 427 460 493 526 559 592 625 658 691 724 757 790 823 856 889 922 955 988 102130 63 96 129 162 195 228 261 294 327 360 393 426 459 492 525 558 591 624 657 690 723 756 789 822 855 888 921 954 987 102029 62 95 128 161 194 227 260 293 326 359 392 425 458 491 524 557 590 623 656 689 722 755 788 821 854 887 920 953 986 101928 61 94 127 160 193 226 259 292 325 358 391 424 457 490 523 556 589 622 655 688 721 754 787 820 853 886 919 952 985 101827 60 93 126 159 192 225 258 291 324 357 390 423 456 489 522 555 588 621 654 687 720 753 786 819 852 885 918 951 984 101726 59 92 125 158 191 224 257 290 323 356 389 422 455 488 521 554 587 620 653 686 719 752 785 818 851 884 917 950 983 101625 58 91 124 157 190 223 256 289 322 355 388 421 454 487 520 553 586 619 652 685 718 751 784 817 850 883 916 949 982 101524 57 90 123 156 189 222 255 288 321 354 387 420 453 486 519 552 585 618 651 684 717 750 783816849 882 915 948 981 101423 56 89 122 155 188 221 254 287 320 353386 419 452485 518551584 617 650 683 716 749 782 815 848 881 914 947 980 101322 55 88 121 154 187 220 253 286 319 352 385418 451484 517 550 583 616 649 682 715 748 781 814 847 880 913 946 979 101221 54 87 120 153 186 219 252 285 318 351 384 417 450 483 516 549 582 615 648 681 714 747 780 813 846 879 912 945 978 101120 53 86 119 152 185 218 251 284 317 350 383416449 482515548 581 614 647 680 713 746 779 812 845 878 911 944 977 101019 52 85 118 151 184 217250283 316 349 382 415 448 481 514 547 580 613 646 679 712 745 778 811 844 877 910 943 976 100918 51 84 117 150 183 216 249 282 315 348381 414447 480 513 546 579 612 645 678 711 744 777 810 843 876 909 942 975 100817 50 83 116 149 182 215 248 281 314 347 380 413 446 479 512 545 578 611 644 677 710 743 776 809 842 875 908 941 974 100716 49 82 115 148 181 214 247 280 313 346 379 412 445 478 511 544 577 610 643 676 709 742 775 808 841 874 907 940 973 100615 48 81 114 147 180 213 246 279 312 345 378 411 444 477 510 543 576 609 642 675 708 741 774 807 840 873 906 939 972 100514 47 80 113 146 179 212245278 311 344 377 410443 476509 542 575 608 641 674 707 740 773 806 839 872 905 938 971 100413 46 79 112 145 178 211244277 310 343 376 409 442475508541 574 607 640 673 706 739 772 805 838 871 904 937 970 100312 45 78 111 144 177 210 243 276 309 342 375408 441474 507 540 573 606 639 672 705 738 771 804 837 870 903 936 969 100211 44 77 110 143176209242275 308 341 374 407 440 473 506 539 572 605 638 671 704 737 770 803 836 869 902 935 968 100110 43 76 109 142 175 208241274 307 340 373 406 439 472 505538 571604 637 670 703 736 769 802 835 868 901 934 967 10009 42 75 108 141 174 207 240273306 339372 405 438471 504537570 603636669702 735 768 801834867900 933 966 9998 41 74 107 140 173 206 239 272 305 338371404 437 470 503 536 569 602 635 668 701 734 767800833 866 899 932 965 9987 40 73 106 139 172 205 238 271 304 337 370 403 436 469 502 535 568 601 634 667 700 733 766 799 832 865 898 931 964 9976 39 72 105 138 171 204 237 270 303 336 369 402 435 468 501 534 567 600 633 666 699 732 765 798 831 864 897 930 963 9965 38 71 104 137 170 203 236 269 302 335 368 401 434 467 500 533 566 599 632 665 698 731 764 797 830 863 896 929 962 9954 37 70 103 136 169 202 235 268 301 334 367 400 433 466 499 532 565 598 631 664 697 730 763 796 829 862 895 928 961 9943 36 69 102 135 168 201 234 267 300 333 366 399 432 465 498 531 564 597 630 663 696 729 762 795 828 861 894 927 960 9932 35 68 101 134 167 200 233 266 299 332 365 398 431 464 497 530 563 596 629 662 695 728 761 794 827 860 893 926 959 9921 34 67 100 133 166 199 232 265 298 331 364 397 430 463 496 529 562 595 628 661 694 727 760 793 826 859 892 925 958 991dairies386 386 416 416 416 415 381 537 348 537 371 470 569 637 669 176 273 273 176 800 800387 669353feedlots cont618 479 444 512 508 478 454 586 384 483 517 682 547 715 413 411 714 777 548 469 438 437651 447 443 446 507 476 421 585 417 450 516 649 849 748 414 209 636 669 581 471 436617 480 477 513 541 509 453 552 385 484 518 616 514 716 177 515 405684 481 476 546 540 475 487 584 418 482 550 615 882 683 241 372650 414 538 506 388 553 449 485 648 605 749816 571 504 539 420 551 451 515 583 604 781419 537 505 486 519 549 613 636 717418 572 452 582 551 580 571 782386 538 452 848 603 814
