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Cervello, Mente e Infinito

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LIDI - Lega Italiana per la tutela dei Diritti degli Introversi - Conferenza "Cervello, Mente e Infinito" / Roma, 11 maggio 2008 / autore: Luigi Anepeta

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Cervello, Mente e Infinito

  1. 1. Conferenza del dott. Luigi Anepeta 11 maggio 2008 - Roma LIDI – Associazione ONLUS Lega Italiana per la tutela dei Diritti degli Introversi www.legaintroversi.it Cervello, Mente e Infinito
  2. 2. 1. L’Infinito come problema 2. L’Infinito nella storia della Cultura 3. La complessità del cervello 4. Indizi coscienti della complessità 5. La coscienza e l’inconscio 6. L’errore di Darwin 7. Il cervello nell’ottica dell’Evoluzionismo 8. Neotenia e ritardo dello sviluppo 9. Conseguenze originarie della neotenia 10. Umanizzazione e Civilizzazione 11. Ansia esistenziale 12. Aspetti adattivi, non adattivi e disadattivi della mente umana 13. Come convivere con l’Infinito
  3. 3. L’intuizione emozionale dell’Infinito - vale a dire di “qualcosa” di immenso, sconfinato, senza limite - circola nella mente umana presumibilmente da sempre Molti mali dell’umanità sono riconducibili alla difficoltà di accettare lo scarto tra l’intuizione emozionale dell’Infinito e la dimensione esistenziale della finitezza Tale difficoltà è del tutto evidente a vari livelli individuali e collettivi: perfezionismo soggettivo, sviluppo economico illimitato, etnocentrismo Il problema dell’Infinito
  4. 4. Sull’Infinito ci sguazzano da sempre, oltre che i preti, che hanno un filo diretto con l'al di là, i filosofi, i matematici, i fisici, gli astronomi. (Abbecedario) Se tutto ciò che l’uomo può sentire, fantasticare, pensare ha origine nel funzionamento del Cervello, anche l’intuizione emozionale dell’Infinito va ricondotta alla singolare struttura di questo organo. L’Infinito nella storia della cultura Infinito teologico (ontologico) Infinito cosmico (panteistico) Infinito astronomico Infinito matematico Infinito psicologico Infinito e neurobiologia
  5. 5. Il cervello ha 100 miliardi di neuroni Tra i neuroni si dà un numero straordinario di connessioni sinaptiche in continua evoluzione Conteggiando il numero delle configurazioni neurali che il cervello umano può ospitare, si è stimato che sia in grado di rappresentare circa 1070.000.000.000.000 “pensieri” possibili... La sensazione che abbiamo di poter pensare senza limiti deriva dall’immensità del numero totale delle connessioni che possono stabilirsi tra gruppi di atomi. Questo è ciò che si intende per complessità, ed è la complessità della nostra mente che dà origine a quella sensazione di essere al centro di sconfinate immensità (Barrows) La complessità del cervello
  6. 6. Indizi della complessità OSSESSIONI INSONNIA (Patologica e occasionale) STATO D’ANIMO ATTIVITÀ ONIRICA (Allucinazioni e memorie) Nel cervello scorrono una quantità straordinaria di impulsi che coincidono con contenuti psichici: emozioni, pensieri, memorie, immagini. Di questi contenuti solo una minima parte affiora a livello cosciente. CONSEGUENZE ORIGINARIE DELL’ATTIVITÀ ONIRICA (culto dei morti ed empatia)
  7. 7. Coscienza e inconscio L’intuizione dell’infinito riconosce come matrice primaria la percezione più o meno inconsapevole che l’uomo ha avuto e ha della complessità del suo cervello Gran parte dell’attività mentale scorre al di sotto della coscienza Quello che una persona è, ciò che pensa, sente e fa non è per nulla influenzato dalla sola coscienza. Molti dei nostri pensieri, sentimenti e azioni hanno luogo in maniera automatica, e solamente dopo che sono accaduti, forse, diventano accessibili alla coscienza... La comprensione del mistero della personalità dipende in maniera cruciale dalla comprensione delle funzioni inconsce del cervello. (J. LeDoux, Il Sé sinaptico, Raffaello Cortina, Milano 2002, p.16) L’esempio del linguaggio verbale come interazione tra coscienza e inconscio
  8. 8. L’errore di Darwin Divino Architetto o Natura? Gradualismo darwiniano e Creazionismo Se nessun altro essere vivente, tranne l’uomo, avesse posseduto una qualche facoltà mentale, o se i suoi poteri fossero stati di natura del tutto diversa da quella degli animali inferiori, allora non saremmo mai stati in grado di convincerci che le nostre elevate facoltà si sono sviluppate gradualmente. Ma si può dimostrare che non vi è nessuna fondamentale differenza di questo genere. (Origine dell’Uomo, Newton Compton, Roma 1998, p. 90) I problemi insolubili nell’ottica del darwinismo: anelli intermedi e adattamentismo
  9. 9. Il cervello nell’ottica evoluzionistica Il corredo genetico umano consta di 30000 geni L’uomo ha il 98,5% di geni in comune con lo scimpanzé Geni strutturali e geni regolatori Mutazioni e speciazione La neotenia come stratagemma evoluzionistico Axolotl L'uomo animale neotenico per eccellenza: indizi fisici e psichici
