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Lake Ontario Waterkeeper's Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0

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Waterkeeper releases its third annual Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report. Lake Ontario Waterkeeper's Toronto Community Monitoring Program sampled, observed and documented the Toronto Harbour twice a week from May to September. More than 900 water samples were collected this year from nine sites along Toronto’s shoreline.

Read the report to learn about our findings and recommendations to the City of Toronto.

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Lake Ontario Waterkeeper's Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0

  1. 1.     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY​​ ………………………………………………………………………………………………………... 2  INTRODUCTION​​ …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... 3  WATER QUALITY RESULTS​​ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………5  CONCLUSIONS​​ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13  RECOMMENDATIONS​​ …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ​​14  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS​​ ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15  REFERENCES​​ ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15  Appendix A​​ ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16  Appendix B​​ ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21        1 
  2. 2. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America   ​EXECUTIVE SUMMARY​__...      The Toronto Harbour is one of the busiest recreational spaces in North America. At the same                                time, the harbour is vulnerable to sewage contamination due to our combined sewer system,                            which includes nine combined sewer outfalls along the city’s Lake Ontario shoreline. During the                            summer of 2018, the Lake Ontario Waterkeeper’s Toronto Community Monitoring Program                      documented a consistent pattern of extremely high levels of ​E. coli (an indicator bacteria of                              sewage) in several locations in the Toronto Harbour. Large amounts of sewage debris -                            “floatables” were also documented. Lake Ontario Waterkeeper (LOW) is an initiative of Swim                          Drink Fish, a registered charity working towards swimmable, drinkable, and fishable water for                          everyone.  The poor results from the water quality monitoring in the Toronto Harbour are a defining moment                                for the City of Toronto. The findings illustrate that two choices exist: to take ownership of the                                  problems associated with CSOs and sewage spills and further revitalize the Toronto Harbour or,                            be left in the dust (or sewage in this case) as other Canadian cities respond to the public’s desire                                      for a healthy recreational waterfront. Currently, the public spaces on the Toronto waterfront and                            in the harbour waters are vital for the community, business, tourism, and a healthy city, as it                                  allows people to connect to the water and Lake Ontario. However, increased sewage pollution is                              putting this connection to the water and the public’s health at risk.   Swim Drink Fish provides the following recommendations for the City of Toronto so as to take                                ownership of the water pollution problems associated with CSOs and sewage spills.   Recommendations:   1. Place signs at each combined sewer outlet on the waterfront;  2. monitor flows from combined sewer outlets located near recreational use areas on the                          waterfront;  3. inform the public in real-time when those combined sewer outlets are flowing;  4. clean up sewage debris immediately after a sewer overflow event; and,  5. fund water quality monitoring in recreational use areas near combined sewer outlets.  These recommendations will continue to improve the waterfront, and keep it open for                          generations to come. Currently, the Toronto Harbour is an accessible gathering place to connect                            with the water, which will only gain in popularity with the continued waterfront revitalization. It is                                time start restoring the water quality, so as to match the physical revitalization that continues in                                this space.      2   
  3. 3. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America   INTRODUCTION ​__._   Untreated sewage and sewage debris called “floatables” (e.g. condoms, tampons, syringes, etc.)                        are common in the waters of the Toronto Harbour. This is due to the nine combined sewer                                  outfalls located along the shoreline of Lake Ontario in the City of Toronto (image 1). Combined                                sewers are underground city pipes that carry both wastewaters from toilets and drains in homes                              and businesses, and stormwater from roads and paved surfaces. During wet-weather events in                          Toronto the combined sewers spillover, causing a combined sewer overflow (CSO). Essentially,                        instead of going to the water treatment facilities, the untreated and polluted water goes directly                              into the lake. This raw sewage and the “floatables” contaminates the Toronto Harbour making                            the water unsuitable for recreational use. Moreover, in the summer of 2018, the monitoring team                              documented high levels of ​E. coli during dry weather (i.e. over 48 hrs without rain prior to the                                    sampling event).   