Earth and beyond

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Earth and Beyond Module of Andries Oliviers' Natural Science Grade 8 Textbook.

Contains:
The atmosphere
The phases of the Moon
Eclipses

Published in: Education
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Earth and beyond

  1. 1. Earth and BeyondAndries p 43
  2. 2. The atmosphereAndries p 43
  3. 3. Composition is different to other planets – thats why we can survive.  Thin layer of gases surrounding Earth. Stretches 10 000 km Densit igh y as He t above Earths surface. 80 km = approx. 100% of the atmosphereAndries p 43
  4. 4. Gas Chemical Percentage mixture formula of the atmosphere The last 1%: Nitrogen N2 78% CO 2 SO2 Oxygen O2 Needed 21% for Hydrogen breathing Water Argon Ar inert 0.9% Methane etc.Andries p 43
  5. 5. Source of O2 Protects us against UV raysFunctions Keep – ozone absorbs temperatures the rays steady between    andAndries p 43
  6. 6. func Life as we know it –tion water vapour Gases for photosynthesis and respirationProtective Shield – filters UV and allow infrared for heat, prevents meteors Blanket – regulates temperatureAndries p 43
  7. 7. Greengases CO H O 2 Also absorbs 2 Circulates heat heat energy around Cause heat  Forms through Green effect precipitation Cause heat through Green effect Both contribute to the Green effect Andries p 43
  8. 8. Greeneffect Andries p 44
  9. 9. and  warmingGreeneffect  = High % of GHG in the CO  atmosphere over a long period Fuel 2 consumption Deforestation increase  depends on % of GHG Andries p 45
  10. 10. and  warmingGreeneffect Soil vapour   increase from 16 to 21 decrease Increase Drought in evaporation Floods DO Desertification More  ½m+  Millions of people = Sea levels Andries p 45 homeless increase
  11. 11. and  warmingGreeneffect Reforestation Dont clear the ground Renewable for  &c energy  Efficient energy use Andries p 45
  12. 12. Climate State of sunshine, temperature, wind and rain at a specific time.Andries p 45 Weather
  13. 13. Climate Normal weather conditions for an area.Andries p 45 Climate
  14. 14.   Climate Air pressure Determine weather and climate conditionsAndries p 45
  15. 15. Climatezones Andries p 45 46
  16. 16. Andries p 45 46
  17. 17. Andries p 45 46
  18. 18. Andries p 45 46
  19. 19. Planet earth And spaceAndries p 50
  20. 20. A source ofAndries p 50
  21. 21. Andries p 50
  22. 22. Everything else @/ in our s.s. * Providing orbits around it. The center of our solar systemAndries p 50
  23. 23. Andries p 50
  24. 24. Andries p 50 8 Pluto is NOT a planet.
  25. 25. PlutoAndries p 50
  26. 26. MercuryKept in fixed orbits – gravitationalpull of the sun. Venus Earth Different sizes. Mars Jupiterplanets Do not emit / – reflect Saturn suns rays. UranusAndries p 50 Neptune
  27. 27. Fixed orbit around each planet.Satellites Fixed time to complete an orbit. Also called a moonAndries p 50
  28. 28. Andries p 50
  29. 29. Movement of theAndries p 51 
  30. 30. Day and nightAndries p 51
  31. 31. Many faces of the moonAndries p 51
  32. 32. Because the moon moves around the earth, the shape of what we can see changesAndries p 51
  33. 33. Andries p 51
  34. 34. Decreasing sickle moon 4 1 3 2Andries p 52
  35. 35. Eclipse of the moonAndries p 52
  36. 36. Umbra (the earths shadow) Andries p 53
  37. 37. Eclipse of the sunAndries p 53
  38. 38. Umbra (the moons shadow) 400x further 400x smaller Penumbra  (partial shade)Andries p 53
  39. 39. Andries p 53
  40. 40. Space η observation withAndries p 53
  41. 41. ηrefractor Consist of two lenses on each endAndries p 53 of a tube.
  42. 42. η Light is collected andmirror focused onto a mirror close toAndries p 53 the eye pieces
  43. 43. ηSALT A E O F A L U R R E S I T C G C O A H N E PAndries p 53 E
  44. 44. ηSALT A E O F A L U R R E S I T C G C O A H N E PAndries p 53 E
  45. 45. ηSALT Found in Sutherland (N.C.), because of the very little air andAndries p 53 light pollution.
  46. 46. Textbook: Andries Olivier, Grade 8 workbook, 2012Images: attempt has been made to acknowledge allsources, if an images source could not be found, it wasacknowledged as such.Slide 1 – cairoo software Slide 2 – Google plusSlide 8 – source unknown Slide 9 a – sciencephotolibrarySlide 9 b – sciencelives.com Slide 15 – CAIROO softwareSlide 16 – CAIROO software Slide 17 – cairoo softwareSlide 18 – CAIROO software Slide 19 – tumblr
  47. 47. Slide 20 – worldofteaching.comSlide 21 – Lily Kotze Slide 23 – worldofteaching.comSlide 25 – shirt.woot! Slide 28 – Lily KotzeSlide 30 – unknown source Slide 31 – worldofteaching.comSlide 33 – worldofteaching.com Slide 34 – worldofteaching.comSlide 39 – Lily Kotze

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