LO APUSH Ch 28 pp


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LO APUSH Ch 28 pp

  2. 2. The Progressive Era Four Goals of Progressivism • Protecting social welfare – YMCA – Salvation Army – Florence Kelly: improving women's and children's lives. • Promoting Moral Improvement: Prohibition, W.C.T.U.
  3. 3. PROGRESSIVE ROOTS   By 1900 America was faced with social problems that had been mounting for 30 years but had not been affectively addressed. The nation was gripped by a reform movement called Progressivism.   Biggest period of reform since the 1840s. It waged war on many social evils including monopolies, corruption in government, inefficiency, social injustice and irresponsible corporations.
  4. 4. Progressivism  The heart of progressive movement:   Belief that government should be strengthened so that it could act aggressively to tackle social ills. Government could be an instrument of positive good  Basic prescription: use government as an agency of human welfare.  At heart, a rejection of Laissez Faire
  5. 5. Roots of Progressivism  Pressure came from a number of different groups:     Socialists from Europe—start to gain strength in US Christians preaching Social Gospel—focused on the needs of the poor and the workers at the mercy of corporations. Feminists—suffrage movement included social justice in their call for reform because women were often those who suffered the most. Urban pioneers exposing corruption of cities and working conditions of children and women.
  6. 6. MUCKRAKERS/Progressives: Combat problems of Industrialization • Ida Tarbel: • • • • History of The Standard Oil Trust Robert LaFollette: wanted to expand and reform democracy John Muir: preservation of nature Jacob Riis: photographed working and living conditions of the poor. Upton Sinclair: The Jungle exposed the sickening conditions of the Chicago meatpacking industry.
  7. 7. Muckrakers       Magazines and Newspapers began to compete with each other to expose evil and corruption Purpose? TR dubs Muckrakers. Why? Lincoln Steffens—Shame in the Cities Ida Tarbell—expose of Standard Oil David Phillips—The Treason of the
  8. 8. • Creating Economic Reform Eugene Debbs Muckrakers Ida Tarbell
  9. 9. Muckraking Targets            Malpractice of life insurance company tariff lobbies beef trust money trust railroad barons White slave traffic in women Slums High rate of industrial accidents Child labor Plight of blacks in the south Adulterated Patent Medicine
  10. 10. Goals of Muckrakers     Was out-pouring of national criticism and exposure of ways in which the system was broken. Articles had a profound impact on the nation Like progressives in general, these articles were long on complaint but short on solutions. They sought not to overthrow capitalism, but to cleanse it to cure the ills of American democracy.
  11. 11. Progressives in the Middle  Were mainly middle-class  What pressures did middle class feel.  Curbing capitalism; insulation against socialism.  Progressives crossed party boundaries, existed in all regions and at all levels of government.  Is reform from those in the middle
  12. 12. Goals of Progressives  Regain the power that had slipped from the hands of the people into the hands of the special interest. Thus, pushed for:      primary elections. initiatives referendum recalls, allowing voters to remove candidates who were screwing up. Another objective was rooting out corruption.    corrupt practices acts. secret ballot direct election of US senators. • This eventually passes as the 17th Amendment.  Woman’s suffrage.
  13. 13. Progressivism In The Cities And States     Progressives scored their biggest victories at the State and City level. City commission form of government --Galveston Texas. Urban reformers Wisconsin a test lab for progressive proposals.     Gov. Robert La Follette. Oregon. Hiram Johnson in California Charles Evans Hughes in New York.
  14. 14. Cleaning up Local Government Reforming Local Government natural disasters/city managers reform mayors Reform at state level Robert La Follette
  15. 15. Progressive Women     Settlement House movement Social Clubs. “Women’s issues” Sweat shops.    Triangle Shirt Waste Fire Muller v. Oregon Lochner v. New York
  16. 16. Triangle Shirt Waist Factory Fire
  17. 17. Temperance Movement   Temperance movement Woman’s Christian Temperance Union :Frances Willard.    one million members. Some states and counties passed laws controlling, restricting or banning liquor. The big cities generally stay wet.  Why?
  18. 18. The Progressive Era Four Goals of Progressivism • Protecting social welfare – YMCA – Salvation Army – Florence Kelly: improving women's and children's lives. • Promoting Moral Improvement: Prohibition, W.C.T.U.
  19. 19. Women in Work Force Farm Women Women in Industry Domestic Workers
  20. 20. TR’s Square Deal For Labor     Roosevelt a progressive. Demanded a “Square Deal” for capital, labor and the public. Believed the government should uphold the public interest. He pushed control of three Cs:     Intervened in the coal strike of 1902.    corporations, consumer protection conservation of natural resources. Significance Department of Commerce and Labor 1903. Bureau of Corporations
  21. 21. A Rough Riding President “Trust Buster”- President Teddy Roosevelt Accepted BIG BUSINESS but regulated business that abused their power. Roosevelt's Rise: Wealthy Sickly as a child Outdoorsman Harvard Graduate Rough rider war of 1898 Modern Presidency Used presidents office as a “BULLEY PULPET”. Promised Americans a “SQUARE DEAL”
  22. 22. TR Corrals The Corporations      RR monster still largely untouched. Interstate Commerce Commission was largely ineffective. Elkins Act of 1903 Hepburn Act of 1906 Interstate Commerce Commission given new teeth.  jurisdiction expanded; allowed to set maximum rates and nullify existing rates.
