Camera Evolution 515


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Camera Evolution 515

  1. 1. The evolution of... The Camera
  2. 2. 15th Century Leonardo DaVinci gave the first detailed description of the ‘camera obscura,’a dark box with a pinhole at one end and a glass screen at the other. When light shines through the pinhole an image appears on the screen (Canadian Georaphic, 2008).
  3. 3. 16th and 17th Century Giovanni Battista della Porta describes in his 1558 book, Natural Magic, the use of a lens instead of a pinhole in the camera obscura to make images appear sharper (Canadian Geographics, 2008). Pinhole Lens
  4. 4. Early 19th Century Joseph Nicéphore Niépce produces the first permanent image by treating the plates with oil of lavender, post-exposure. This process takes eight hours to get a proper exposure. Later, Charles Chevalier constructs the first folding camera, which is sleeker, more portable and it houses a film process in which highly polished silver-plated copper sheets are treated with light-sensitive silver-iodide.
  5. 5. Mid-19th Century The wet collodion film process becomes very influential in camera design. Since the film needs to stay moist while making the exposure, the camera has to be fitted with draining channels for the negative material.
  6. 6. Mid-19th Century Bellowed cameras are introduced to allow for movement and flexibility that the rigid designs did not allow. Advancements in the construction of the bellows allow for lenses with greater focal length and the ability for close-up photography, since the bellows adds distance to the camera.
  7. 7. Mid-19th Century
  8. 8. Mid-19th Century Thomas Sutton, a University of London photography lecturer, designs the first single lens reflex (SLR) camera. Through the use of mirrors inside the camera, the photographer can now get an accurate view of what will appear in the photograph.
  9. 9. Late 19th Century The construction of film evolves Dry-plate and roll-film versions of the SLR camera are created Around this time, detective cameras, designed to be hidden in hats, watches and books, become popular but the fad doesn’t last long since the small photos are not practical and the image quality is very poor.
  10. 10. Late 19th Century Thomas Bolas constructs of one of the earliest twin lens reflex cameras. The camera uses one lens for the viewfinder and the other for taking the photograph The Eastman Company manufactures the Kodak, the first built-in roll-film box camera, that is lighter and easier to use, helping to make the art of photography more readily available to the masses.
  11. 11. Early 20th Century Oskar Barnack invents the UR- Leica, the prototype of the first 35- mm Leica camera The George Eastman Company produces the first autographic roll- film camera. Autographic film has two layers, the front layer for recording the image and the back layer for writing information. This is the first form of photographic data collecting. The Leica A is introduced and is the first 35-mm camera to gain commercial success because of its portability, superior construction and advanced lens quality.
  12. 12. Mid 20th Century Johannes Ostermeier patents first commercially available flashbulb Kine introduces the world’s first 35 mm SLR. Edwin H. Land creates the Polaroid camera. It is the first camera to produce a positive image in 60 seconds.  The Nikon F is introduced and is said to be the first real professional 35-mm SLR and is used by photojournalists. Kodak introduces a camera that is fully automatic. All the user has to do is load the film cartridges.
  13. 13. Late 20th Century Sony introduces the first commercially available electronic still camera that records images onto a minidisk, which can then be connected to a computer for viewing. While this camera is not digital, its technology is the precursor to the digital revolution. Konica Minolta releases the Maxxum 700 AF SLR, the world's first true autofocus SLR. A variety of autofocus lenses are built for the camera. Fuji introduces the first disposable camera which can take about 20 pictures on 35-mm film.
  14. 14. Late 20th Century
  15. 15. Late 20th Century The first camera of the popular Canon EOS series is developed. The camera includes full electronic control throughout as well as an all-electronic lens mount. Kodak introduces the first digital camera. It is an updated version of the Nikon F-3 with a Kodak 1.3-megapixel image sensor. This camera is targeted at photojournalists, not mass-market consumers. The first digital camera for consumer use is the Apple QuickTake 100. This camera can be connected to a computer using a serial cable.
  16. 16. Present Day Digital cameras continue to increase in quality and capacity as technology advances. A range of professional digital SLRs, point-and-shoot digital cameras, and models in between, are being mass produced.
  17. 17. Cameras in the Classroom Cameras are great tools for students to use for assignments and projects Students can be more creative with their assignments, express things they might not be able to express with words, and have fun being in or taking the pictures
  18. 18. Citation Canadian Geographic Online. 2009. http:// archive/2008/09/12/timeline-the-evolution-of-the- camera.aspx
  19. 19. The End