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Nucleic acids

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Nucleic acids

  1. 1. <ul><li>Describe the basic structure of a mono-nucleotide and how they bond to form DNA (include complementary base pairing) and RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the nature of the genetic code (triplet code only; non-overlapping and degenerate not required at AS) </li></ul>© Pearson Education Ltd 2008 This document may have been altered from the original
  2. 2. Genetic jargon
  3. 3. <ul><li>DeoxyriboNucleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Contain instructions on how to build proteins used in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in cell nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Codes for individual Proteins. </li></ul>DNA
  4. 4. <ul><li>A double helix </li></ul>© Pearson Education Ltd 2008 This document may have been altered from the original
  5. 5. 2 forms of Nucleic acid <ul><li>DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>found in nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>RNA – ribonucleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>found in 3 different forms </li></ul><ul><li>Hold coded information to build an organism </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mononucleotides or nucleotides <ul><li>Monomers of Nucleic acids </li></ul><ul><li>Each nucleotide is made of </li></ul><ul><li>-Phosphate group </li></ul><ul><li>-Pentose sugar </li></ul><ul><li>-Nitrogenous base </li></ul>
  7. 7. What are the differences between DNA and RNA? <ul><li>DNA – pentose sugar - deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous base </li></ul><ul><li>DNA – Four types: </li></ul><ul><li>Double strand </li></ul><ul><li>RNA – </li></ul><ul><li>Pentose sugar - ribose </li></ul><ul><li>A C G and Uracil instead of </li></ul><ul><li>Single strand </li></ul>A C G T T
  8. 8. Ribose sugars in DNA and RNA
  9. 9. Joining Nucleotides together <ul><li>Condensation reaction between </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate of one nucleotide and sugar of another </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphodiester Bond </li></ul><ul><li>Backbone of chain = sugar- phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Bases project into centre </li></ul>
  10. 10. Organic bases are purines or pyrimidines <ul><li>Adenine and Guanine are purines </li></ul><ul><li>Thymine, Uracil and Cytosine are pyrimidines </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Part of a DNA part molecule </li></ul>© Pearson Education Ltd 2008 This document may have been altered from the original
  12. 12. DNA Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine Thymine Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine Adenine P BASE Sugar P BASE Sugar P BASE Sugar P BASE Sugar P BASE Sugar BASE BASE BASE BASE BASE
  13. 13. Hydrogen bonding and base pairing <ul><li>A-T, C-G and number of hydrogen bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Chains are the same distance apart </li></ul><ul><li>Because base pair up in a particular way </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrimidine pairs up with a purine </li></ul><ul><li>A with T or U </li></ul><ul><li>C with G </li></ul>© Pearson Education Ltd 2008 This document may have been altered from the original
  14. 14. DNA Replication <ul><li>The double helix is untwisted </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen bonds between the bases are broken apart to unzip the DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Bases are exposed </li></ul><ul><li>Free nucleotides are H bonded onto the exposed bases </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent bonds formed between phosphate and sugar to make the backbone </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>DNA replication </li></ul>© Pearson Education Ltd 2008 This document may have been altered from the original
  16. 16. Why semi conservative? <ul><li>A new double helix consists on I parent stand and 1 new strand </li></ul><ul><li>Only one of the original strands is conserved </li></ul>

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