  23. 23. Using Federal Power Trust-busting 1902 Coal Strike government enforced and strengthened Sherman Anti-Trust Act Coal running low after 5 month strike Roosevelt intervenes and sides with strikers Strike threatens public safetyintervention Railroad Regulation Strengthened I.C.C.
  24. 24. TR Trust Busting   Northern Securities Co. case. Under TR the Justice Department initiated over 40 anti-trust suits.    Targets Roosevelt’s exaggerated rep as a trust-buster Roosevelt’s goal and philosophy in busting trusts?
  25. 25. Caring For The Consumer     TR backed legislation protecting against adulterated and mislabeled food. 1906 Upton Sinclair The Jungle Meat Inspection Act of 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
  26. 26. "There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from leaky roofs would drip over it, and thousands of rats would race about on it. It was too dark in these storage places to see well, but a man could run his a hand over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of the dried dung of rats. These rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them; they would die, and then rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together."
  27. 27. Roosevelt and Conservation Earth Control
  28. 28. Yosemite National Park Conservation measures set aside millions of acres John Muir: preservationist appointed Gifford Pinchot U.S. Forest service CONSERVATIONIST: Use some land common good
  29. 29. Earth Control    Americans using up natural resources Corporations hungry to exploit resources. Conservation and naturalist movement started before TR president.      Desert Land Act of 1877. Forest Reserve Act of 1891 TR gave the movement a huge kick in the pants Newlands Act of 1902 Roosevelt set aside vast tracts of forests to prevent logging on it.
  30. 30. Roosevelt Emboldens Enemies   Roosevelt is easily elected in his own right in 1904. TR’s big mistake:    announces that he will not run for a “Third” term. Makes him a Lame Duck Emboldens the conservative wing.
  31. 31. Roosevelt Panic Of 1907  Sharp but short-lived panic on Wall Street in 1907.  Why do conservatives blame TR?.  TR lashes back hard. What does he say?  Causes of panic  Aldrich-Vreelant Act  Sets the stage for Federal Reserve Act of 1913.
  32. 32. Booker T Washington (Tuskegee Institute) Vs. W.E.B. Du Bois 1905 Niagara fall conference 1909 creation of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Roosevelt and Civil Rights
  33. 33. The Rough Rider Thunders Out      Roosevelt used his political clout to engineer nomination of Taft in 1908 Taft platform. Dems nominate Bryan. His theme? Taft wins easily. Socialists manage nearly a half-million votes
  34. 34. Contributions of TR      Enlarged the power and prestige of the presidency Began the process of taming capitalism ensuring that it would survive rather than being replaced. Developed technique of using publicity as a political weapon Helped shape the progressive movement and to lay the groundwork for later liberal reforms Opened Americans, eyes to world affairs and America’s role and potential influence on world events.
  35. 35. Taft: A Round Peg In A Square Hole    Taft was initially very popular. He was quite qualified. Taft has Van Buren problem:
  36. 36. Taft Stumbles Payne-Aldrich Tariff tariffs opposed by progressives Public lands lead to dispute within administration
  37. 37. Taft     Taft was passive, comfortable with the status quo and not a strong leader. Poor judge of public opinion; Foot-in-mouth disease. Passive toward Congress
  38. 38. Dollar Diplomacy      What is dollar diplomacy? What is the goal? Leads to much investment in Caribbean, Causes US entanglement in these countries US Marines land in Cuba, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic to restore order and to protect US investments.  Continues the distrust of Caribbean and Central American countries toward US.
  39. 39. The United States in the Caribbean
  40. 40. Taft The Trustbuster  Taft brought antitrust suits at nearly four times the rate of TR. 90 in his 4-year term.  Sup. Ct. decision in Standard Oil case,    rule of reason Only “unreasonable” restraints of trade were illegal. Created a huge hole in fed’s anti-trust net.  Taft also went after US Steel,  Angered TR.
  41. 41. TR Busts Taft  TR increasingly annoyed with Taft   TR expected and wanted Taft to be progressive in his mold. TR was not ready to leave the stage.  TR moving from Taft’s mentor to his antagonist.  The progressive wing longed for the return of TR.
  42. 42. Taft Splits The Republican Party  Lower tariff one of the primary progressive aims; viewed as the mother of all Trusts.  Payne-Aldrich Bill.   Taft: the “best bill ever passed by the party.” Reactions of progressive wing.  Gifford Pinchot.
  43. 43. Republican Split    By 1910 the progressive wing of Republican party moving into open revolt Taft being pushed into the camp of the conservatives. Osawatomie, Kansas, speech   Doctrine of “New Nationalism” Mid-term elections.
  44. 44. The Republican Party Splits Problems with in the republican party. Democrats take control of the House in 1910 mid term election
  45. 45. The Taft-Roosevelt Rupture       National Progressive Republican League; LaFollette at the head. TR lets it be known that he will accept a third term if nominated by Republicans. He seizes the progressive banner. Wins a number of the new primaries TR is more popular with voters, but doesn’t win the nomination. Why? Roosevelt outraged. What does he do in response?