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  1. 1. Learning Pronunciation Strategies CLAUDIA ANDREA CÁRDENAS JIMÉNEZ
  2. 2. What do you do when you mispronounce a word repeatedly? Is it easy for you to correct the pronunciation of words?
  3. 3. “Deliberate actions and thoughts that are consciously employed, often in logical sequence, for learning and gaining greater control over the use of various aspects of pronunciation” (Pawlak , 2010).
  4. 4. “The goal is not to eliminate your accent; the goal is to make yourself understood.” “Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.” “Teachers open the door, but you must enter by yourself” (Chinese Proverb)
  5. 5. Looking back… • Intuitive-imitative approach (before the late 19th century): Listen and imitate. • Analytic-linguistic approach: Phonetic alphabet, articulatory descriptions, charts of the vocal apparatus, contrastive information, and other aids to supplement listening, imitation, and production. • Direct method: Students imitate a model - the teacher or a recording - and do their best to approximate the model through imitation and repetition.
  6. 6. Looking back… The reform movement… •International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) foundation in 1886: Developed to describe and analyze the sound systems of languages. •Audiolingualism / Oral approach (1940’s – 1950’s): Direct method, information from phonetics (IPA) and minimal pair drills from perception to production (words and sentences).
  7. 7. Looking back… •Cognitive approach (1960’s): Language as rulegoverned behavior rather than habit formation; focused on grammar and vocabulary. •Silent way (Gattegno 1972, 1976): Focused on the sound system; sound color chart (1985). •Community Language Learning – CCL (Charles A. Curran, 1976): Audiotape recorder; human computer technique.
  8. 8. • Communicative approach (1980’s): “A more modest and realistic goal is to enable learners to surpass the threshold level so that their pronunciation will not detract from their ability to communicate.”
  9. 9. Some strategies… • Listen and imitate: A technique used in the Direct Method in which students listen to a teacher-provided model and repeat or imitate it.' This technique has been enhanced by the use of audio recorders, language labs, and video recorders.
  10. 10. • Reading aloud / recitation: Passages or scripts for learners to practice and then read aloud, focusing on stress, timing, and intonation. This technique may or may not involve memorization of the text, and it usually occurs with genres that are intended to be spoken, such as speeches, poems, plays, and dialogues.
  11. 11. • Minimal pair drills: A technique introduced during the Audiolingual era to help students distinguish between similar and problematic sounds in the target language through listening discrimination and spoken practice. Minimal pair drills typically begin with word-level drills and then move on to sentence-level drills. • sheep – ship / green – grin • Did you at least get the list? • Don't slip on the floor. (It’s wet.) Don't sleep on the floor. (It’s cold.)
  12. 12. • Tongue twisters: A technique from speech correction strategies for native speakers.
  13. 13. • Recordings of learners' production: Audio and video recordings of rehearsed and spontaneous speeches, free conversations, and role plays. Subsequent playback offers opportunities for feedback from teachers and peers as well as for teacher, peer, and self-evaluation.
  14. 14. • Critical listening More detailed and systematic listening, a critical process that provides an opportunity for learners to focus on their L2 production at the segment, syllable, word, phrase level. (Ingels, 2011)
  15. 15. • Transcription Transcription may be completed by the learner or the teacher, and learners may transcribe their own speech or that of NSs. (Clennell, 1999).
  16. 16. • Annotation Learners review their peer’s transcripts, looking for nontarget features, and annotate (mark) corrections directly on the transcript in a contrasting color. During this transcript correction process, learners refer to a checklist to remind them of the pronunciation features they should monitor.
  17. 17. • Rehearsing corrections aloud Practice has been cited as an effective strategy and one of the more frequently used (Chamot & Kupper, 1989; Cohen et al., 1995; W. B. Dickerson, 1989; Sardegna, 2009).
  18. 18. • Karaoke Karaoke itself provided a lot of motivation to students to try to imitate the sounds and specially to find a relaxed atmosphere where they could use their English without fear of being criticized. (Rengifo, 2009)
  19. 19. Some authors… Peterson (2000) •Representing sounds in memory •Practicing naturalistically •Analyzing the sound system •Using proximal articulations •Setting goals and objectives •Self-evaluation •Using humor to lower anxiety •Asking for help •Cooperating with peers
  20. 20. Vitnova and Miller (2002) •Self-correction of poor pronunciation •Active listening to native pronunciation Osburne (2003) •Focusing on sounds below the syllable-level •Focusing on individual syllables •Focusing on prosodic structures •Monitoring global articulatory gestures •Focusing on paralanguage •Focusing on individual words •Focusing on memory or imitation
  21. 21. Some authors… Jones (1997), Stapp (1999), Vitanova & Miller (2002), Naiman, et al (1979), and Oxford (1990) •Imitation and/or mimicry of native speaker Jones (1997), Vitanova & Miller (2002), and Florez (1998) •Focus on suprasegmentals Jones (1997) and Vitanova & Miller (2002) •Improve motivation Pater (1997) •Memorize the pronunciation of words
  22. 22. Some authors… •Gethin & Gunnemark (1996) •Help facial muscles to become accustomed to moving •Eagerly listen to and practice new sounds •Put self in proximal points for hearing L2 •pronunciation: TV, Movies, Radio
  23. 23. Some authors… Young-Scholten (1993) •Positive L1 interference Neufeld (1979), and Naiman, et al (1979) •Intent listening Oxford (1990) •Repetition Naiman, et al (1979), and Gethin & Gunnemark (1996) •Use of phonetic symbols and transcriptions •Practice ‘mock talk’ or imitating L2 prosody using L1 words
  24. 24. Some authors… Naiman, et al (1979) •Repeat after tapes in a language laboratory •Read aloud •Use phonetic symbols and transcriptions •Repeat other’s pronunciation silently •Talk aloud/role-play •Acquire a general knowledge of phonetics •Do special exercises for sounds not existing in the learner’s native language
  25. 25. Some authors… - IMPUT - PRACTICE - NOTICING - FEEDBACK - HYPOTHESIS FORMING - HYPOTHESIS TESTING Kolb’s (1984) Experiential Learning Theory •Concrete Experience •Reflective observation •Abstract conceptualization •Active experimentation Eckstein (2007) Experiential Learning Theory
  26. 26. New Directions in Teaching Pronunciation Gilbert (1994) ◦using methods other than mechanical drills or rules ◦emphasizing the musical aspects of pronunciation more than sounds ◦teaching real speech patterns and giving students practice in efficient guessing of what discourse signals imply - fields of drama, use of fluency-building activities and accuracy-oriented exercises, use of technology
  27. 27. Thank you… Claudia Andrea Cárdenas Jiménez