Presentation jannie armstrong fao 1 june 2012 food security
LIWG workshop with CAREInternationalFood Security and the Right to Adequate Food: An Overview for Lao PDR J.Armstrong Food Security Analyst EC-FAO Project Linking Information and Decision-making to improve food security http://www.foodsecuritylink.net/ 1 June 2012
Defining Food Security World Food Summit, 1996Food security, at theindividual, household, national, regional andglobal levels [is achieved] when all people, at alltimes, have physical, economic [and social] accessto sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meettheir dietary needs and food preferences for anactive and healthy life.
Four Pillars of Food Security Food Security Availability Utilization Stability Access
Key Data for Lao PDR Poverty: HDI Index: 138 (of 187 states) Life Expectancy: 67.5 years Households below the poverty line (1.25 USD per day): 33 percent Gross Domestic Product per Capita: 2,048 USD Urban populations: 34 percent Food Security: Total Rice production: +/- 3,070,000 metric tonnes (2011 total harvest) Malnutrition (Children under five years old): Stunting 37 percent. Vitamin A: 45 percent of children under five and 23 percent of women(ages 12-49) suffer from Vitamin A deficiency. Iron Deficiency and Anemia: 41 percent of children under five and 63percent of children under two are anemic.Sources: MoH 2009, UNDP 2011
Key Determinants and Issues in Food Security Food Security Ethnicity, Geography (altitude), Infrastructure Shifting patterns of rural development: the emergence of industrial and commercial rural enterprisesAvailability Utilization (agriculture, hydropower, mining) Stability Access Livelihoods: Increasing importance for waged labour. Seasonality: traditional lean seasons and livelihood patterns Exposure to disasters. Lack of social safety nets, credit Environmental concerns: access, NTFPs, fuelwood
Key Tensions in the Lao context• the need for cash vs. the need for food• Increased market access vs. reduced access to NTFPs• Traditional modes of agriculture (subsistence) vs. ‘modern’ (export oriented cash crops)• New opportunities: internal or external migration, waged labour.• What is are the internal/external forces in this context?• But are these either/or questions?• Is there a third potential way? i.e. sustainable farming, with high adding value (processing of produce, cooperatives,…)
Percentage Share of difference sources of household income
WHAT IS THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD?• The term "Right to Adequate Food" is derived from the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).• Article 11: "The right to adequate food is realized when every man, woman and child, alone or in community with others, have the physical and economic access at all times to adequate food or means for its procurement."
Human Dignity Accountability Availability Empowerment Access Non-discrimination The Right to Utilization Adequate Food ParticipationAcknowledgement of rights Transparency Stability Rule of Law based Needs Food Security and the Right to Food based Rights
How does this differ from Food Security?• The individual will not remain the beneficiary of projects but will be an empowered partner, and will participate in the design, implementatio n and evaluation of the programme and claim his or her rights.
How does this differ from Food Security?• A right to adequate food approach makes the vulnerable groups the center of concern.
How does this differ from Food Security?• It calls for responsible action from all members of society, including the private sector, which has so far been more on the periphery of social development programmes.
So what does this mean in practice?• For policy: concessions, contract farming, cash crops, commercial agriculture.• For vulnerable groups: women, disaster affected populations, etc.• For programming: the LANN approach? Legal awareness and lifeskills development?• Access to timely, accurate information as a prerequsite.