FRANKLIN D.
ROOSEVELT AND THE
SHADOW OF WAR—
1933-1941
Chapter 34
The London Conference
 Roosevelt’s willing to be an isolationist if it would
help the domestic economy.
 66 nations meet...
Philippines and Russia
 Why was US ready to give up the Philippines?
 Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934—Provided for
the inde...
Becoming A Good Neighbor
 Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor
Policy
 Impact in Latin America.
 Reasons were somewhat
selfish.
 ...
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (1934)
 Secretary of State Cordell Hull.
 Aimed at both relief and
recovery.
 Provision...
Failures of WW1 Peace
Settlement
Treaty of Versailles:
anger and resentment over terms
Germany at Fault
Stripped of land a...
Rise of Hitler in Germany
 Germans economically crushed
by Versailles treaty. Desperate
and resentful
 Hitler a powerful...
Nazis Take over Germany
Adolf Hitler WW1 vet,
sent to jail for treason writes Mein
Kampf
Nazism
Extreme Nationalism all
Ge...
Joseph Stalin, man of steel,
transforms Soviet Union
command economy-
industrial and agricultural growth #1
priority
five ...
The Rise of Fascism in Italy
Benito Mussolin
Italy in depression
Fascist; nationalism and
state stressed
“Il Duce” crushes...
Militarist Gain Control of
Japan
Imperialism for
natural resources invade
China 1931
League of Nations
does nothing
Japan and Italy
 Japan also a growing threat.
 Resentful. Why?
 Growing increasingly militaristic
 Lusted after space ...
Japan seizes Korea and much of
Manchuria in 1905, after defeating
Russia in the Russo-Japanese War.
In 1931, Japan invades...
“come on in. I’ll treat you right. I used to
know your daddy
The United States
Responds Cautiously
Two Views on
clinging t...
Isolationism
 Why didn’t America Act?
 Distracted by the depression
 Vividly recall the losses of
WWI
 feel safe behin...
Congress Legislates Neutrality
 Who does the public
now blame for WWI?
 Congress passes
Neutrality Acts in
1935, 36 and ...
Effect of Neutrality Acts
 Is an abandonment of Americas traditional policy
of freedom of the high seas and the right of
...
America Dooms Loyalist Spain
 The Spanish Civil War (1936-39)
shows fallacy of Neutrality policy
 Franco and other fasci...
Francisco Franco leads
Fascist revolt in Spain
private individuals
react to try and stop Franco
Western powers
remain “neu...
Fascist ALLIANCE is formed Rome-
Berlin alliance
Whittling Down the Big Stick
 State of American military compared to
Germany and Japan.
 Americans attitude toward navy....
Appeasing Japan
 1937 Japan invades Manchuria with the
intent of making it a Japanese colony.
Why?
 Roosevelt refuses to...
Hitler on the Rise
 1935 breaches Versailles treaty by reintroducing the
draft.
 1936 marches troops into the demilitari...
War In Europe Austria and Czechoslovakia Fall
Union with Austria
March 1938
Munich Conference
 Allies desperate to avoid
war.
 Munich Conference 9/38
 Democracies have no real
leverage. Appeaseme...
Bargaining for the
Sudetenland
Nazi's use propaganda to stir
up Germany
France and Great Britain pledge
support for Czech....
Hitler-Stalin Pact
 France-England attempt to negotiate a
mutual defense pact with Stalin.
 Why don’t they get one?
 Au...
WWII Begins
 Poland refuses and
Germany marches in
unleashing its Blitzkrieg
9/1/39.
 WWI has begun.
 Stalin moves into...
Non-Aggression Pact
Poland's fate is sealed! Blitzkrieg in Poland
Sept. 1st
September 3rd
1939 WW2
starts. France and Britain
declare war on G...
US Reaction to Fall of Poland
 Roosevelt issues proclamation of
hostilities. Consequences?
 US attitude toward war.
 Ro...
The United States Sleeps
while the Phony War
goes on for several
months
Cash and Carry
 FDR calls a special session of Congress;
passes Neutrality Act of 1939
 Cash-and-Carry
 Selling point o...
Hitler Runs Amok
 April 1940 Hitler attacks Denmark and Norway.
 May attacks Netherlands and Belgium, then
France.
 Jun...
US Starts to Arm
 FDR calls for building of huge air fleet and a two-
ocean navy that would check both Germany and
Japan....
“We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on
to the end. We shall fight in France, we
shall fight on the seas and the oceans...
Battle of Britain
 August 1940 Battle of
Britain begins
 Battle rages for
months.
 German advantages
 British advantag...
Battle of Britain in US
 Edward R. Murrow.
 Impact of radio reports on
Battle of Britain on US
public opinion.
 Hitler ...
Fortress America?
