Challenges and Success in Linking Agriculture and Nutrition - Marie Ruel, IFPRI

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  • Nutritional Consequences of Agricultural Projects (Pinstrup-Anderson 1981) International Agricultural Research and Human Nutrition ( Pinstrup-Anderson, Berg and Forman 1984 ) IFPRI/ACC/SCN [FAO: Integrating nutrition into agriculture/rural development projects] ACC/SCN, etc.
  • Impact of ag on nurition
  • doubling of income in Kenya and Philippines  4-7%  energy intake of preschoolers Linkages Ag/Nutrition and policy implications (Kennedy and Bouis, 1993-94) Agriculture commercialization, economic development and nutrition ( Von Braun and Kennedy 1994) Export crop production and human nutrition (Pinstrup-Andersen and Biswas 1995)
  • Access to right quantity/quality/stability of food We need to do more than the blue circle
  • Workshop IFPRI/IRRI on “Improving human nutrition through agricultural research” –1999 Projects (e.g. the Agriculture Nutrition Advantage Project (TANA) (USAID-funded; T. Benson) Joint project with ICRW to promote greater investment in gender-focused strategies that link agriculture and nutrition, and create a policy dialogue around linked strategies Launch and rapid growth of Harvest Plus: Breeding crops for better nutrition (Challenge Program) (H. Bouis) Uses agriculture as a public health intervention Focuses on hard-to-reach populations in sustainable way, at low cost Multi-disciplinary alliance of institutions: North/South, public/private/NGO, with the CGIAR at the nexus
  • Research on “Diet Changes and Diet Quality of the Poor” Focuses on the diet, nutrition and health transitions – which result from economic growth, globalization, urbanization, changes in lifestyle Focuses on how food and agriculture policies can help re-direct the transition – by affecting incentives to produce specific foods, which in turn affect the environment in which people make food choices
  • Iron from biofortified rice increased daily iron intake by 20%; increased % women who met requirements (from 50-70%) - Increased access; created demand; ensured sustained adoption through market development
  • Unprecedented commitment (?) NEED TO LEVERAGE AGRICULTURE FOR IMPROVING NUTRITION & hEALTH
  • Search for quick fix
  • WHY THIS MP? Agriculture intensification plays an important role in emerging diseases, most of which from livestock, which are of increasing global and regional concern. Agriculture affects health Health affects agriculture Poverty is entwined with both….as is nutrition … but the two sectors do not communicate Potential “win-win” solutions to shared problems Globalization, food & fuel price volatility, emerging disease, environmental degradation, climate change raises urgency
  • Unprecedented commitment (?) NEED TO LEVERAGE AGRICULTURE FOR IMPROVING NUTRITION & hEALTH
  • Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh will inaugurate on feb 10
  • Challenges and Success in Linking Agriculture and Nutrition - Marie Ruel, IFPRI