Image 1: Approximate locations of the nine combined sewer outfalls located in the Toronto Harbour.   LOW’s Toronto Community Monitoring Program conducted water quality monitoring at nine                      different sites along the waterfront of Lake Ontario through the end of May to the end of                                  September. These sites were selected for water quality monitoring due to their high numbers of                              recreational water users, their vulnerability to sewage contamination, and because they are not                          currently monitored by Toronto Public Health (TPH). The results from the water samples taken at                              the nine different sites are publicly available on the Swim Guide (​www.theswimguide.org​). The                          raw data of the water sampling results for the three sites located in the inner harbour is shared                                    publicly on the Lake Ontario Waterkeeper web-page titled Toronto Harbour Monitoring                      (​www.waterkeeper.ca​).     3   
  4. 4. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America     The water quality results from the 2018 sampling                season (May 25 - September 27), and the severe                  wet-weather event on August 7th, 2018 clearly              illustrate the need for daily water quality              monitoring, better public advisories on water            quality and CSOs, city signage showing the              location of the CSOs, and rapid and effective                City of Toronto clean-up crews for sewage              debris.   On August 7th, the average rainfall for the entire                  month of August came down in a single 24-hour                  period on the city. On August 8th the monitoring                  team went to the Toronto Harbour to document                the sewage spill at three monitored sites in the                  inner harbour (i.e. Marina Four, Rees St. Slip, and                  Bathurst Quay). The team documented evidence            of a major sewage spill that posed a threat to                    public and environmental health. Evidence          included large amounts of floatable and            biohazardous waste including condoms, used          syringes, tampons, plastic tampon applicators          and other debris (image 2, 3, 4).  The City of Toronto did not issue a detailed                  public advisory about the sewage spill and the                contamination of the water, nor were water              quality samples taken by the city at the                impacted sites at any time during the sampling                season. On August 9th, two days after the                rainfall event, over 10 dead rats and several                dead fish and birds were also present in the                  water.   The impact of this major sewage spill in the                  Toronto Harbour, along with the results from the                other 70 water sampling events across the              waterfront, informs the recommendations        presented to the City of Toronto. For more                images see ​Appendix A​.   Image 2: Photo was taken at Marina Four on                  August 8th, 2018. Condoms, wipes, and            toilet/tissue paper debris is visible​.  Image 3: Photo was taken at Marina Four on                  August 8th, 2018 of tampon applicators, wet              wipes, and toilet/tissue paper debris  Image 4: Photo was taken at Marina Four on                  August 8th, 2018. Condoms, wipes, and            toilet/tissue paper debris is visible    4   
  5. 5. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America   WATER QUALITY RESULTS ​ __._   Over the summer water quality samples were taken on an at least weekly basis at nine locations                                  along the waterfront of Lake Ontario. Six of these sites are located in the Toronto Harbour (i.e.                                  the three inner harbour sites (red pins), and the three Toronto Island sites (light blue pins); image                                  5). All the samples were taken following consistent and reputable standard operating procedures                          for recreational water quality monitoring. The samples were processed at the Swim Drink Fish                            headquarters, using our in-house IDEXX lab. The water was tested for coliforms and ​E. coli                              contamination. ​E. coli is an indicator bacteria for sewage contamination. When ​E. coli levels are                              above 100 most probable number (MPN) / 100 mL of water, 7 out of 1000 swimmers will contract a                                      gastrointestinal illness ​1​ . The elderly, children, and immunocompromised individuals are the most                        vulnerable to waterborne diseases.  Image 5: Locations of the nine water monitoring sites sampled by Swim Drink Fish and external monitors                                  for recreational water quality. Green pin - Humber Bay Park West | Red pins in the inner harbour (left to                                        right) - Bathurst Quay, Rees St. Slip, Marina Four | Light blue pins at the Toronto Island (left to right) - Outer                                            Sunfish Cut, Inn Sunfish Cut, Algonquin Bridge | Dark blue pins (left to right) - Outer Harbour Shore, Outer                                      Harbour Bay.   