Yet, not all the learning is self-regulated. Rather, challenges, wheather they are cognitive, motivational or behavioral provides means for self-regulated learning. Theoretically, SRL can be divided in four different phases. Before the actual studying phase, the students evaluate what is the task about. This is evaluation is based on the students preveious experiences about the same types of tasks. At the second phase, the students set a goal for their learning based on their evaluation about the task and plan their learning in line with their task spesific learning goals. During the actual studying phase, the students control their learning by using different types of study tactics. Yet, at the same time the students monitor their understanding and wheather the tactic they are currently using is appropriate for their learning. And – this is actually the phase which constitutes strategy use during learning. Finally, after the studying the students reflect their current learning. According to this reflection, the students might have a better understanding about different types of tasks and also better knowledge about strategies for future learning.
Theory srl 2013_jonna malmberg
LEARNING THEORY AND PEDAGOGICAL
USE OF TECHNOLOGY:
Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
Learning and Educational Technology
Research Unit (LET)
• Learning sciences and technology-enhanced
• Integration of theoretical perspectives on the
social, cognitive and motivational processes of
learning and utilising it in research-based
• In practice we aim for understanding the “skill
and will” of learning and design future
innovations for learning.
WHAT ARE THE QUALITIES OF GOOD
• How do you define
• Discuss and make a
schetch (e.g. a mind
map) of the qualities
of a good learner (5
• Capable of taking charge of their own learning:
• Recognizes own strengths and weaknesses in
various learning situations.
– Knowledge of different strategies that can aid
– Motivated to use these strategies in order to
reach learning goal
– Can use these strategies depending on the
Zimmermann, 2001; Winne & Perry,
WHAT IS SELF-REGULATED
• Active and proactive learning
• Process of learning to monitor, evaluate, and regulate (or
change) your own
– Learning and thinking (e.g. remember textbook)
– Motivation (e.g. feeling inspired or interested)
– Behaviour (e.g. getting organized, getting started)
• Lifelong process that you develop and refine over time
• CAN BE TEACHED AND LEARNED
WHAT IS SELF-REGULATED
• Task understanding and goal setting
• Enacting strategies
• Cyclical process whereby students regulate their
efforts to optimize cognitive, motivational and
behavioural processes, guided by their learning
goals and the contextual features of the
environment (Pintrich, 2000; Zimmerman, 1998).
• Monitor the effectiveness of their learning methods or
strategies and react to feedback by changing perceptions,
beliefs or strategies (Winne & Hadwin, 1998)
SEEK OUT INFORMATION WHEN NEEDED…
ACCEPT GREATER RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEIR ACHIEVEMENT
A BIT LIKE CONDUCTING
• Identify a problem
• Set goals
• Make plans and set procedures
• Collect data about how things are going
• Compare findings to original goals
• Based on your findings you make
changes to the goals, plans or strategies
WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO SELF-
• Improved learning outcomes!
Awareness of strengths and weaknesses
– What strategies I can use to bridge the caps between
ability and task demands?
Simply learning a new skill does not
mean that you will use it unless you are
motivated to do so…
Willingness to invest effort
Pass the course / deep
CYCLICAL MODEL OF SELF-
• Self-regulated learning occurs when students sustain and manage their
achievement efforts through activities that are employed towards
attainment of students own goals (Zimmerman 1999; Pintrich 2001).
• Challenges provides means for self-regulated learning to occur (Hadwin,
Järvelä & Miller, 2010).
• SRL can be divided in three to four different phases depending of the model.
•Better task understanding
2 PLANNING AND GOAL
Winne & Hadwin, 1998 , Zimmerman, 2000
1. TASK UNDERSTANDING
•1st phase in self-regulating learning
•What is this task about?
•Drawing on past knowledge and
•Constructing your own representation or
“picture” of the task
When you know what you are supposed
to be doing, what it looks like, and what it
feels like to be on track
TASK UNDERSTANDING –
• Identify the theoretical
• Define the concepts of self-
collaborative learning and
learning of expertise
• Describe the use of technology
to support such learning
• Justify pedagogical use of
technology by using current
theoretical knowledge of
• Task purpose
• Type of thinking?
