A Difficult Past


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A Difficult Past

  1. 1. A Difficult Past How the Americas Change Linda Marshall Spring 2011 HIST 141 - Dr. Arguello Online 31296
  2. 2. The Americas in the 19th Century <ul><li>Many immigrants came to America to prosper </li></ul><ul><li>These people increased ethnic diversity - stimulating political, social, and economic development in the Western Hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>The Age of Independence was a contentious era with political and social issues creating difficulties in building balanced societies </li></ul><ul><li>After gaining independence, the US constructed its government and expanded to new lands in the west </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion caused tensions with indigenous peoples, Mexico and US regions </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Americas in the 19th Century <ul><li>Conflicts and wars brought the US a stronger Federal government </li></ul><ul><li>Canada gained independence by agreement with Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic and political differences were put aside to unite Canadians against the possibility of US expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Latin American broke into many states with elite leaders attempting to create a stable government excluding the participation of the masses </li></ul><ul><li>This led to civil wars with Caudillos rising to power by appealing to the discontent of the masses </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Little Ice Age <ul><li>Spanned 500 years </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic climate changes devastated traditional crops causing famine, starvation, and diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Innovations in farming introduced “pastoral” crops and potatoes began to be used as food </li></ul><ul><li>Wars were fought with weather being a help and a hindrance </li></ul><ul><li>The governments of Europe were not equipped to handle or feed their populations </li></ul><ul><li>People left Europe for America and Americans in the east went west </li></ul>
  5. 5. Frontiers of the Americas <ul><li>Initially claimed by France, then gifted to Spain, and traded back to France to help Napoleon reclaim Haiti </li></ul><ul><li>The Mississippi River and port of New Orleans is commercially important to the US </li></ul><ul><li>As Jefferson sends James Madison to France to negotiate for the city of New Orleans, Napoleon sees that he could sell the entirety of Louisiana to the US to help fund his war with Britain </li></ul><ul><li>This territory helped the US expand to the west coast </li></ul><ul><li>The expedition of a German ethnologist and a Swiss painter yielded an invaluable documentation of some of Americas native peoples </li></ul>
  6. 6. Frontiers of the Americas <ul><li>Symbolic violence was part of the everyday lives of people living in the borderlands </li></ul><ul><li>Violence was used as negotiation in their social relationships within class and race distinctions </li></ul><ul><li>Politics in Northeast Brazil was a patriarchal system centered around families </li></ul><ul><li>A woman’s role was to marry to benefit her family’s alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Women who directly affected politics didn’t follow the traditions but worked the system </li></ul>
  7. 7. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>11 states of the Confederacy established a government with its armies in control of its national territory </li></ul><ul><li>To preserve the Union, President Lincoln had to invade the Confederacy </li></ul><ul><li>George B. McClellan was given command of the Army of the Potomac </li></ul><ul><li>He excelled at creating a viable army, but failed at bringing it to it’s full potential </li></ul><ul><li>He exaggerated Confederate strength and didn’t act decisively at Antietam </li></ul><ul><li>Robert E. Lee was appointed in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Lee believed a short war of maximum impact was the South’s chance to win </li></ul>
  8. 8. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>The Seven Days battles were a boost for the South and a shock to the North </li></ul><ul><li>Morale, both at war and home, was an important factor that was influenced by the newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln took action to revitalize the Union - he appointed Generals, issued a call for troops, and called for state militia to assist </li></ul><ul><li>Britain and France were feeling the effects of the war with the cotton famine </li></ul><ul><li>They felt that the only way to revive cotton imports was to mediate a peace, thereby acknowledging the Confederacy </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery was an issue that kept Britain and France from full sympathy for the Confederacy or the Union </li></ul>
  9. 9. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>Lincoln had no constitutional power to stop slavery in the states and needed political support, so he had to wait for a major victory to implement emancipation </li></ul><ul><li>To circumvent this, slaves were confiscated as “contraband” by the North </li></ul><ul><li>Under Lee, the South made military advances, that with the political divisions in the Union, prompted the British and French to prepare to receive the Confederacy </li></ul><ul><li>As both the North and South entered Maryland, the reception was the opposite of what each side expected which altered morale on both sides </li></ul><ul><li>With the shift in morale assisting them, the North was able to claim victory, but at a horrific price </li></ul>
  10. 10. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>Though McClellan could have “destroyed the Rebel Army”, their retreat confirmed a victory for the Union </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln was able to enact the Emancipation Proclamation changing the war’s focus to abolishing slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Britain looked on these events as confirmation that they should wait, but France tried to drum up support for the Confederacy </li></ul><ul><li>Political fallout from the Emancipation Proclamation complicated the focus on war to focus on the elections, but didn’t overthrow power in Washington </li></ul><ul><li>No other campaign and battle had such momentous, multiple consequences as Antietam </li></ul>