In the City of Toronto, a beach fails recreational water quality standards when ​E. coli levels are                                  above 100 MPN / 100 mL of water. This standard differs from the new Recreational Water                                Protocol, 2018 released by the Province of Ontario on February 5th, 2018 ​2​ . The new Ontario                                recreational water quality standard ​is as follows: a geometric mean concentration (minimum of                          five samples) of ≤ 200 ​E. coli / 100 mL and a single-sample maximum concentration of ≤ 400 ​E.                                      coli / 100 mL (Table 1). No public consultation took place on this significant change to the                                  province’s recreational water quality standard. The City of Toronto and Swim Drink Fish have                            continued to adhere to the pre-2018 provincial standard of 100 ​E. coli / 100 mL for a geometric                                    mean concentration.     5   
  6. 6. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America   Table 1: Comparison of the new Provincial Recreational Water Protocol, 2018 with the City of  Toronto and Swim Drink Fish recreational water quality standards used for the 2018 sampling  season  Recreational Water Protocol,  2018  • Geometric mean concentration (minimum of five samples):   ≤ 200 ​​E. coli​​ / 100 mL   • Single-sample maximum concentration:   ≤ 400 ​​E. coli ​​/ 100 mL  Pre-2018 provincial  standards  A beach or sample site fails recreational water quality standards when  the geometric mean concentration (minimum of five samples)   exceeds​​ ​100 ​​E. coli​​ / 100 mL of water  Guidelines for Canadian  Recreational Water Quality  • Geometric mean concentration (minimum of five samples):   ≤ 200 ​​E. coli​​ / 100 mL   • Single-sample maximum concentration:   ≤ 400 ​​E. coli​​ / 100 mL  The federal government sets water quality guidelines on secondary contact for activities like                          rowing, sailing, canoe touring, or fishing ​3​ . This guideline for secondary contact states ​E. coli                              levels should be below 1000 ​E. coli​ / 100 mL of water (Table 2).  Table 2: Federal Guidelines for secondary contact recreation - Freshwater  Guidelines for Canadian  Recreational Water Quality  E. coli​ levels ​below​​ ​1000 ​​E. coli​​ / 100 mL of water​​ is “a tolerable and  reasonable approach to protect users engaged in a voluntary activity”  Over the entire summer, the nine sites monitored by SDF consistently failed the pre-2018                            provincial protocols for recreational water quality of 100 ​E. coli ​/ 100 mL of water. The nine sites                                    sampled tested above the 100 ​E. coli / 100 mL and failed standards 44% of the time. One site                                      failed standards every water sample taken (i.e. Bathurst Quay - 100.0% fail; Table 3). The majority                                of the samples that failed recreational water quality standards is clearly linked to rainfall in the                                preceding 48 hrs. However, two sample sites failed to meet recreational water quality standards                            several times without rainfall. These sites located in the inner harbour include Bathurst Quay and                              Marina Four. Bathurst Quay failed water quality standards 14 times, and Marina Four failed two                              times during 48 hrs of preceding dry weather. This illustrates that even without the volume of                                stormwater runoff the combined sewer system is over capacity with wastewater from Toronto                          homes and businesses.        6   
  7. 7. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America   Table 3: Summary of recreational water quality results for the Toronto Harbour for 2018 (May 25 -  September 27). A sample failed if​​ E. coli​​ tested above 100 MPN / 100 mL of water.  Site name  # of sample  visits  Percent  pass (%)  Percent  fail (%)  Highest ​E. coli ​result  (MPN/100mL) **  Date of highest  result recorded  Bathurst Quay  38  0.0  100.0  >24,196.0  July 7 & August 9  Marina Four  38  50.0  50.0  >24,196.0  August 8  Rees Street Slip  38  68.4  31.6  1916.6  June 19  Humber Bay Park West  16  62.5  37.5  1582.6  August 9  Inner Sunfish Cut  9  60  40  181.8  July 31  Outer Harbour Shore  8  75  25  139.4  August 8  Outer Sunfish Cut  8  77.8  22.2  123.3  August 14  Algonquin Bridge  9  80  20  112.5  June 25  Outer Harbour Bay  8  100  0  31.2  August 8  **colour decoder for column labelled “​Highest ​E. coli ​result (MPN/100mL)”: ​dark red - E. coli above 1000  MPN / 100 mL; light red - E. coli above 100 MPN / 100 mL; green - E. coli below 100 MPN / 100 mL. To  download the full sample results visit: ​http://www.waterkeeper.ca/toronto-harbour-monitoring   On July 7th and August 9th, the ​E. coli​ levels measured at the Bathurst Quay site were the  highest ever recorded by the monitoring team: > 24,196.0 / 100 mL of water. On August 8th, the  E. coli​ levels at Marina Four were the highest ever recorded: > 24,196.0​ ​/ 100 mL of water. These  results are at least 241 times higher than the City of Toronto’s standard of 100 ​E. coli​ / 100 mL for  recreational water quality standards. They are at least 24 times higher than Canada’s  Recreational Water Quality Guidelines for secondary contact recreational water users, like  paddlers and boaters. Actual ​E. coli​ levels on these dates may be much higher; the test values  were outside the reportable range, even after using the highest dilution factor (1:10).   The high results recorded on August 8th and 9th are linked to the major sewage spill after a  wet-weather event in the city on August 7th. In addition to high ​E. coli​ levels, the monitoring team  documented large numbers of sewage floatables. The amount of debris was too high to count on  during the sampling visit, so photographic documentation took place. In the photographs,  hundreds of tampon applicators, condoms, swaths of toilet paper, and many used syringes are  seen. Following this sewage spill Swim Drink Fish issued a letter (​https://goo.gl/r532oY​) ​to the City  of Toronto regarding these findings. This letter also provides recommendations for immediate  action.  7   