 Issue: Whether to
provide scarce resources
to GB or to husband all
resources so that
available to US
...
Destroyer Deal
 British in desperate need of destroyers.
Why?
 Destroyer Deal. Details
 Isolationists scream
 Is a cle...
Wilkie?
 In 1940 Republicans
nominate Wendell Wilkie.
Why such a surprise?
 Background.
 Personality
 Attitude toward ...
FDR Three-peat
 FDR keeps the country in suspense, but
decides to run for a third term.
 FDR pledges that “Your boys are...
Lend-Lease
 By late 1940 Cash and Carry not
working for Britain. Why?
 FDR knows that Congress will not
approve cash loa...
Atlantic Charter
 June 1941 Hitler invades the Soviet Union and
opens up a second front in his rear.
 Takes the pressure...
Atlantic Charter
 Leads to 8-point plan for
post-war world. Atlantic
Charter. Similar to
Wilson’s 14 points
 Pledges tha...
U.S. Destroyers And Hitler’s U-boats
 Lend-Lease to GB was faltering. Why?
 FDR response.
 Clashes with Subs—
 9/41—Gr...
In the meantime……out in the Pacific
 Japan is mired in China. US is pressuring them to get
out,
 Japan is heavily depend...
Pearl Harbor
 December 7, 1941 Japanese aircraft carriers
launch waves of attack planes. Destroy most of
US Pacific fleet...
December 7th
1941
F.D.R. Dec.8th
speech “ A Day that will live in Infamy”
FDR Signs Declaration of War
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LOAPUSH 34

  1. 1. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT AND THE SHADOW OF WAR— 1933-1941 Chapter 34
  2. 2. The London Conference  Roosevelt’s willing to be an isolationist if it would help the domestic economy.  66 nations meet. Purpose and primary goal  Roosevelt pulls out. Why?  Roosevelt pulls the rug out from underneath the conference and nothing is accomplished  Results:  World depression gets worse and everyone pursues their own policies.  Leads to an increase in nationalism.  Reduces chances for international cooperation on other issues
  3. 3. Philippines and Russia  Why was US ready to give up the Philippines?  Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934—Provided for the independence of the Philippines after a twelve-year period of economic tutelage.  Gave up army bases, but keep Naval bases  1933 US recognized the Bolshevik regime in USSR.  Why?  Anticommunists and Catholics objected.
  4. 4. Becoming A Good Neighbor  Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy  Impact in Latin America.  Reasons were somewhat selfish.  Policy receives a test in 1938 when Mexicans seize American oil properties.  Policy was a great success
  5. 5. Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (1934)  Secretary of State Cordell Hull.  Aimed at both relief and recovery.  Provision.  Whittled down the worst parts of Hawley-Smoot.  President had authority without consulting Congress. Benefits?  Rationale for Act ?  Get agreements with 21 countries
  6. 6. Failures of WW1 Peace Settlement Treaty of Versailles: anger and resentment over terms Germany at Fault Stripped of land and Colonies New government – Weimar Republic No Military War Reparations
  7. 7. Rise of Hitler in Germany  Germans economically crushed by Versailles treaty. Desperate and resentful  Hitler a powerful orator and politically aggressive  Germany has a potent industrial base and technological talent.  US made things worse by refusing to ratify the league of nations, thus eliminating the moral strength of that body.
  8. 8. Nazis Take over Germany Adolf Hitler WW1 vet, sent to jail for treason writes Mein Kampf Nazism Extreme Nationalism all German speaking people should be united Racial Purification Expansion of empire Depression leads to Nazi party rallies.Brown Shirts or storm troopers 1932—1933 elected Chancellor-dismantles democracy Third Reich would last 1000 years
  9. 9. Joseph Stalin, man of steel, transforms Soviet Union command economy- industrial and agricultural growth #1 priority five year plan: all economic activity controlled by the state 1937 # 2 economic power 8-11 million direct deaths millions more died from famine Totalitarian state
  10. 10. The Rise of Fascism in Italy Benito Mussolin Italy in depression Fascist; nationalism and state stressed “Il Duce” crushes opposition 1922 takes control
  11. 11. Militarist Gain Control of Japan Imperialism for natural resources invade China 1931 League of Nations does nothing
  12. 12. Japan and Italy  Japan also a growing threat.  Resentful. Why?  Growing increasingly militaristic  Lusted after space and resources of neighbors. Why?  1934 terminated the naval Treaty and started aggressively building navy. American response?  1935 Mussolini attacks Ethiopia. Easily crushes it.  Seeking glory and empire for Italy in Africa  League of Nation reaction? Reason?