• Applicable solutions?
• What else can you think
IF THE TASK UNDERSTANDING IS
• More likely to successfully regulate learning
• Perform better
• Choose good strategies for task completion
• Know what to aim for and what success might look like
• Can tell if you are “on track” along the way
2. GOAL SETTING AND PLANNING
• Something students use to judge progress
• Something students can use to judge performance
• Lead to strategy choices
• Reflections of task understanding
WHAT TYPES OF GOALS YOU CAN
Short term goals in early stages of learning
outline ways you can attain an eventual target or outcome
break an outcome goal into processes or steps
used to monitor and evaluate progress
Long term goals later in the mastery process –
performance targets (e.g. master the learning material or
accomplish the course)
used to monitor and evaluate performance
3. TASK ENACTMENT
MONITORING AND CONTROLLING
1) Understanding (Metalevel and Object Level)
2) Strategy use
3) Progress at the task
• Strategy use is depending on the different features of current learning situation, such as context,
task and various aspects of self (Paris & Paris, 2002).
• when to use the strategy
• why the strategy works
• how to apply the strategy
• check if the strategy works
• customize strategies IF……THEN…..ELSE
WAIT A MINUTE! I need to
choose only MAIN concepts.
Wow..This theory is more
challenging than I
Hmm..usually I am
succesful with this types of
The strategy is first to select
main concepts and then apply
those in my own experiences..
3. STRATEGY USE
MONITORING AND CONTROLLING
• Strategic learning is self-regulated (Zimmerman,
2000; Pintrich, 2000)
• Learning strategy is a set of different study
….During that lecture, I wrote down some keywords….
…When I created a timeline, it really made it easy for me…
…Browsing through the material helped me to get the picture of the topics...
..By focusing my reading based on the titles and subtitles helped me to
SPENT FEW MINUTES TO THINK AND WRITE DOWN STRATGIES YOU
General learning strategies
REHEARSAL UNDERLINE, COPYING WORDS
ELABORATION EXPLAINING, MAKING NOTES
AND DRAWING CONNECTIONS
ORGANISATIONAL CONCEPT- OR MIND MAPPING
These strategies are not equally effective in all the learning situations, but
it has been ackowledged that use of these strategies helps to learn and
understand (Weinstein & Mayer, 1986),
PROBLEMS IN STRATEGIC
• Students can name and use different types of strategies
when they are asked to do so, but they do not
necessarily use the strategies purposefully (Bransford et
• Selection of strategy is not necessarily optimal when a
mismatch between outcome and desired outcome is
monitored (Winne & Jamieson-Noel 2002).
• Students do not use them or change their prominent
strategy (Cao and Nietfeld 2007; Graham et al. 2008;
Rabinowits et al. 1992).
• Students are not aware of what strategies are.
• Effort of carrying out a deeper strategy might be too
much (Winne & Hadwin 2008).
1) Repeating words in the correct serial order
2) Using highlighting
• Identifying only main ideas
• Not effective when used alone
• Main ideas might not be recognised
• The purpose of organisational strategies is to
translate information into another form, such as
creating concept maps, diagrams or timelines
(Weinstein, & Mayer, 1986).
• The use of organisational strategies fosters
externalization of knowledge and enhances
selection of the most important concepts (Hilbert
& Renkl, 2007).
• What is already known and how the knowledge
• Paraphrasing or summarising, explaining ideas
by making notes to link to-be-learned
information to prior knowledge structures, asking
• Additional ways on how to recall information.
• Requires thinking (to be learned information).
• Helps to connect what is already known.
…In each phase of studying…
Through evaluating changes in
– Task understanding
– Goals and Pland
In order to self-regulate learning..
…Knowledge about different strategies
…Skill and will to cope with various learning
…Degree of self-regulated learning varies
depending on the learning
..When experimenting with your
learning, you are
regulating….Volet & Järvelä, 2000; Hadwin, Järvelä & Miller,