  8. 8. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America   During the water quality sampling visits, the monitoring team also documented environmental                        observations at all the sites. The teams counted all the visible the litter and sewage debris in the                                    water and documented visual aspects and odours of the water. The water sampling visits and                              environmental observations were done over a 40 to 45 minute period. Over the summer we                              documented over 900 “floatables” including 246 tampon applicators, 171 condoms, 173 wipes,                        164 feminine pads, and 36 syringes (image 6). These numbers exclude the visits where there was                                too much debris to count, therefore the amount of sewage debris is actually much higher. The                                accumulation of sewage debris is particularly high in the inner harbour and is highest at the                                Marina Four site. Over 400 “floatables” were counted at this site during the 38 sample visits. The                                  monitoring team also documented strong odours including oil, acrid, sewage, rotten egg, fishy,                          musky and algae during 46 of the 108 samples events (43% of the time) at the inner harbour. For                                      environmental observation data on each site in the inner harbour, see ​Appendix B​.  Image 6: A breakdown of “floatables” and sewage debris the monitoring teams documented during each                              sampling visit. These counts were conducted over a 40-45 minute period.  The Rees St. Slip site is prone to litter accumulation due to the wave deck at the north end of the  site. Clean-up crews cannot access the area under the wave deck, and the bubbler installed to  push the debris for easier clean-up was broken for the entire summer. During the Tuesday and  Thursday weekly sampling events, we observed continuous swaths of floating garbage and  sewage debris at this site. We also recorded 26 used syringes and received emails from  independent individuals at this site documenting syringes in the water (image 7).  8   
  9. 9. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America   ​Image 7: These used syringes were all found in the water during sampling events at the inner harbour  (i.e. Marina Four, Rees St. Slip, and Bathurst Quay).  9   
  10. 10. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America   The individuals, businesses, and organizations renting the space from the city are tasked with                            cleaning up the hazardous sewage debris. Over the summer the monitoring team was notified                            that removal of sewage debris and trash was often done on a voluntary basis by the camp                                  counselors and summer students. The sewage debris in the water is released out of city                              infrastructure, therefore the city should provide the adequate resources for speedy and effective                          clean-ups.  During the water sampling events the monitoring team also records the recreational water users,                            and wildlife present. At Rees St. Slip where we documented 26 syringes, we also documented                              over 100 children per sample visit connecting with Lake Ontario by learning to sail, kayak, and                                canoe. On July 16th, Toronto received 8.0 mm of rain, and during the July 17th sampling event at                                    Rees St. Slip, the monitoring team was notified by a camp counsellor that a child fell into the                                    water that morning. The results from this sample failed recreational water quality standards at                            181.1 ​E. coli / 100 mL. Had there been real time monitoring of the combined sewer outfall at this                                      site, the local water recreation clubs would have been better informed on what public health                              measures to take during and after an active sewage spill from the combined sewer.   The monitoring teams also documented the total number of individuals visiting the sample site                            during the sampling event (over a 40 to 45 minute period). For the nine sample sites we recorded                                    over 2579 individuals. More than half (1377) of these individuals were children attending summer                            water recreation camps, where they get to connect and learn about Lake Ontario and the                              Toronto Harbour. Part of the curriculum for these camps includes in water lessons on what to do                                  if you fall in the harbour water. At these times the children and other individuals taking lessons                                  are swimming in the water. Marina Four is also home to many houseboats, where community                              members live on and interact daily with the water. This furthers the need for real time monitoring,                                  effective clean-up, and timely public advisories following sewage spills.   The wildlife documented at the nine sites includes 2632 migratory birds and waterfowl (i.e.                            Cormorants, Mallards, Canada Geese, Swans). Overall we observed 3807 individual animals                      including a variety of bird, mammal, amphibian, and fish species. During one sampling visit at                              Rees St. Slip we observed a turtle in the accumulated trash and debris (image 8).  10   