  13. 13. Japan seizes Korea and much of Manchuria in 1905, after defeating Russia in the Russo-Japanese War. In 1931, Japan invades and claims the rest of Manchuria Aggression in Asia, Europe and Africa Europe and Asia. Europe notices League of Nations lack of Response 1935 Germany with draws from League of Nations and violates T of Ver. Reoccupies lost Rhineland Mussolini takes Ethiopia 1935-36
  14. 14. “come on in. I’ll treat you right. I used to know your daddy The United States Responds Cautiously Two Views on clinging to Isolationism
  15. 15. Isolationism  Why didn’t America Act?  Distracted by the depression  Vividly recall the losses of WWI  feel safe behind the protection of two oceans,  largely believed that what happened in the rest of the world didn’t effect them.  Rise of fascists increased desire to avoid entanglement..  Johnson Debt Default Act. Better Keep to the Old Channel
  16. 16. Congress Legislates Neutrality  Who does the public now blame for WWI?  Congress passes Neutrality Acts in 1935, 36 and ’37  Basic Rule?
  17. 17. Effect of Neutrality Acts  Is an abandonment of Americas traditional policy of freedom of the high seas and the right of Americans to ship to both sides in a war.  Effectively removed America from the arena as an agent that can stop or blunt war and aggression. Made America reactive and at the mercy of world events.  Encouraged totalitarian regimes and hurt democratic ones, because they received no aid from US.
  18. 18. America Dooms Loyalist Spain  The Spanish Civil War (1936-39) shows fallacy of Neutrality policy  Franco and other fascist rebels tried to overthrow the left-leaning but democratic government of Spain. Franco is aided by Hitler and Mussolini.  Congress prohibits aid to EITHER side.  Condemns democratic Spain to slow strangulation  Dictators believe that Democracies will not take action to stop them.
  19. 19. Francisco Franco leads Fascist revolt in Spain private individuals react to try and stop Franco Western powers remain “neutral Hitler/Mussolini back Franco; create friendship 1939 Franco wins
  20. 20. Fascist ALLIANCE is formed Rome- Berlin alliance
  21. 21. Whittling Down the Big Stick  State of American military compared to Germany and Japan.  Americans attitude toward navy.  Effect of depression  Reaction to FDR’s call for increased military preparedness
  22. 22. Appeasing Japan  1937 Japan invades Manchuria with the intent of making it a Japanese colony. Why?  Roosevelt refuses to call this a war. Why?  Fall 1937 Roosevelt makes famous Quarantine Speech  What does he call for?  How does Congress and Country react.  Dec. 1937, USS Panay.  Japan abuses Americans in China. Thinks US wimpy
  23. 23. Hitler on the Rise  1935 breaches Versailles treaty by reintroducing the draft.  1936 marches troops into the demilitarized Rhineland  Britain and France reaction.  Hitler begins to persecute and discriminate against the Jews.  1937 starts building the military at an aggressive pace,  March 1938 Hitler marches without resistance into Austria  Hitler then begins making demands for the Sudetenland
  24. 24. War In Europe Austria and Czechoslovakia Fall Union with Austria March 1938
  25. 25. Munich Conference  Allies desperate to avoid war.  Munich Conference 9/38  Democracies have no real leverage. Appeasement  Germany gets Sudetenland. What does it promise?  Neville Chamberlain: “Peace in our time”
  26. 26. Bargaining for the Sudetenland Nazi's use propaganda to stir up Germany France and Great Britain pledge support for Czech. France and G.B meet with Hitler in Munich Germany. Appease Hitler Peace in our time declared by Chamberlain. Angers Winston Churchill
  27. 27. Hitler-Stalin Pact  France-England attempt to negotiate a mutual defense pact with Stalin.  Why don’t they get one?  August, 1939, Stalin-Hitler sign a non- aggression pact.  Stalin’s motive?  Seals the fate of Europe.  Poland.  Hitler’s demand on Poland.
  28. 28. WWII Begins  Poland refuses and Germany marches in unleashing its Blitzkrieg 9/1/39.  WWI has begun.  Stalin moves into Eastern Poland  England and France declare war, but can’t do much about Poland, which surrenders in three weeks.
  29. 29. Non-Aggression Pact
  30. 30. Poland's fate is sealed! Blitzkrieg in Poland Sept. 1st September 3rd 1939 WW2 starts. France and Britain declare war on Germany Use fast overwhelming force, 3 weeks Poland is done. (U.S.S.R also attacks Poland ; takes the Baltic States and Finland in the next few months)
  31. 31. US Reaction to Fall of Poland  Roosevelt issues proclamation of hostilities. Consequences?  US attitude toward war.  Roosevelt wants to amend Neutrality Acts  Knows that European democracies are woefully unprepared and will not win on their own.  Wants to lift the arms-sale restrictions entirely.  But, knows that neither the nation nor Congress is ready for that.