    1. 1. Challenges and Successes in Linking Agriculture and Nutrition Marie Ruel, Director, Poverty, Health and Nutrition Division, IFPRI
    2. 2. Agriculture – Nutrition Linkages <ul><li>Over three decades of research </li></ul>Over 3 decades of research Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010
    3. 3. Conceptual framework (80’s) Food availability Food access HH choices and use Individual utilization Nutritional Status (PEM) D E T E R M I N A N T S P O L I C I E S Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010
    4. 4. Highlights (80’s) <ul><li>Agriculture affects nutrition via its effects on income, prices, demand for labor, time allocation, energy expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create nutrition units (to coordinate, build nutrition goals into agriculture projects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen national capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop models to assess impact </li></ul></ul>Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010 (Pinstrup-Anderson; Berg & Forman; FAO; ACC/SCN)
    5. 5. Highlights (90’s) <ul><li>Impact of commercialization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger effect on food expenditure than energy intakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively small elasticity for nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance of health as an input into nutrition (infectious diseases) recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of policy context, economic, environmental, geographical, social, farming system factors in determining impacts </li></ul>Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010 Von Braun, Kennedy, Bouis, Pinstrup-Anderson, Biswas
    6. 6. Determinants of Nutrition Adapted from UNICEF 1990 Breastfeeding Complementary feeding Vitamin A Zinc Hygiene INSTITUTIONS POLITICAL & IDEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK ECONOMIC STRUCTURE RESOURCES ENVIRONMENT, TECHNOLOGY, PEOPLE Food/nutrient intake Health Water/ Sanitation health services Interventions Immediate causes Underlying causes Basic causes - Agriculture - Poverty Reduction - Education - Health Systems Strengthening - Income generation - Women’s empowerment Maternal and child-care practices Access to food
    7. 7. Highlights –(2000s) <ul><li>Micronutrients, diet quality, double burden </li></ul><ul><li>WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health </li></ul><ul><li>“ Member States need to take healthy nutrition into account in their agricultural policies </li></ul>Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010
    8. 8. Highlights (2000) - 2 <ul><li>Plant breeding to improve micronutrient content of staple foods (Harvest+) </li></ul><ul><li>Scaling up of integrated agricultural interventions with nutrition behavior change, gender-focus (homestead food production (HKI; TANA)) </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDs-agriculture-livelihoods-nutrition (e.g. RENEWAL) </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture and Health Research Platform (AHRP) – CGIAR + </li></ul><ul><li>TANDI project </li></ul>Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010
    9. 9. A Few Examples of Success
    10. 10. HarvestPlus: Breeding crops for better nutrition <ul><li>Iron biofortified rice: added 83% to iron stores of non-anemic Filipino women (Haas et al. 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Biofortified orange-fleshed sweet potato: increased Vit. A intake & status in children in Mozambique </li></ul><ul><li>(Low & Arimond 2008) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010 Project Model (Mozambique )
    12. 12. Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010 Impact on Intake of OFSP (6-35 mo old)
    13. 13. Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010 Impact on Vitamin A intake (6-35 mo old)
    14. 14. Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010 Hellen Keller International Experience Source: Spielman & Pandya-Lorch, Millions Fed, IFPRI 2009
    15. 15. Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010 Hellen Keller International Experience Source: Spielman & Pandya-Lorch, Millions Fed, IFPRI 2009
    16. 16. What Have We Learned? Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010
    17. 17. Success Factors in Agriculture-Nutrition Collaboration <ul><li>Shared objectives of collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Early inclusive engagement with relevant partners </li></ul><ul><li>Established mechanisms for horizontal & vertical communication </li></ul><ul><li>Methods, tools & mechanisms for working together </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling policy environment – making links with intersectoral bodies </li></ul>Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010
    18. 18. Challenges <ul><li>Limited success – or evidence –that agriculture can be an effective tool to improve nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Large untapped potential </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of capacity, interest, incentives at all levels for integration </li></ul><ul><li>Skepticism when facing complexities, long-term investment, inter-sectoral work </li></ul>Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010
    19. 19. Health Nutrition Agriculture Income Employment Food security Dietary diversity AGRICULTURE BENEFITS AGRICULTURE RISKS Productivity Strength Endurance Cognition Risk taking Water-related diseases Food-borne diseases Zoonotic diseases Gender equity Livelihoods AGRICULTURE – NUTRITION - HEALTH HEALTH/NUTRITION BENEFITS
    20. 20. Impact Pathways
    21. 21. New Challenges– New Opportunities <ul><li>Momentum : global response to food & economic crisis, climate change threats </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment at high level to tackle hunger, food insecurity, nutrition through agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of the need to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploit synergies; break intersectoral divides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create capacity, incentive systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address institutional/governance issues that have prevented integration </li></ul></ul>Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010
    22. 22. Announcement <ul><li>2020 Conference : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Leveraging Agriculture for Improving Nutrition and Health” </li></ul><ul><li>February 10-12, 2011 in New Delhi       </li></ul>Building an Integrated Agriculture and health Agenda, London, June 23, 2010

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