  11. 11. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America   Image 8: This photo was taken on July 24th, at the Rees St Slip sampling site located in the Inner                                        Harbour. The turtle is marked with the red circle.   We documented wildlife that died and could be observed floating in the water. We observed and                                counted high numbers of dead animals like 32 rats, 31 fish, 5 pigeons, 2 raccoons, 2 cormorants,                                  and an opossum (image 9).   11   
  12. 12. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America   Image 9: these images were taken during the sampling events are the inner harbour (i.e. Marina Four,  Rees St. Slip and Bathurst Quay)  12   
  13. 13. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America   CONCLUSIONS ​__._   The water quality of the Toronto Harbour is severely polluted due to the presence of combined                                sewer outfalls that are spilling untreated sewage and debris into the water predominantly during                            and after wet weather events, but also during dry weather. The harbour is not monitored for                                recreational water quality nor is it maintained by the city, even though evidence of sewage                              contamination is clearly documented in this report, as well as the previous the Toronto Harbour                              reports from 2016, and 2017. The Toronto Harbour and the recreational water area is heavily                              used by the communities, organizations, and businesses on the waterfront as well as by residents                              and visitors to Toronto. This waterfront space is vital to making the City of Toronto a socially,                                  environmentally and economically healthy place. The community, businesses, and organizations                    working on the waterfront provide invaluable services to the City of Toronto, including a vibrant                              waterfront space for the public to connect to the waters of Lake Ontario.   As the waterfront is revitalized the number of visitors to destinations like the inner harbour of                                Toronto and the Humber Bay West Park will only increase. The Toronto Harbour provides an                              essential place for people and communities to connect with the water and Lake Ontario.                            However, the presence of sewage and the visible evidence and odour associated with sewage in                              the water negatively impacts the image of the Toronto Harbour. This can deter and alienate the                                public from the area and connecting with the Toronto Harbour and Lake Ontario. It is also a major                                    public health issue. The current situation presents as a defining moment for the City of Toronto                                and it’s waterfront, to decide to either make progressive changes, or for it to be left behind as                                    other Canadian cities move forward and embrace their connection with the water.  Swim Drink Fish strongly believes that the City of Toronto can improve the way it deals with the                                    sewage spills into the Toronto Harbour from the combined sewer outfalls. By implementing the                            following recommendations the city would fall in line with the most progressive cities in Canada,                              like Kingston and Ottawa, ON. The City's Wet Weather Flow Master Plan that is supposed to                                reduce the impact of CSOs on the water quality is not set to be complete for the next 25 years ​4​ .                                          In the meantime, the public must be informed on when, where, and the severity of the sewage                                  spill so they can make informed decisions on their recreational water activities. In order to make                                this information available to the public, we provide the City of Toronto with the following                              recommendations to implement immediately.      13   
  14. 14. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America   RECOMMENDATIONS ​__._   The following recommendations provide progressive actions for the City of Toronto concerning                        the sewage spills in the harbour. The water quality data and photographic evidence gathered                            during the 2018 sampling season illustrate that tackling the sewage problem in the Toronto                            Harbour is essential for the development of a vibrant and healthy Toronto Waterfront. We are                              calling for changes so that the public can continue to connect with the city’s greatest natural                                asset, Lake Ontario. These recommendations are in line with the most progressive cities in                            Canada that are also tackling sewage spills associated with their combined sewer system                          infrastructure. The recommendations are as follows, the City of Toronto must:  1. Place signs at each combined sewer outlet on the waterfront.  ○ In Kingston, Ottawa, and Vancouver visible public signage indicates the locations  of CSOs outlets.  2. Monitor flows from combined sewer outlets located near recreational use areas on the                          waterfront.  ○ In 2016, the City of Kingston equipped all their remaining combined sewer outlets                          with new and reliable monitoring equipment. This helps them identify and quantify                        sewage overflows anywhere in the sewer network.   ○ The City of Ottawa uses a “Real Time Control” system looking at data on CSOs                              and the sewer system infrastructure. Between 2003 and 2011, CSOs were reduced                        by 66% by optimizing the standard static operation of the sewer system ​5​ .  3. Inform the public in real-time when those combined sewer outlets are flowing.  ○ Kingston is leading the way in Canada by taking ownership of the problems  associated with CSOs. The city provides real-time information to the public that is  accessible on their sewer overflow map  (​https://utilitieskingston.com/Wastewater/SewerOverflow/Map​).  ○ In Kingston and Ottawa a red light installed over top of the combined sewer outlet  illuminates during an active CSO.  4. Cleanup sewage debris immediately after a sewer overflow event.  5. Fund water quality monitoring in recreational use areas near combined sewer outlets  14   
  15. 15. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ​__._  The  Toronto  Community  Monitoring  Program  has  helped  fulfill  the  Swim  Drink  Fish  vision  of  connecting people to water. This is a program has informed, engaged, and helped connect individuals to Lake Ontario in the urban centre of Toronto in a unique and very important way.   Lake  Ontario  Waterkeeper’s  Toronto  Community  Monitoring  Program  was  only  possible  with  several key groups of people, businesses, and organizations. This is a true community monitoring program that engaged 202 dedicated volunteers who donated over 1604.5 hours of their time. Of these volunteers, three passionate community groups helped monitor six sites to better inform  their community members and the City of Toronto on recreational water quality. These groups include the Humber Bay West, The Wards Island, and the Outer Harbour monitoring teams.   Swim Drink Fish also gratefully acknowledges the amazing support from the Muskoka Brewery & Evergreen  Fresh Water Grant Program that made the Toronto Community Monitoring Program  possible over the past 3 years. Without their support this program would not have been possible.   Throughout  the  summer  we  hosted  four  engagement  events  with  passionate  and  engaged  volunteers from Muskoka Brewery and Evergreen, RBC, Corby, and Walker Industries. Not only did these groups make a difference by helping sample the Toronto Harbour, but the passion and connection to the issue shown by these groups were inspiring.   With  the  support  from  Environment  and  Climate  Change  Canada  the  Toronto  Community  Monitoring Program will continue next season to be an important citizen-science monitoring hub and will continue to test recreational water quality in the Toronto Harbour.    REFERENCES ​__._  1. Ontario, Scientific Criteria for Microbiological Standards for Recreational Waters. Ministry of the 161                        Environment, Hazardous Contaminants and Standards Branch, (city, February 1984).                http://agrienvarchive.ca/download/sci_crit_micro_stds_rec_waters_84.pdf 2. Recreational Water Protocol, 2018​ [PDF] (Date of Release: February 5, 2018) 3. Guidelines for Canadian Recreational Water Quality Third Edition. Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Health, 2012. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/canada/health-canada/migration/healthy-canadians/publicatio ns/healthy-living-vie-saine/water-recreational-recreative-eau/alt/pdf/water-recreational-recreative-e au-eng.pdf 4. 2017 Wet Weather Flow Master Plan Implementation Status Update. https://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2017/pw/bgrd/backgroundfile-103216.pdf 5. Tackling Combined Sewer Overflows. 2018. Ottawa Riverkeeper in collaboration with Our Living Waters. ​https://www.ottawariverkeeper.ca/publications-2/combined-sewer-overflow-toolkit/ 15 
  16. 16. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America Appendix A  The three following images were taken at the sample site Marina Four. They                          are evidence of the severe sewage spill that occurred on August 8th, 2018.                          Photos captured by Flavia Lopez.  16 
  17. 17. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America 17 
  18. 18. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America The five following images were taken at the sample site Bathurst Quay They                          are evidence of the severe sewage spill that occurred on August 8th, 2018.                          Photos captured by Flavia Lopez.  18 
  19. 19. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America 19 
  20. 20. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America     20   
  21. 21. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America   Appendix B  21   
  22. 22. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America     22   
  23. 23. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America   23   
  24. 24. The Toronto Harbour Monitoring Report 3.0. |  Sewage in one of the busiest water recreation spots in North America       24   

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