  32. 32. The United States Sleeps while the Phony War goes on for several months
  33. 33. Cash and Carry  FDR calls a special session of Congress; passes Neutrality Act of 1939  Cash-and-Carry  Selling point of Cash and Carry?  Purchases from England and France help lift US economy
  34. 34. Hitler Runs Amok  April 1940 Hitler attacks Denmark and Norway.  May attacks Netherlands and Belgium, then France.  June 1940 France is forced to surrender  Miracle of Dunkirk  Very significant because saves a huge chunk of British army.  US shocked by quick fall of France  Impact on public attitude  Threat to US of German domination Europe
  35. 35. US Starts to Arm  FDR calls for building of huge air fleet and a two- ocean navy that would check both Germany and Japan.  Congress approves 37 Billion  More than the cost of WWI and 5-times larger than any annual budget for New Deal.  Congress passes a conscription law, Sept. 1940.  America’s first peace-time draft.  Havana Conference of 1940
  36. 36. “We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and the oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.” Winston Churchill, the new prime minister summed up the British attitude:
  37. 37. Battle of Britain  August 1940 Battle of Britain begins  Battle rages for months.  German advantages  British advantages.  British planes chew up Luftwaffe
  38. 38. Battle of Britain in US  Edward R. Murrow.  Impact of radio reports on Battle of Britain on US public opinion.  Hitler eventually indefinitely postpones invasion—huge mistake.
  39. 39. Fortress America?  Issue: Whether to provide scarce resources to GB or to husband all resources so that available to US  What do supporters of aid argue?  What do those against aid argue?  America First Committee.
  40. 40. Destroyer Deal  British in desperate need of destroyers. Why?  Destroyer Deal. Details  Isolationists scream  Is a clear departure from neutrality  But public opinion supported all aid to GB short of war.
  41. 41. Wilkie?  In 1940 Republicans nominate Wendell Wilkie. Why such a surprise?  Background.  Personality  Attitude toward New Deal  foreign policy.  Wilkie does not exploit resentment against FDR among isolationists
  42. 42. FDR Three-peat  FDR keeps the country in suspense, but decides to run for a third term.  FDR pledges that “Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars.”  FDR wins easily, but not as triumphantly as the first two times.  FDR might not have won if not for war. Also might not have run.
  43. 43. Lend-Lease  By late 1940 Cash and Carry not working for Britain. Why?  FDR knows that Congress will not approve cash loans to allies.  Proposes Lend-lease. How does it work?  FDR proposes making the US the arsenal of democracy.  This bill is vigorously debated throughout the nation.  Passes in March, 1941. Was a clear declaration of hostility to Hitler.  May, 1941 Germans sink first US merchant ship
  44. 44. Atlantic Charter  June 1941 Hitler invades the Soviet Union and opens up a second front in his rear.  Takes the pressure off GB and divides his army.  What is he thinking?  Soviets are on the edge of defeat.  Roosevelt extends lend-Lease to Soviets. Extends 1 Bill. of what will eventually be 11 Billion.  Atlantic Conference-8/41. First of a series of meetings between Churchill and Roosevelt.
  45. 45. Atlantic Charter  Leads to 8-point plan for post-war world. Atlantic Charter. Similar to Wilson’s 14 points  Pledges that countries will not have borders changed  Self determination and return to pre-war governments  League of nations type organization.
  46. 46. U.S. Destroyers And Hitler’s U-boats  Lend-Lease to GB was faltering. Why?  FDR response.  Clashes with Subs—  9/41—Greer attacked without damage  10/41—Kearny attacked but not sunk  10/41—Reuben James sunk with loss of more than 100.  Congress pulls Neutrality legislation and authorizes the arming of Merchant ships.
  47. 47. In the meantime……out in the Pacific  Japan is mired in China. US is pressuring them to get out,  Japan is heavily dependent on US steel, oil, gasoline and other war supplies. If US cuts them off, Japan is toast.  FDR reluctant to impose sanctions. Why?  Late 1940 US does impose sanctions.  1941 freeze Japanese assets and ends all oil shipments.  Japan’s choices  US has broken code and knows that Japan plans to attack somewhere.  Warnings from US to Pearl Harbor are late in arriving.
  48. 48. Pearl Harbor  December 7, 1941 Japanese aircraft carriers launch waves of attack planes. Destroy most of US Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor.  8 battleships, most of aircraft, 3000 casualties.  But, three US carriers were out to sea and were spared.  Japanese failed to destroy repair facilities, allowing US to stay at Pearl and repair the fleet. Big mistake.  Next day—Congress declares war.  Japan and Germany are allies—Germany and Italy then declare war on US. U.S. declares war on Germany. We are in.
  49. 49. December 7th 1941
  50. 50. F.D.R. Dec.8th speech “ A Day that will live in Infamy”
  51. 51. FDR Signs Declaration of War

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