  10. 10. Neotenia e ritardo dello sviluppo Il ritardo dello sviluppo dell’uomo ha prodotto due conseguenze Pedomorfismo emozionale (un tasso piuttosto basso di aggressività, la socievolezza, la vivacità emozionale, la curiosità esplorativa, la fantasia, l’immaginazione, la plasticità a livello di apprendimento, ecc. La crescita della neocorteccia con grandi capacità cognitive L’intreccio tra emozionalità e cognizione ha allargato l’orizzonte della mente umana Indizi originari dell’intuizione emozionale dell’Infinito: arte, inumazione dei corpi ed empatia
  11. 11. Conseguenze della neotenia Significato a posteriori e significato originario della neotenia Le condizioni originarie Dalla Simpatia degli animali sociali all’Empatia umana Empatia come classe illimitata estesa a tutti gli esseri senzienti, capaci di soffrire Consapevolezza esistenziale (vulnerabilità, precarietà, finitezza, destino mortale) Solidarietà sociale Rapport o prolungato e intimo tra adulti e bambini Ingentilimento della specie
  12. 12. Umanizzazione e civilizzazione L’empatia ha come confine il Gruppo? Diffusione geografica della specie umana, differenziazione delle culture, etnocentrismo ed estraneazione culturale Nascita della violenza Dall’empatia alla dimensione persecutoria (Estraneo=Nemico) L’esempio della scoperta dell’America
  13. 13. Ansia esistenziale (1) Al di là dell’adattamentismo L’intuizione emozionale dell’Infinito è la matrice dell’ansia esistenziale I contenuti: vulnerabilità, precarietà, finitezza, destino mortale Il sentire anticipa il capire L’intuizione del significato della morte nell’evoluzione infantile La lenta presa di coscienza della condizione esistenziale
  14. 14. Ansia esistenziale (2) Difese dall’ansia: - valutazione realistica dei pericoli - coraggio di esistere - solidarietà e affettività sociale Cause naturali e cause umane La relazione ambivalente tra Io e Altro, referente del bisogno e potenziale persecutore Incapsulamento dell’emozionalità umana nella relazione con l’Altro Il problema del Male e del Dolore
  15. 15. Aspetti adattivi e disadattivi dell’emozionalità La dilatazione dello spettro emozionale Emozioni non adattive: estatiche ed estetiche Emozioni disadattive: positive (amore cieco, sensibilità scrupolosa, compassione) e negative (rabbia, odio, vendetta, invidia) Risonanza emozionale Il significato adattivo delle emozioni di base Infinitizzazione delle emozioni sulla base delle memorie La civiltà compulsiva
  16. 16. Come convivere con l’Infinito Accettazione del carattere congiunturale dell’esistenza Elaborazione dei nessi tra passato e presente Apertura alla socialità sulla base della comprensione critica e della pietas Risonanza emozionale Adeguamento delle emozioni alle varie situazioni Apertura ai mondi simbolici (letteratura, arte, filosofia, scienza, ecc.): unico modo significativo di inseguire il miraggio dell’Infinito
  17. 17. Dall’Abbecedario Più di ogni altro animale l’uomo aspira alla felicità. Non può fare altrimenti essendo ricco di potenzialità emozionali e intellettive, e per giunta motivato da un’angoscia di precarietà che è solo sua. L’antifona dell’infinito, a questo punto, è chiara. Se le consapevolezze che essa comporta – i lutti, i dolori, le malattie, la vecchiaia, la morte – fossero sempre al centro della coscienza, ci troveremmo tutti a pensare come Buddha che la vita è una moneta falsa. Quelle consapevolezze, invece, sono tenute al margine della coscienza dall’aspirazione alla felicità. Il problema è come realizzarla. Le strategie non funzionano tutte. Il sistema del piacere non è specializzato, non riconosce un centro per la fame, uno per il sesso, uno per i soldi, uno per la musica e via dicendo. È polivalente e, per di più, esigente, maledettamente esigente. Si mantiene in equilibrio solo se è stimolato in più modi. Predilige insomma i piaceri eterogenei, da quelli fisici a quelli spirituali. Qualunque limitazione della pratica delle diverse attività da cui un individuo può ricavare piacere è controproducente. Così, se uno pretende di soddisfarsi ingurgitando solo del cibo, ne può mettere dentro quanto ne vuole: gli rimane la fame (di vivere); se un altro vuole appagarsi solo con le letture dei libri, si incupisce. Idem per gli assatanati del lavoro, dei soldi, del potere, del sesso e di tutte le ossessioni unilaterali. La verità più o meno è questa: per avere un po’ di pace, l’uomo è costretto a sviluppare tutte le sue qualità – fisiche e psichiche – in un rapporto significativo, cioè vissuto, sentito, partecipato, con il mondo (con se stesso, la natura, gli altri e la cultura). Questa è la dura (?) lex scritta nel congegno.

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