LINQ 2013 Conference– Rome, 17 May 2013Presentations of Accepted Papers (Part 2)Technology‐Enhanced Learning for Schools, Universities and Lifelong LearningThe European Survey of Schools: ICT in EducationFindings about student’s use of ICT for learning duringlessonsPatricia WastiauPrincipal Adviser for Research and StudiesEuropean Schoolnet, Brussels
WHAT?Infrastructure & accessICT based activitiesOrganisation & supportSelf confidenceOpinionsHOW?Online questionnairesRandomised samplingNational coordinators in 31countriesWHEN?From Oct. to Dec. 2011April 2012 for a fewcountriesThe Survey of Schools: ICT in EducationFunding: European CommissionImplementation: European Schoolnet & University of LiègeLow participation from the UK, Germany, The Netherlands and IcelandWHO?School headsTeachersStudentsPrimary & secondary educationWHO?HOW?WHAT?WHEN?
11.165 schools24.522 teachers156.634 students10.137 school headsParticipation:37% on average at EUlevel300 schools by educationlevel, i.e. 1200 schoolssampledReplacement schoolsTreatment:Weighting (student pop.)Data analysed at thestudent levelHOW MANY answers received?Total: 191.293 answers
Students’ ICT use during lessonsRelationship between students’ ICT use and learning styleExploring students profilesRelationship between students profiles and confidence in theirdigital skillsPresentation plan
At EU level on average, Students’ use of ICT during lessons is closer to several times a monththan once a week Some ICT learning tools and resources as learning games, data loggingtools, visualisations, and broadcasting are never used during lessons bya large majority of students The frequency of ICT use by students isn’t very much related toteaching/learning stylesSurvey’s results showing that:What do we learn about students’ use?
Students’ ICT based activities during lessonsHow often do you use a computer for the following learning activities during lessons?Tick one circle for each rowNever Several At least Every dayor almost times a once a or almostnever month week every daySend or read email messages ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝Chat online for school work ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝Search the internet to collect info. ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝Download/upload/browse materialfrom your school’s website ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝Post your work on the school website ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝Use computers when working in groups ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝Use computers to conduct experiments(collecting data and/or images,storing them, documentingobservation, etc.) ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝Contribute to and/or create blogsor discussion forumsfor school work ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝
2,622,461,981,861,851,791,761,751,751,731,71,651,641,641,61,581,571,571,551,531,521,521,51,491,471,431,41,3411,522,533,54Students ICT based activities frequency during lessons at GRADE 11 in generaleducation (mean scores on a scale from 1 to 4; by country, 2011-12)Almost severaltimes amonth…but notyet thereAlmost once aweek…but notyet thereFrequencyscale
Resources and tools useHow often do you use the following in lessons?Tick one circle for each rowNever Several At least Every dayor almost times a once a or almostnever month week every dayDigital books and textbooks ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝Exercise software, online quizzes and tests ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝Multimedia production tools (e.g. PowerPoint,video editing, digital recording) ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝Broadcasting tools (publish podcast, uploadto You Tube, etc.) ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝Data logging tools (e.g. temperature rise) ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝Computer simulations (interactive programmesimulating real world phenomena in which youcan make changes and see the consequences) ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝Digital learning games, computer/video games ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝
16%2%6%4%2%2%4%7%8%20%8%5%6%4%10%27%41%17%13%17%12%67%63%33%71%80%75%80%0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%Digital (text) booksExercise software, online quizzes/testsMultimedia tools: PPT, record/edit a-vBroadcast: podcast, YouTubeDatalogging toolsSimulationsLearning games, video gamesStudents’ use of resources and tools during lessonsat grade 11 general education (in % of students, EU level, 2011-12)Daily >once a week Several times / month Never> 65% = min.several times amonth> 70% = neverResult of the answers’ analysis:
Learning activitiesIn lessons, how often are you engaged in the following (whether using ICT or not)?Tick each row, filling one circle onlyNever Several At least Every dayor almost times a once a or almostnever month week every dayWe all listen to teacher presentation or explanation ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝We all listen to a student presentation or explanation ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝We all read a book or look at films or videosat the same time ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝We all do exercises and tasks, individually or collectiv. ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝I work on something at my own pace ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝We work in small groups ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝We look up ideas and information ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝We investigate and explore issues individually or in smallgroups and search for information about it ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝We try to solve problems ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝We explain and discuss our own ideas about importantquestions of the day with teachers and other students⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝Students help each other to better understandand learn ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝We take time to think about how better to learn ⃝ ⃝ ⃝ ⃝
The frequency of ICT use by students is only slightlyassociated with learning stylesCORRELATIONS(EU level)Frequency of ICT useby students at grade 8Frequency of ICT useby students at grade 11GENTeacher-centered 0,18 0,24Student-centered 0,35 0,40Using ICT during lessons is not enough for active learning tohappen; the pedagogical intention is keyWhat do we learn about students’ ICT use and learning style?
Exploring profilesProfiles - clusters• At three levels: schools, teachers and students• Factitious groups behaving more or less the same way ofstructures (preselected variables)• Two-step cluster analysis method in SPSS software• Number of groups– Statistical criteria (best fit)– Criteria of interpretability– Similarity across the different ISCED levels (clusteranalyses performed separately but applying the samenumber of clusters)
Variables and scales used in the cluster analysis• Access to ICT equipment at home or outside school• Number of years using computers at home• Frequency of ICT based activities in free time• Number of years using computers at school• Frequency of ICT equipment use at school• Frequency of ICT based activities during lessons at school• Opinions about the impact of ICT use on learningThree student profiles resulting from the analysis:• Profile 1: HIGH use at school AND at home• Profile 2: High use at home but LOW use at SCHOOL• Profile 3: LOW use at school AND at homeWhat do we learn exploring students’ profiles?
29%36%31%53%36%50%18%28%19%0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%Grade 11vocGrade 11genGrade 8Percentages of students by profile(in % of students, EU level, 2011-12)Student profile 1 - High access/use at school & homeStudent profile 2 - Low access/use at school & high access/use at homestudent profile 3 - Low acess/use at school & homeThe students’ profiles picture at EU level+/- 70% =low use atschool
Four scales– Operational skills: fundamental skillsneeded to use generic ICT tools– Social media skills: skills to interact andcollaborate with each other in a virtualcommunity– Safe internet useStudents’ confidence in their ability to protecttheir privacy and online reputation (+ those ofothers)– Responsible internet useAbility to judge the reliability of information oninternetStudents’ self confidence
Students’ profiles and confidence2,783,122,9200,511,522,533,5grade 8 grade 11GEN grade 11VOCStudents confidence in their social media competence according to ICTuse at home and school (mean scores, EU level, 2011-12)Students HIGH use at homeand schoolStudents high use at homebut LOW at SCHOOLStudents LOW use at homeand schoolSame pattern observed at all grades and for all competencesHigh use at school leads to higher students’ self-confidence intheir digital competence
Reports and databases are public:• Main report and countryreports: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/node/51275• Dataset (with questionnaires, codebooks, technicalreport) in three formats (CSV, SPSS,SAS): https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/download-dataPublic access to dataInvestigate…..Thanks for your attention