Research ethics, 11.11.2013, Essi Vuopala


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Research ethics, 11.11.2013, Essi Vuopala

  1. 1. Essi Vuopala Learning and educational technology research unit
  2. 2. • Ethics in the form of moral choices and decisions cover the whole process of research from the choice of the topic all the way to the implications of the research results. • The researcher has to follow a good research practice, which prioritize respect towards human self-determination and dignity (Pelkonen & Louhiala 2002). • According to Chirstians (2000) research ethics include: • • • • Permissions Confidentiality Ensuring the privacy Fidelity
  3. 3. • A researcher should: • Be able to view her/himself as a member of a university community and promote critical thinking and the prerequisites for research. • Be loyal towards colleagues and appreciate their work. • Be genuinely interested in obtaining new information and aspiring to produce as reliable knowledge as possible. • Respect human dignity, and in carrying out research, avoid abusing anyone's autonomy, integrity or rights. • Be careful and honest in conducting research and reporting its results • Neither borrow without permission nor take credit for the research ideas, plans, discoveries or results of others • Use research knowledge responsibly and strive to ensure that knowledge acquired through research is used ethically. (Toolbox of research/ University of Oulu)
  4. 4. • A researcher should carry out his work honestly, carefully and precisely. Research must be planned, conducted and reported openly according to the requirements set for scientific knowledge. (for basic information about referencing, see further Hirsjärvi, Remes & Sajavaara 2006). • When research is being carried out by a group of several researchers, it is a good idea to make a written agreement about how the group is going to function. • Funding sources for research and different linkages are to be declared when reporting on the research.
  5. 5. • The target group has to become familiar with research purposes and implementation before conducting the research. • Informing the target group (TENK 2009) • Researcher’s contact information (providing opportunity for further questions) • Funders • Subject and purpose of study • Data collection and timetable • Use, storage and disposal of the data • Voluntary participation • Consent
  6. 6. • Conducting a research requires trust between the researcher and the participants. • Researcher has to tell honestly the aims and the objectives to the participants. • The information obtained is processed and stored confidentially. • When writing the research report, researcher must protect the anonymity of the participants. • The participants are given the opportunity afterwards to contact the researcher. • Confidentiality <-> open nature of the science
  7. 7. • Respect and ensuring of privacy in all phases of the research process (Ball 2006) • Adequate information when recruiting to participate in the study, voluntary participation (Ball 2006) • Ensure anonymity of participants when processing, reporting and storing the data. (Mäkelä, 1987). • Research publications: citations from interviews/ discussions etc. (Ball 2006 Advisory Board 2009)
  8. 8. • The purpose of the study: ‘Whose needs I try to answer with this study’ (Syrjäläinen 1995). • Responsibilities towards participants, funders and research community. • The researcher must be truly interested in doing a research and be strict in the research work (Pietarinen 2002) • The results has to be presented in the right light and the purpose has to be the progression/ development on science/ theory/ scientific discussion (Pietarinen 2002) • Respect towards other researchers’ work (Pietarinen 2002) • Anything essential is not added or left out to the research report (Pietarinen 2002)
  9. 9. Check list 1(2) Permissions Inform your target group Get permissions and consents Inform the participants about the results Confidentiality Evaluate the impact of your research into the participants Try to create good and trustful atmosphere Be honest in every phase in your research Remember professional secrecy Give your contact information to the participants
  10. 10. Check list 2(2) Ensuring the privacy Replace all identifiers with codes. Ensure the anonymity of participants when you use citations from your data. Respect self-determination of the participants. Store you data decently (where and how long). Fidelity Bring out the names of the funders in your research report. Describe the research process in detail. Argue choices you made from ethical viewpoint. Justify the purpose of your study. Report the results strictly.
  11. 11. • Present criteria. • Reflect the choices you made based on criteria you have presented. • Be honest.
  12. 12. • Formulate three groups • Read the material given to your group and supplement the checklist. • What aspect concerning research ethics was presented in material? • What viewpoints are missing in the checklist? • How you could use the cheklist in your own research (master thesis)?
  13. 13. • Coffey, A. 2000, Ethical Issues in Writing and Representation Esitelmä Kasva tutkijakoulussa • Cristians, C. G. 2000. Ethics and Politis in Qualitative Research. In Denzin & Lincoln, Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: Sage, p. 133- 155. Leena Syrjälä 2006 13