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The research-process[1]


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The research-process[1]

  1. 1. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 1 HLTEN514B Apply Research Skills Within a Contemporary Health Environment
  2. 2. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 2 The Research Process • Any research, regardless of size needs to go through an organised process
  3. 3. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 3 The Research Process: an eight-step model(Taken and Adapted from:Kumar, 1996) “Although the basic logic of scientific methodology is the same in all fields, its specific techniques and approaches will vary, depending upon the subject matter” (Kumar, 1996, p.15).
  4. 4. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 4 Step 1: Formulating a research problem • Should identify what you intend to research. • Should be as clear and concise as possible. • Extremely important to evaluate your problem in light of the financial resources at you disposal, time available, your own expertise and knowledge. • Think about how a problem may arise… e.g. a recurring patient outcome, a quizzical event…
  5. 5. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 5 Step II: Conceptualising a research design • The validity of what you find largely depends on how you found it. • Main function of a research design is to explain how you will find answers to your research question. • Should include the study design, logistical arrangements that you propose to undertake, measurement procedures, sampling strategy, how will analyse your data and time-frame.
  6. 6. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 6 Step III: Constructing an instrument for data collection • Includes anything that you use as a means for collecting information. • For example; observation forms, interview schedules, questionnaires, interview guides. • You may need to construct your own, or use an existing one in order to extract primary data. • If you are using information that has already been collected for another purpose (secondary data), you will need to develop a form to extract the data required. • Must address issues of validity and reliability.
  7. 7. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 7 Step IV: Selecting a sample • The accuracy of your estimates largely depends upon the way you select your sample. • Basic objective is to minimise the gap between what you obtain from your data and what is prevalent in the population. • The characteristics of the sample need to closely match the population as possible, so the results are generalisable to the larger population • Important to try and avoid bias. • Extremely dependent on resources available. • Important to look at sampling design to know if the research is applicable to your population
  8. 8. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 8 Sampling ctd Three categories of sampling design: 1. Random = sample selected at random e.g. All population given a number and “lottery” is conducted chosing the numbers. • Most basic form of random sampling. • Each subject in the population has an equal chance of being in the research 2. Non-random = Not chosen at random, can be chosen by set characteristics e.g. gender, age etc. Can be hand picked by the researcher • cannot assess whether they are representative of the population, therefore results can only be applied to the sample and not generalised to the whole population. 3. Mixed = mixture of both
  9. 9. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 9 Step V: Writing a research proposal• An overall plan that tells a reader about your research problem and how you are planning to investigate. • Main function is to detail the operational plan for obtaining answers to your research questions. • Institutions will have varying requirements regarding style and content.
  10. 10. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 10 Step VI: Collecting data • Procedure you wish to adopt is determined by your research design. • At this stage you actually collect the data. • May involve consideration of some ethical issues. • Need to ensure confidentiality etc
  11. 11. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 11 Step VII: Processing data • The way you analyse the information you collect largely depends upon the type of information (descriptive, quantitative, qualitative) and the way you want to write you dissertation/report. • Some studies will involve a combination of both quantitative and qualitative methodology and data collection.
  12. 12. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 12 Step VIII: Writing a research report • The last and often most difficult step. • Usually written as an academic paper divided into chapters based on the main themes of the study.
  13. 13. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 13 Literature Reviews • Part of the research process includes a literature review • The researcher searches the existing literature (previous research papers) to see what has already been found about a topic and where the gaps are
  14. 14. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 14 Literature Reviews “A literature review is traditionally considered a systematic and critical review of the most important published scholarly literature on a particular topic” (Beanland & Schneider, 1999, p.84)
  15. 15. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 15 Review of Literature Research Education Theory Practice Relationship of the review of literature to theory, research, education and practice
  16. 16. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 16 Reasons for Reviewing the Literature Bring Clarity to Research Problem • Helps understand the subject area better • Helps to conceptualise your research problem • Helps you understands the relationship between your research problem and the body of knowledge in the area. • Identify known gaps – don‟t reinvent the wheel!
  17. 17. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 17 Reasons for Reviewing the Literature Improve your methodology • Acquaints you with the methodologies that have been used by others • Informs you of procedures that have worked well, and problems faced
  18. 18. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 18 Reasons for Reviewing the Literature Broaden you knowledge base • Ensure you read widely • Important to know other researchers findings, questions, theories, gaps • Understand how your research fits into the existing body of knowledge
  19. 19. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 19 Procedure for Reviewing Literature If you do not have a specific research problem, you should review the literature in a broad area of interest with the aim of narrowing down to what you want to find out about Can be thought of in four steps:
  20. 20. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 20 Searching Existing Literature • Must have some idea of a broad subject area in order to set parameters. • Compile a bibliography for your area from books and journals. • Books: Can be valuable as they usually present a coherent body of knowledge. Can be outdated so beware. • When you find a book of value, look at its bibliography and reference list to find other valuable references on the same topic.