    41. 41. ResultsRun #2221 total cells11 fewer cellsAvg. price per acre(197 common cells)$56.38Avg. hauling distance9.3 miles33 66 99 132 165 198 231 264 297 330 363 396 429 462 495 528 561 594 627 660 693 726 759 792 825 858 891 924 957 990 102332 65 98 131 164 197 230 263 296 329 362 395 428 461 494 527 560 593 626 659 692 725 758 791 824 857 890 923 956 989 102231 64 97 130 163 196 229 262 295 328 361 394 427 460 493 526 559 592 625 658 691 724 757 790 823 856 889 922 955 988 102130 63 96 129 162 195 228 261 294 327 360 393 426 459 492 525 558 591 624 657 690 723 756 789 822 855 888 921 954 987 102029 62 95 128 161 194 227 260 293 326 359 392 425 458 491 524 557 590 623 656 689 722 755 788 821 854 887 920 953 986 101928 61 94 127 160 193 226 259 292 325 358 391 424 457 490 523 556 589 622 655 688 721 754 787 820 853 886 919 952 985 101827 60 93 126 159 192 225 258 291 324 357 390 423 456 489 522 555 588 621 654 687 720 753 786 819 852 885 918 951 984 101726 59 92 125 158 191 224 257 290 323 356 389 422 455 488 521 554 587 620 653 686 719 752 785 818 851 884 917 950 983 101625 58 91 124 157 190 223 256 289 322 355 388 421 454 487 520 553 586 619 652 685 718 751 784 817 850 883 916 949 982 101524 57 90 123 156 189 222 255 288 321 354 387 420 453 486 519 552 585 618 651 684 717 750 783816849 882 915 948 981 101423 56 89 122 155 188 221 254 287 320 353386 419 452485 518551584 617 650 683 716 749 782 815 848 881 914 947 980 101322 55 88 121 154 187 220 253 286 319 352 385418 451484 517 550 583 616 649 682 715 748 781 814 847 880 913 946 979 101221 54 87 120 153 186 219 252 285 318 351 384 417 450 483 516 549 582 615 648 681 714 747 780 813 846 879 912 945 978 101120 53 86 119 152 185 218 251 284 317 350 383416449 482515548 581 614 647 680 713 746 779 812 845 878 911 944 977 101019 52 85 118 151 184 217 250 283 316 349 382 415 448 481 514 547 580 613 646 679 712 745 778 811 844 877 910 943 976 100918 51 84 117 150 183 216 249 282 315 348 381414447 480 513 546 579 612 645 678 711 744 777 810 843 876 909 942 975 100817 50 83 116 149 182 215 248 281 314 347 380 413 446 479 512 545 578 611 644 677 710 743 776 809 842 875 908 941 974 100716 49 82 115 148 181 214 247 280 313 346 379 412 445 478 511 544 577 610 643 676 709 742 775 808 841 874 907 940 973 100615 48 81 114 147 180 213 246 279 312 345 378 411 444 477 510 543 576 609 642 675 708 741 774 807 840 873 906 939 972 100514 47 80 113 146 179 212245278 311 344 377 410443476509 542 575 608 641 674 707 740 773 806 839 872 905 938 971 100413 46 79 112 145 178 211244277 310 343 376 409 442 475 508 541 574 607 640 673 706 739 772 805 838 871 904 937 970 100312 45 78 111 144 177 210 243 276 309 342 375408441474 507 540 573 606 639 672 705 738 771 804 837 870 903 936 969 100211 44 77 110 143 176 209242275 308 341 374 407 440 473 506 539 572 605 638 671 704 737 770 803 836 869 902 935 968 100110 43 76 109 142 175 208 241274307 340 373 406 439 472505 538571 604 637 670 703 736 769 802 835 868 901 934 967 10009 42 75 108 141 174 207 240 273306339372 405 438471 504 537 570 603636669702 735 768 801834867900 933 966 9998 41 74 107 140 173 206 239 272 305 338 371 404 437 470 503 536 569 602 635 668 701 734 767800833 866 899 932 965 9987 40 73 106 139 172 205 238 271 304 337 370 403 436 469 502 535 568 601 634 667 700 733 766 799 832 865 898 931 964 9976 39 72 105 138 171 204 237 270 303 336 369 402 435 468 501 534 567 600 633 666 699 732 765 798 831 864 897 930 963 9965 38 71 104 137 170 203 236 269 302 335 368 401 434 467 500 533 566 599 632 665 698 731 764 797 830 863 896 929 962 9954 37 70 103 136 169 202 235 268 301 334 367 400 433 466 499 532 565 598 631 664 697 730 763 796 829 862 895 928 961 9943 36 69 102 135 168 201 234 267 300 333 366 399 432 465 498 531 564 597 630 663 696 729 762 795 828 861 894 927 960 9932 35 68 101 134 167 200 233 266 299 332 365 398 431 464 497 530 563 596 629 662 695 728 761 794 827 860 893 926 959 9921 34 67 100 133 166 199 232 265 298 331 364 397 430 463 496 529 562 595 628 661 694 727 760 793 826 859 892 925 958 991dairies386 386 416 416 416 415 447 538 316 538 306 470 569 637 669 245 306 306 245 605 800387 636353feedlots cont618 444 512 454 586 384 483 517 682 547 715 413 411 714 777 548 469 438 437651 443 446 421 585 417 450 516 649 849 748 414 476 636 669 581 471 436617 477 513 453 552 385 484 518 616 514 716 510 515 405684 476 546 487 584 418 482 550 615 882 683 509 372650 538 388 553 449 485 648 513 749 540816 504 420 551 451 515 583 481 781 506419 537 486 519 549 613 512 717 539418 452 582 551 580 479 782 505386 452 848 480 814451 579 446 815

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