  21. 21. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 21 Searching Existing Literature • Journals: Provide the most up-to-date information. Can be located in hard copy, via electronic databases and via the internet. • Read journal abstracts to ascertain relevance. • Review articles reference list for other articles of value.
  22. 22. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 22 Reviewing Selected Literature • Read your literature critically in order to identify themes and issues that belong together. • Critical reading requires you to: note theories put forward, criticisms, methodologies adopted, examining to what extent findings can be generalised, are the significant differences of opinion, ascertain gaps in knowledge
  23. 23. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 23 Develop a Theoretical Framework • Involves „sorting out‟ the information you have read into some kind of logical, methodical framework. • This will describe the theories or issues in which your study is embedded.
  24. 24. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 24 Develop a Conceptual Framework • Describes the aspects you selected from the theoretical framework to become the basis of your study. • This conceptual framework forms the basis of your research problem.
  25. 25. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 25 Writing up the Literature Review • Should be written around the themes that have emerged from reading the literature. • Can be written under headings that are precise and follow logical progression.
  26. 26. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 26 Formulating a Research Problem “Generally speaking, can be any question that you want answered and any assumption or assertion that you want to challenge or investigate can become a research problem or a research topic for study” (Kumar, 1996, p.35)
  27. 27. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 27 Considerations when selecting a research problem • Interest: select a topic that interests you. Research can be time-consuming and hard work. • Magnitude: Narrow the topic down to something manageable, specific and clear that you can manage within the time and resources at your disposal. • Level of Expertise: Allow for the fact that you will learn during the study, but make sure you have adequate knowledge for the task.
  28. 28. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 28 Considerations when selecting a research problem • Measurement of Concepts: Be careful to not use concepts that you don‟t know how to measure. • Relevance: Select a topic that is of relevance to you professionally. Remember that research should add to the body of knowledge, bridge current gaps and be useful.
  29. 29. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 29 Considerations when selecting a research problem • Availability of data: If your topic involves collection of information from secondary sources, ensure this is possible. • Ethical Issues: How ethical issues can affect the study population and how these can be overcome must be examined early.
  30. 30. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 30 „Zeroing in on the problem‟ 1. Identify a broad area of interest in your academic/professional field. 2. Dissect the broad area into sub-areas (brain- storm) 3. Select a sub-area or areas in which you would like to conduct your research (process of elimination). 4. Raise research questions that you would like answered. 5. Formulate objectives main and sub
  31. 31. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 31 „Zeroing in on the problem‟ 6. Assess these objectives to ascertain feasibility of attaining them in light of you time, resources and expertise. 7. Double check by asking yourself: am I really enthusiastic about this study? Do I have enough resources?
  32. 32. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 32 Formulating Objectives • Are the goals you set out to attain in your study. • Should be listed under the headings of main objectives and sub-objectives. • Main objective is an overall statement of the main associations and relationships you seek to discover or establish. • Use action-orientated words or verbs such as „to determine‟, „to find out‟, „to ascertain‟, „to measure‟, „to explore‟.
  33. 33. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 33 Hypotheses Often a hunch, assumption, suspicion, assertion or an idea about a phenomenon, relationship or situation, the reality or truth of which you do not know. • Therefore: 1. It is a tentative proposition 2. Its validity is unknown 3. In most cases, it specifies a relationship between two or more variables.
  34. 34. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 34 Characteristics of a Hypothesis • Simple, specific and clear – it should only test one relationship at a time • Capable of verification – methods and techniques must be available for data collection and analysis. • Should be related to a body of knowledge • Should be operationalisable – that is, it can be expressed in terms that can be measured.
  35. 35. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 35 References Beanland, C., Schneider, Z., LoBiondo- Wood, G., Haber, J. (1999). Nursing Research: Methods, Critical Appraisal and Utilisation. Artamon: Mosby. Borbasi, S., Jackson, D., Langford, R. (2004). Navigating the Maze of Nursing Research. Marrickville: Mosby. Burns, N., & Grove, S. (1995). Understanding Nursing Research. Pennsylvania: W.B. Saunders Company.
  36. 36. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 36 References Crotty, M. (1998). The Foundations of Social Research: Meaning and Perspective in the Research Process. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin. Daly, J., Kellehear, A., Gliksman, M. (1997). The Public Health Researcher: A Methodological Guide. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Elliott, D., & Burr, G. (2000). Study Guide to Accompany Nursing Research: Methods, Critical Appraisal and Utilisation. Marrickville: Mosby.
  37. 37. Document Title (Editable via „Slide Master‟) | Page 37 References Kumar, R. (1996). Research Methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. South Melbourne: Addison Wesley Longman. Peace, S. (1990). Researching Social Gerontology: Concepts, Methods and Issues. SAGE Publications: London. Punch, K. (1998). Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches. SAGE Publications: London.